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WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 
C. H. OLDFATHER  - 


PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT HISTORY AND LANGUAGES. 
THE UNIVERSITY OP NEBRASKA. 









IN TWELVE VOLUMES 


II! 
BooES IV (conünued) 509—viu 





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First printed 1939 


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CONTENTS 
BOOK IV (conünued) DO . . . . . . 
BODRECV — 4 x de GE XE. ux c E: 
FRAGMENTS OF BOOKS VI-VIH  . .. . . 
A PARTIAL INDEX OF PROPER NAMES  . . 


MAPS OF THE AREAS DESCRIBED IN VOL. III. 


PAGE 











EE a at s f d 


wu. 











THE LIBRARY OF HISTORY 


OF 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


BOOK IV 





AILOAQOPOY 


TOY ZIKEAIOTOT 


BIBAIOOHKHZ, IZTOPIKHZ 


BIBAOZ TETAPTH 





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1 According to Plutarch, Theseus, 9, when Aegeus suspected 
thab Aethra, the daughter of Pittheus, was with child by him 





THE LIBRARY OF HISTORY 
OF 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


BOOK IV 


59. Bur since we have set forth the facts concern- 
ing Heracles and his descendants, it will be appro- 
priate in this connexion to speak of Theseus, since 
he emulated the Labours of Heracles. Theseus, 
then, was born of Aethra, the daughter of Pittheus, 
and Poseidon, and was reared in Troezen at the home 
of Pittheus, his mother's father, and after he had 
found and taken up the tokens! which, as the myths 
relate, had been placed by Aegeus beneath a certain 
rock, he came to Athens. And taking the road 
along the coast, as men say, since he emulated the 
high achievements of EHeracles, he set about 
performing  Labours which would bring him 
both approbation and fame. The first, then, whom 
he slew was he who was called Corynetes,? who 
carried a koryné, as 3t was called, or club, which was 
the weapon with which he fought, and with it killed 


he left à sword and a pair of sandals under a great rock and 

commanded Aethra, if a son were born to her and if he were 

able to lift the rock, to send the youth to him with the tokens. 
.'3 ** Club-bearer.'' | 


3 





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! Vogel suggests raAcurapías (** anguish "). 





1 Called also PPityocamptes ('* Pine-bender 7) Aristo- 
phanes, T'he F'rogs, 906, makes Euripides build out of the myth 
a word of Aeschylean a earkasmopituokampltai | (f iom 


4 





BOOK IV. so. 2-6 


any who passed by, and the second was Sinis * who 
made his home on the Isthmus. Sinis, it should be 
explained, used to bend over two pines, fasten one 
arm to each of them, and then suddenly release the 
pines, the result being that the bodies were pulled 
asunder by the force of the pines and the unfortunate 
victims met a death of great vengeance. For his 
third deed he slew the wild sow which had its haunts 
about Crommyon, a beast which excelled in both 
ferocity and size and was killing many human beings. 
Then he punished Sceiron who made his home in the 
rocks of Megaris which are called after him the 
Sceironian Rocks. 'This man, namely, made it his 
practice to compel those who passed by to wash his 
feet at à precipitous place, and then, suddenly giving 
them a kiek, he would roll them down the crags into 
the sea at a place called Cheloné. And near Eleusis 
he slew Cercyon, who wrestled with those who 
passed by and killed whomever he could defeat. 
After this he put to death Procrustes, as he was 
called, who dwelt in what was known as Corydallus 
in Attica; this man compelled the travellers who 
passed by to lie down upon a bed, and if any were 
too long for the bed he cut off the parts of their 
body which protruded, while in the case of such as 
were too short for it he stretched (prokroueim) their 
legs, this being the reason why he was given the 
name Procrustes. After successfully accomplishing 
the deeds which we have mentioned, Theseus came 
to Athens and by means of the tokens caused Aegeus 
to recognize him. Then he grappled with the 
tearing-pine-benders'"), with which to describe two characters 


of Aeschylus.  . 
? Or' 'anguish''; op. critical note. 








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BOOK IV. so. 6-60. 4 


Marathonian bull which Heracles in the performance 
of one of his Labours had brought from Crete to the 
Peloponnesus, and mastering the animal he brought 
it to Athens; this bull Áegeus received from him 
and sacrified to Apollo. 

60. It remains for us now to speak of the Minotaur 
which was slain by Theseus, in order that we may 
complete our account of the deeds of Theseus. But 
we must revert to earlier times and set forth the facts 
which are interwoven with this performance, in order 
that the whole narrative may be clear. | 

'Tectamus, the son of Dorus, the son of Hellen, the 
son of Deucalion, sailed to Crete with Aeolians and 
Pelasgians and became king of the island, ànd maxry- 
ing the daughter of Cretheus he begat Asterius. 
And during the time when he was king in Crete 
Zeus, as they say, carried off Europé from Phoenicia, 
and carrying her across to Crete upon the back of a 
bull, he lay with her there and begat three sons, Minos, 
Rhadamanthys, and Sarpedon. After this Asterius, 
the king of Crete, took Europé to wife; and since 
he was without children by her he adopted the sons 
of Zeus and left them at his death to succeed to the 
kingdom. As for these children, Rhadamanthys 
gave the Cretans their laws, and Minos, succeeding 
to the throne and marrying Itoné, the daughter of 
Lyctius, begat Lycastus, who in turn succeeded to 
the supreme power and marrying Idé, the daughter 
of Corybas, begat the second Minos, who, as some 
writers record, was the son of Zeus. 'This Minos 
was the first Greek to create a powerful naval force 
and to become master of the sea. And marrying 
Pasiphaé, the daughter of Helius and Creté, he begat 
Deucalion and Catreus and Ándrogeos and Ariadné 




























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BOOK IV. 6o. 4-61. 2 


and had other, natural, children more in number 
than these. As for the sons of Minos, Ándrogeos 
came to Athens at the time of the Panathenaie 
festival, while Aegeus was king, and defeating all 
the contestants in the games he became a close 
friend of the sons of Pallas. Thereupon Aegeus, 
viewing with suspicion the friendship which Andro- 
geos had formed, since he feared that Minos might 
lend his aid to the sons of Pallas and take from him 
the supreme power, plotted against the life of Andro- 
geos. Consequently, when the latter was on his way 
to Thebes in order to attend a festival there, Aegeus 
caused him to be treacherously slain by certain natives 
ofthe region in the neighbourhood of Oenoé in Attica. 
61. Minos, when he learned of the fate which had 
befalen his son, came to Athens and demanded 
| satisfaction for the murder of Androgeos. And 
[s when no one paid any attention to him, he declared 
war against the Athenians and uttered imprecations . 
to Zeus, calling down drought and famine through- 
out the state of the Athenians. And when drought 
quickly prevailed about Attica and Greece and the 
crops were destroyed, the heads of the communities 
gathered together and inquired of the god what steps 
they could take to rid themselves of their present 
evils. The god made answer to them that they should 
go to Aeacus, the son of Zeus and Aeginé, the 
daughter of Asopus, and ask him to offer up prayers 
( on their behalf. And when they had done as they 
l had been commanded, ÁAeacus finished offering the 
; prayers and thereupon, among the rest of the Greeks, 
the drought was broken, but among the Athenians 
alone it continued; wherefore the Athenians were 
compelled to make inquiry of the god.how they 






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might be rid of their present evils. Thereupon the 
god made answer that they could do so if they would 
render to Minos such satisfaction for the murder of. 
' Androgeos as he might demand. The Athenians 
obeyed the order of the god, and Minos commanded 
them that they should give seven youths and as 
many maidens every nine years to the Minotaur 
for him to devour, for as long a time as the monster 
should live. And when the Athenians gave them, 
the inhabitants of Attica were rid of their evils and 
Minos ceased warring on Athens. 

At the expiration of nine years Minos came again 
to Áttica accompanied by a great fleet and demanded | 
and received the fourteen young people. Now 3 
Theseus was one of those who were to set forth, | 
and Aegeus made the agreement with the captain 
of the vessel that, if Theseus should overcome the 
Minotaur, they should sail back with their sails | . 
white, but if he died, they should be black, just as 
they had been àceustomed to do on the previous | 
oecasion. When they had landed in Crete, Ariadné, 
the daughter of Minos, became enamoured of 
Theseus, who was unusually handsome, and Theseus,  — 
affer conversing with her and securing her assistance, "ron 

. both slew the Minotaur and got safely away, since | 
^ hebadlearned from her the way out of the labyrinth. , 
J In making his way back to his native land he carried ^ 
off Ariadné and sailed out unobserved during. the uut 
night, after which he put in at the island which at —— ^. 
that time was called Dia, but is now called Naxos. ' 

At this same time, the myths relate, Dionysus 
showed himself on the island, and because of the p 
beauty of Áriadné he took the maiden away from s 
Theseus and kept her as bis lawful wife, loving her — — 


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maia, OvvaoreUov Tíjs Kpirus Kai mrouaáquevos 
2; 


"pos "Afvalovs CULJOXCUAV, cvvdiie Tv iBíav 


'áBeAdrv DaiBpav Oei. perà O& Tóv ydpuov 


m 


z2 


"ImmóAvrov pév TÓv ek Tfs ApaLovioos yevóp.evov 
viv émeyulev. eis Tpoefjva Tpé$eoÜa, mapó TOS 
Alfpas dOeA$ois, ék O6 Qaipas 'Akdpuavra 





. 3 Antiopé or Hippolyté; cp. chap. 28.. 


ELA 


——— 


OumoADe Usos sess RP ue 


e am Paca 


pro) 


aere 
Tels 


AM 


CE 


euer 


EE 


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Ae 


| 
1 iy 
: 


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* 





D ET 


scs 
T- 


vede pohteie 


"ar Tee 
VE 


decima c 
cR S 
"RTT 


RS 


D Rck eri 
EUIS 


PIE 


iced E 


OEENES UT 
GPHELE 


po 


BOOK IV. 6r. 5-62. 1 


exceedingly. Indeed, after her death he considered 
her worthy of immortal honours because of the 


. affection he had for her, and placed among the stars 


of heaven the " Crown of Ariadné." But Theseus, 
they say, being vexed exceedingly because the 
maiden had been taken from him, and forgetting 
because of his grief the command of Aegeus, came 
to port in Attica with the black sails. And Aegeus, 
we are told, witnessing the return of the ship and 
thinking that his son was dead, performed an act 
which was at the same time heroic and a calamity; 
for he ascended the acropolis and then, because he 
was disgusted with life by reason of his excessive 
grief, cast himself down the height. After Aegeus 
had died, Theseus, succeeding to the kingship, ruled 
over the masses in accordance with the laws and 
performed many deeds which contributed to the 
aggrandisement of his' native land. The most 
notable thing which he accomplished was the incor- 
poration of the demes, which were small in size but 
many in number, into the city of Athens; since from 
that time on the Athenians were filled with pride by . 
reason of the importance of their state and aspired 
to the leadership of the Greeks. But for our part, now 
that we have set forth these facts at sufficient length, 
we shall record what remains to be said about Theseus. 

62. Deucalion, the eldest of the sons of Minos, 
while he was ruler of Crete, formed an alliance with 
the Athenians and united his own sister Phaedra 
in marriage to Theseus. After the maxriage Theseus 
sent his son Hippolytus, who had been born to him 
by the Amazon,! to Troezen to be reared among the 
brothers of Aethra,? and by Phaedra he begat Acamas 


? "The mother of 'Theseus. 


i3 











DIODORUS OF SICILY 


2 kai Anpuoóóívra éyévvqoe. pukpóv J Üorepov 


"EmmoArov éraveAÜóvros eis Tràs '"AÜWvas «pos 


| Tá poorípu., (apa Oi TÓ xáAAos épacÜeioa 


ajroó TÓT€ |L€V dmeAÜóvros eis Tpoilfjva iBpscormo 
bepov "AdpoBírus Trapa, TÜv ükpómoAw, ocv jv 
kaBopáv Tiv Tpoibfva., DoTrepov Oe sapà TÓ 
IIerÜe? perà Tob Orcécs. karaÀicaca 3lov 
TÓv "ImmóAvrov poyfvat  aor$. dvrevróvros 

éketyov $aci cU» (Daiàpav à &yavakrí]oau, ial érrave- 
Üoócav «i$ vàs 'AOWvas eire iv TQ Omqoct Out 
émefáAero "IEmóAvros abTf) puyfjvou. Oraéas 


.8é GuráLovros mrepi TÍjs OuaBoAMis, Kai TÓV Trrnó- 


ÀvTOv perasreparop.évov Tipos TÓv &Aeyxov, Papa pev 
$oBrÜctoa TOv éferaopóv Gvekpéq.o.ev éavriv, 
"ImmóAvros 9' &pp.ornAorróv, zm jj kovoe TÀ mepi 
Tfjs Sua foMijs, cwvexóón Tiv Vvxijv, kai Ou ToDro 
TV Umm TOpOY évraov xai émiomacaévov airóv 
ras jjvtaus, cvvépr) TÓV uev Siópov cvvrpiffjvat, 
TO Oé puewdkuov épmÀakév TOÁS ip&ow éAkvoÜOTivat 
kai reAevríjooa. "lemóAvros uév oy 0, otodpo- 
avvyy TÓv iov karaorpéjas TG. pÓ. Tpocenviows 
érvxev icol éov TuLAYv, O10es 0€ p.erà raóra 
karaocTacuaucÜeis xal $vyav ék Tf vrrpioos éÉmL 
Tüs Éévgs éreAcóroev. ot 9 A81va tot  Herapie- 
AnBévres T T€ ócTá , Merijveykay kai Tuus 
io'oDéois éripyoav GDTÓV, kai TÉ.evog &ovAov 
emoioav év rais 'AÜ/voaus TÓ C GOD ODIO DEDOHeHON 
dm. éketyov Ohjaetov. 





* On the south-western slope of the Acropolis; cp. Judeich, 
Topographie von Athen? 394.  . 
? Literally, ** pulled him after them by the reins." 


i4 


2558 


SOLDRSU MEL Sd eet nurse 


Uses 


Euedeeas 


x cR 


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WT LUREMESIE 
EG: Lo a 


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Pseud ipetuccNis 


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greges 


a re 


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PEE Ue c sd gcuedu s par Eom 
E. iE. m o dE MER XL UES met 


sci urere 


MOEPRENeSEN m grep miae cR usare estere cm 
mu 3 Speu E 


ugue 


ISEUU TUO um 


e 


EE 


ced 


Eme 
2 


BOOK IV. 62. 1-4 


and Demophon.  À short time after this Hippolytus 
returned to Athensfor thecelebration of the mysteries, 
and Phaedra, becoming enamoured of him because 
of his beauty, at that time, after he had returned to 
Troezen, erected atempleof Aphrodité besidethe acro- 
polis at the place whence one can look across and see 
Troezen,! but at a later time, when she was stopping 
together with Theseus at the home of Pittheus, she 
asked Hippolytus to lie with her. Upon his refusal 
to do so Phaedra, they say, was vexed, and on her 
return to Athens she told Theseus that Hippolytus 
had proposed lying with her. And since Theseus 
had his doubts about the accusation, he sent for 
Hippolytus in order to put him to the test, where- 
upon Phaedra, fearing the result of the examination, 
hanged herself; as for Hippolytus, who was driving 
a chariot when he heard of the accusation, he was 
so distraught in spirit that the horses got out of 
control and ran away with him,? and in the event 
the chariot was smashed to bits and the youth, 
becoming entangled in the leathern thongs, was 
dragged along tillhedied. Hippolytus, then, since he 
had ended his life because of his chastity, received 
at the hands of the Troezenians honours equal to 
those offered to the gods, but Theseus, when after 
these happenings he was overpowered by a rival 
faction and banished from his native land, met his 
. death on foreign soil? "The Athenians, however, 
repenting of what they had done, brought back his 
bones and accorded him honours equal to those 
offered to the gods, and they set aside in Athens a 
sacred precinct which enjoyed the right of sanctuary 
and was called after him the Theseum. | 
? On the island of Scyzos; op. Plutarch, Theseus, 35. | — 
c . I 5 | 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


63. 'Hpyets o ene TÓV pi Ovoécs Aóyov 
droóeBcókapiev, év pépet Oué£uuev Trept Te Tfj Korà. 
Tv EAévgv &prroryfjs kai Tfjs. pynoretas Qepoe- 
$óvns j-ó ILetpitou: aDTaL yàp at Trpá£eis gup.- 
memAeypévoa Ta/s Omqaoéws etat. ILetptfovs yàp 
o  l£iovos, dmroÜavosens aDTOU Tfjs 'yUVGLKOS 
'Iemo8apetas kai karaAvmoars viov  IIloAvsrot- 
TV, rrapfjAev eig Tàs "Afrjvas Tpós ,Omoéa. 
k«araÀafov O6 TereAevrqkv t jaw Tiv ywvaíka o0 
(9noécs Qaópay émeuUev  a)TÓv dpmáaa Tiv 
Arjüas kai Aus "EAévmv, Oekaerf) pév Tv TÀuciav 
o9cav, 1 eómpemeía. 0€ craciv Sua dépovaav. mapa. 
yevóp.evo 9. els Aakebaipuova. perà srÀevóvow, kai 
Kaipóy eüÜerov AaBóvres, Tjpracav TV "EAévgv 
kowfi KO damiyyoryov els ràs 'ÁÜOWvas.  émevra 
mpós dAMjAovs óuoAoytas &Ücvro SvuAmpeóo oou : 
kai TÓv [i€v Aaxóvra yfiuaa TV EAévqv, TÓ o 
érépo ? gvpmpá£at Trepi érépas yuvauós, bropé- 
VOVTÓ, Távra KiyOvvov. mepi Óé ToUTCv Oóvreg 
dAMjAowg Ópkovs cAaxov, Kai cvvéBr TÓ kAnjpeo 
Aaxeiv Onoco.. obros uev oOv küpuos karéorr) Tí]s 
mrapÜévov TÓv vpómov ToÜrov* TÓY o "An VOLCOV 
dyavarrovrav erri TQ yeyovóns, dof0eis ó Gqeeis 
ire£éÜero T *EAévqv eis "AduBvay, pay TÀy 
Amrucdv sróAecv. mapakoréoriae o e) Tv 
wurépa Aiüpav kai rÀv àAAcv díXov ToUs dpi- 
cTovs, $UAakas .Tíjs mopÜévov. ILetpttlov O€ kpi- 
vavros qvnoTe8cat Depoedóvgv Ka "rapa À- 
obvros cwvamo8npifjoas, TÓ LéV Tpóvrov Ó Oaeis 
MH GTorpémcv Tís mTpd£eos aoróv Ou 


r 


16 


1 ofgay Ho dun : Éyovaav, 


Ou enses, 


I ——— 


€ 


EUECE EE S RS. 


VER 


Eis t n 
HE SERES. 


BOOK IV. 63. 1-4 


.63. Since we have duly set forth the story of 
Theseus, we shall discuss in turn the rape of Helen 
and the wooing of Persephoné by Peirithoüs; for 
these deeds are interwoven with the affairs of 
Theseus. Peirithoüs, we are told, the son of Ixion, 
when his wife Hippodameia died leaving behind her 
a son Polypoetes, came to visit Theseus at Athens. 
And finding on his arrival that Phaedra, the wife of 
Theseus, was dead, he persuaded him to seize and 

^ carry off Helen, the daughter of Leda and Zeus, who 
1 was only ten years of age, but excelled all women 
] in beauty. When they arrived in Lacedaemon 
with a number of companions and had found a 
favourable occasion, they assisted each other in 
seizing Helen and carrying her off to Athens. There- 
upon they agreed among themselves to cast lots, and 
the one who had drawn the lot was to marry Helen 
and aid the other in getting another woman as wife, 
and in so doing to endure any danger. When they 
had. exchanged oaths to this effect they cast lots, 
and it turned out that by the lot Theseus won her. 
'Theseus, then, got the maiden for his own in the 
manner we have described ; but since the Athenians 
were displeased at what had taken place, Theseus 
: in fear of them got Helen off safely to Aphidna, one 
3 of the cities of Attica. With her he stationed his 
i mother Aethra and the bravest men among his 
A friends to serve as guardians of the maiden.  Peiri- 
? thoüs now decided to seek the hand of Persephoné 
" in marriage, and when he asked Theseus to make 
; the journey with him Theseus at first endeavoured 
i to dissuade him and to turn him away from such a . 


Tecum ce 


xe oencs Eee mere 





? So Reiske: róv 9 érepor. 


rÍT 


'& 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


T)v ácéBeuav: To) ob Ietpifov Biabouévov Ovv- 
qvayrkáotn Ou ToUs ópkovs ó Gqoevs peragxelv 
Tfjs mrpáecos . kal, qépas kara ávraov aUTOV 
eis ToUs kaD" a&ov TómOUS, avvepn ou Tv GoéBeuay 
dp. dorépovs 8eÜgvoi, kal Owoéca uév Jorepov 8i 
Tiv HpakAcovs xápw dzroÀvÜ vat, ILetpitiovv 
óc ou TTV ácéBeuxv ev dOov OwwreAeiv muopías 
GiCVIOU rvyXávovra- eot 66 TÓv pÜoypádav 
5 $aciv dj. orépous p TUXeiv TODÜ vócTOU. kd 
óv 9) Xpóvov Aéyovat TOUS d8eAdos TÍS "EAévgs 
togkópous orpareoavras éni T)» "Adiovav kal 
)v TÓAw cAóvras ra qv [ev karaakdipoa, Tiv 
- "EAévqv. &zra.yayely eis AaxkeBaipova vrapÜcvov 
oócav, kai ner. abríjs OoUAqQv T)v wurépa GOoécos 
Ap av. 
"H pets. óc Trepi TOÜTOY dpkosvres eipnkóres 
TÀ dd Tdv émrà érri 0xjBas i loropriaopiev, àvaAa- 
vies Tàs éÉ dpxfs. airias Tob ToAépov. . Adios 
ó OvBáv Baciebs y'pas lokdorqv TTV Kpéovros, 
kal Xpóvov (cavov &mO4g Cv, emnpórrae TOV Ücóv 
. Trepi TéKVGV  yevéaeos. Tfs Oé IIvOias Oovons 
Xpnopóv aorQ p3) avpddépew yevéoOac Tékva. (róv 
yàp e£ axroü vekvaÜUévra, vaí0Q morpokróvov 
€ceoÜau kal mácav T?) oikíav mAnpcoew peyáAov 
órvxnpárav ), emAaÜópevos ToÜ xpruauo0 koi 
yervijcas vióv, é£éÜnke cO Bpédos. Dwomrepovjoas 
aorob TÓ aévpà cupo: CT o air OtBizrovs 
2 voTepov Ur edi .oí O'. oixéra, Aafóvres TÓ 


i oup deleted by Reiske. 








L8 5^. 71 Bui in ehap. 26 Diodorus says that Heracles brought 
dos 7s. back from Hades both Theseus and Peirithoüs. 
































BOOK IV. 63. 4-64. 2 


deed as being impious; but since Peirithoüs firmly 
insisted upon it Theseus was bound by the oaths to 
join with him in the deed. And when they had at 
last raade their way below to the regions of Hades, 
| it came to pass that because of the impiety of their 
1 act they were both put in chains, and although 
Theseus was later let go by reason of the favour 
! with which Heracles regarded him, Peirithoüs 
| because of the impiety remained in Hades, enduring 
». everlasting punishment; but some writers of myths 
e say that both of them never returned.! While this 
-: was taking place, they say that Helen's brothers, 
5 the Dioscori, came up in arms against Aphidna, : 
- and taking the city razed it to the ground, and DRY. 
1 that they brought back Helen, who was still a j 
b virgin, to Lacedaemon and along with her, to sexve — ^. 
as à slave, Aethra, the mother of Theseus. INS U 
64. Since we have spoken on these matters at . ^. 
sufficient length, we shall now give the aecount of .| ^ | | 
The Seven against Thebes, taking up the original ^^" ^ | 
causes of the war. Laius, the king of Thebes . || 
married Jocasté, the daughter of Creon, and since —— . 
he was childless for some time he inquired of the EXCAT 
godregarding his begetting ofchildren. ThePythian | 
priestess made reply that it would not be to his Ma^ 
interest that children should be born to him, since 
the son who should be begotten of him would be 
the murderer of his father and would bring great 
misfortunes upon all the house; but Laius forgot 
the oracle and begat a son, and he exposed the babe. 
after he had pierced its ankles through with à piece — 
of iron, this being the reason why it was later given: 
the name Oedipus? But the household slaves who 


a Swollen-footed. Ap, 


D 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


srou8tov ékÜetvat pev ok 78éNyoav, cÓcopr]c avro óé 
Tf ILoAiov yovaukt, o9 Ovvagév yervíjoa roióas. 
per oé rabra. Gy8pcÜévros ToD 7ra4Oós, ó pev 
Adios €kpwev émeporríjoas TÓv Üeóv epi ToÜ 
Bpédovs Tob ékreÜDévros, o Oé OiBizrovs paBàv 
Tapá TWOS Tiv kaÜ" éavróv ÜmofloXiv, éreyeipnoev 
émeporíjoa, Tiv IIv6av mepi TÓV kar &AYÜeuxv 
yovéav. Kü/Tà óc Tv Qoia ToDTcov GAMjAots 
Gmavrnodvrav, ó pev Aátos Ücepndávas ékxcopetv 
Tfj ó608 mpooéromrev, ó 8 OiBiwovs ópywaÜeis 
&ékrewe  TÓv  Àdiov, yvodv Or. mor)p Tw 
aDTo9. 

Ka0' 8v 09; xpóvov pu oAoyotot aóiyya, Otpvop- 
o Ónpiov, mra poryevojiévme eis Ts OjBas alyvyua. 
mrporiDévau TÓ Svvaquéve A8cat, kat voAÀoUs Dm 
abríjs Ov  &mopíav &votpeto0au. mporiÜep.évov 
óc émáÜAov $uAavÜpdmrov TQ AÀjcavri yayuet 
TV "loxíorgv xai Baciesew TÀvy OnBàv, &AXov 
pev paj8éva OvvacÜat yvóvau. TÓ "rporeÜeuiévov, 
póvov € Oibirovv Aóca,. TO olvvypa.. v óc 
TO mporeÜcv jmó Tfjs oovyyós, Ti éGTL TÓ aQ)TO 
Dlrrovv, vpémov, TeTpüzrovv. dmopovjtéva Oé 
TÓV GAAov Ó Oibérovs &medijvorro &yÜpaymov 
elvat TÓ mrpopArév- vózio» uév yàp aDTOv bmáp- 
xovra Trerpámow» elvaw ad&cavra 9c Obmovv, 
yupácavra 0€ rpizrouv, Ba«rnpia Xpopevov ou 
Ti doÜéveuav.  évraó0a -T1)v pév ocótyya kaorá 





! 4e. that he was & supposititious child. He had been 
reared by Polybus and Meropé as their own son. 
? Ancient art usually represented the sphinx with a woman's 
Head and bust on the body. of a lioness. 


- 


ERIS 


I 


FRANC med Ese RF 


Siete Eee: 


asgEdutensrihrqe cte 


KE rueeedcterrs 


SES tup: 


me 


uM 


ipo guess ges 


jme deceeecei de 


Nie 


Xerox 


BOOK IV. 64. 2-4 


took the infant were unwilling to expose it, and 
gave it as à present to the wife of Polybus, since 
she could bear no children. Later, after the boy 
had attained to manhood, Laius decided to inquire 
of the god regarding the babe which had been 
exposed, and Oedipus likewise, having learned from 
someone of the substitution which had been made 
in his case,! set about to inquire of the Pythian 
priestess who were his true parents. In Phocis 
these two met face to face, and when Laius in a 
disdainful manner ordered Oedipus to make way for 
him, the latter in anger slew Laius, not knowing that 
he was his father. | 

At this very time, the myths go on to say, a 
sphinx, a beast of double form,? had come to Thebes 
and was propounding a riddle to anyone who might 
be able to solve it, and many were being slain by 
her because of theirinability to do so. And although. 
a generous reward was offered to the man who 
should solve it, that he should marry Jocasté and be 
king of Thebes, yet no man was able to comprehend 
what was propounded except Oedipus, who alone 
solved the riddle. What had been propounded by 
the sphinx was this: What is it that is at the same 
time a biped, a triped, and a quadruped?? And 
while all the rest were. perplexed, Oedipus declared 
that the animal proposed in the riddle was "" man," 
since as an infant he is a quadruped, when grown à 
biped, and in old age a triped, using, because of his 
infirmity, a staff. At this answer the sphinx, in 


* Op. Mathew Prior, * Two Riddles ": | 


Tell me, what animalisthat | 
Which has four feet at morning bright, 
Has two at noon, and three at night. 

: du T 21 








t5 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


TÓV pu0oXoyosuevov xpnouóv éavr)v korakpnvi- 
cat, Tróv OiBtzrovv yüpavra Tiv &yvoovpérmy 
ó$' éavroü paoyrépa. yevvíijoau Jo pév vios 'Erco- 
kAca. kai IoAvveikv, Ojo 8é Üvyarépas 'Avmi- 
yómr kai "lou yov. 

. Tàv O' viv dvBpaxÜÉvreov, kal TÓv "epi 
T oikíay AceBnpárav yvoxoévra, TÓV piéV 
Oi8irovv a0 Tv vicv &yBov puévew ávaykacÜf- 
vau Oud Tv aloxóvov, TOUS 0€ veaviokous apoÀa- 
Bóvras Tv dpynv ópoXoyías 0écÜas «pos dAXj- 
Aovs rap' éwavrov &pxew. vrpeaBvrépov 9. óvros 
"EreokAéovs, Tobrov mpóvov dp£a, kai OLeAÜóvros 
ToO Xpóvov p) ) BosAeota, rrapaBiBóvat TÜv Baca. 
TÓv ó€ ILoAvvet«rv Ka rà Tás óptoAoyías diraurety 
Tv &pynjv* Tob 9 àOcAÀdo0 Hu bcakoDovros $uyetv 
eis "Apyos qpós "ABpaaorov. TOv Baci éa. 


Ka0' óv à: Xpóvov $aci Tv8éa róv Oivéos év 
KaAvBàw TOUS dvejuo)s &veAóvra AAkdBovy 


kai Avkcméa dvyctv éx ríjs AiroAas eis " Apyos. 
Aópaorov 9' dp.dorépovs Umo8edpievov $iodpóvos 
KQ/TÓ, TL Aóytov cvvowtca. Tàs Üvyarépas a)rois, 
"Ápyeiav  u&v IoAvvetce:, AnvmóNqv 8e Tv8et. 
eO8oktioUvrav Oé TÓV veaviokcv kai peyáAns 
daroOoxfis )mO0 ToU Baoiéws .Tvyxavóvrav, $aat 
TÓV ,A8paaTov xapibóuevov aros érayyeilac0at 
kard£ew dj orépovs eis TÓs 7arpióas. «pi- 
vayros 9. aUToD Trpóvov karayaxely TOv lloAwvei- 
kn, dyyeAov eis Tàs | OxjBas àmocretÀau "luvOéo 
Trpós "ErcokMa. Tepi Tfjs KaÜóOov évraQUd. $aot 
TOv uév Tv8éa cveüpevÜévra Ka TÀ Tiv 080v jTó 
.ErcokAéovs mevrijkovra dv8pácw &zavTas dve- 
Ae(v kai srapa8ó£cs eis. TÓ "Ápyos OiaeoUfjvaa, 
22 


DvcR NGC puse ERU CS 


REGI MÉRaeeARa om me LE ue 


Bruch n Regen ou EERS 


qu ar Renee 


AGE nim teMESURI el Wm. ixioxexteuiect qup fte mc S TII Ee 


JESEL IKE 


Ae Creme cca Us 


E 


A rrr cam 


MOSRcuscnsee 


exon esee AGE 4E 


ebur cR eese 


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LN 


CERE 


P 
i 
p 
D 
b 
l 


BOOK IV. 64. 4-65. 4 


accordance with the oracle which the myth recounts, 
threw herself down a precipice, and Oedipus then 
married the woman who, unknown to himself, was 
bis mother, and begat two sons, Eteocles and Poly- 
neices, and two daughters, Antigoné and Ismené. 
65. When the sons had attained to manhood, they 
go on to say, and the impious deeds of the family 
became known, Oedipus, because of the disgrace, 
was compelled by his sons to remain always in retire- 


. ment, and the young men, taking over the throne, 


agreed together that they should reign in alternate 
years. Eteocles, being the elder, was the first to 
reign, and upon the termination of the period he 
did not wish to give over the kingship. But Poly- 
neices demanded of him the throne as they had 
agreed, and when his brother would not comply with 
his demand he fled to Argos to king Adrastus. 

At the same time that this was taking place 
Tydeus, they say, the son of Oeneus, who had slain 
his cousins AÁlcathoüs and Lycopeus in Calydon, fled 
from Aetolia to Argos. Adrastus received both the 
fugitives kindly, and in obedience to a certain oracle 
joined his daughters in marriage to them, Argeia to 
Polyneices, and Deipylé to Tydeus. And since the 
young men were held in high esteem and enjoyed 
the king's favour to a great degree, Adrastus, they 
say, as a mark of his good-will promised to restore 
both Polyneices and Tydeus to their native lands. 
And having decided to restore Polyneices first, he 


sent Tydeus as an envoy to Eteocles in Thebes to 
negotiate the return. But while Tydeus was on his. 


way thither, we are told, he was set upon from 


ambush by fifty men sent by Eteocles, but he slew |. 


every man of them and got through safe to Argos, 


































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DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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4 BOOK IV. 6s. 4-7 


E. the astonishment of all, whereupon Adrastus, when 
t he learned what had taken place, made preparations 
k. for the consequent campaign against Eteocles, 
having persuaded Capaneus and Hippomedon and 
3 Parthenopaeus, the son of Átalanté, the daughter of 
i Schoeneus, to be his allies in the war. Polyneices 
» also endeavoured to persuade the seer Amphiaraüs 
" to take part with him in the campaign against 
[' Thebes; and when the latter, because he knew in 
L. advance that he would perish if he should take part 
ji in the campaign, would not for that reason consent 
| to do so, Polyneices, they say, gave the golden neck- 
lace which, as the myth relates, had once been given 
by Áphrodité as à present to Harmonia, to the wife 
of Amphiaraüs, in order that she might persuade 
her husband to join the others as their ally. 

AÁt the time in question Amphiaraüs, we are told, 
was at variance with Adrastus, striving for the 
kingship, and the two came to an agreement among 
themselves whereby they committed the decision 
of the matter at issue between them to Eriphylé, 
the wife of Ámphiaraüs and sister of Adrastus. 

. When Eriphylé awarded the victory to Adrastus 
and, with regard to the campaign against Thebes, 
gave it as her opinion that it should be undertaken, 
Amphiaraüs, believing that his wife had betrayed 
him, did agree to take part in the campaign, but 
left orders with his son Alemaeon that after his 
death he should slay Eriphylé. Alemaeon, there- 
fore, at a later time slew his mother according to 
his father's injunction, arid because he was conscious 
of the pollution he had incurred he was driven to 
madness. But Adrastus and Polyneices and Tydeus, 
adding to their number four leaders, Amphiaraüs, 


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«5 73 According to Athenian tradition, 'Theseus made war upon 

. :'fhebes in order to recover the bodies of the Seven and buried 

.J Xhem. in Eleusis. The Athenians took great ride in this . 
; achievement (cp. Herodotus, 9. 27), it being made the theme . . 





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| E E: 

|  Capaneus, Hippomedon, and Parthenopaeus, the E 

. son of Átalanté the daughter of Schoeneus, set out t 
against Thebes, accompanied by a notable army. CN - 
After this Eteocles and Polyneices slew each other, T5. 


Capaneus died while impetuously ascending the wall 
by a scaling-ladder, and as for Amphiaraüs, the earth 
opened and he together with his chariot fell into the 
opening and disappeared from sight. "When the rest 
of the leaders, with the exception of Adrastus, had 
likewise perished and many soldiers had fallen, the 
Thebans refused to allow the removal of the dead 
and so Ádrastus left them unburied and returned to — . 
Argos. So the bodies of those who had fallen at the etd 
: foot of the Cadmeia ! remained unburied and no one 
had the courage to inter them, but the Athenians, 
who excelled all others in uprightness, honoured ... 
with funeral rites all who had fallen at the foot of . .. 
the Cadmeia.3 | us EQ hedito d 
66. As for The Seven against Thebes, such, then, 
was the outcome of their campaign. | But theirsons,  .' 
who were known as Epigoni? being intent upon . 
avenging the death of their fathers, decided to make 
common cause in a campaign against Thebes, having. 
received an oracle from Apollo that they should | 


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make war upon this city, and with Alemaeon, the son. 
of Amphiaraüs, as their supreme commander. . 
commander, inquired of the god concerning the: 
campaign against Thebes and also concerning the. 
punishment of his mother Eriphylé. And Apollo 


of the Supplianis of Euripides ánd of the lost Bleusinians : 





Aeschylus. VENE UU ESLUn 
$ * Afterborn ^; one of the '' Cyclic " epies told of 
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BOOK IV. 66. 3-6 


replied that he should perform both these deeds, 
not only because Eriphylé had accepted the golden 
necklace in return for working the destruction of 
his father, but also because she had received a robe 
as à reward for securing the death of her son. For 
Aphrodité, as the tale is told, in ancient times had 
given both the necklace and a robe as presents to 
Harmonia, the daughter of Cadmus, and Eriphylé 
had accepted both of them, receiving the necklace 
from Polyneices and the robe from Thersandrus, 
the son of Polyneices, who had given it to her in 
order to induce her to persuade her son to make 
the campaign against Thebes. Alcemaeon, accord- 
ingly, gathered soldiers, not only from Argos but 
from the neighbouring cities as well, and so had a 
notable army as he set out on the campaign against 
Thebes. The Thebans drew themselves up against 
him and a mighty battle took place in which Alemaeon 
and his allies were victorious; and the Thebans, 
since they had been worsted in the battle and had 
lost many of their citizens, found their hopes shat- 
tered. And since they were not strong enough to 
offer further resistance, they consulted the seer 
"Teiresias, who advised them to flee from the city, 
for only in this way, he said, could they save their 
lives. Consequently the Cadmeans left the city, as 
the seer had counselled them to do, and gathered 
for refuge by night in a place in Boeotia called 
Tilphossaeum. 'Thereupon the Epigoni took the 
city and sacked it, and capturing Daphné, the 
daughter of Teiresias, they dedicated her, in accord- 
ance with a certain vow, to the service of the temple 
at Delphi as an offering to the god of tbe first-fruits 
of the booty. This maiden possessed no less know- 


29 





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BOOK IV. 66. 6-67. 2 


ledge of prophecy than her father, and in the course 
of her stay at Delphi she developed her skill to a 
far greater degree; moreover, by virtue of the 
employment of à marvellous natural gift, she also 
wrote oracular responses of every sort, excelling in 
their composition ; and indeed it was from her poetry, 
they say, that the poet Homer took many verses 
which he appropriated as his own and with them 
adorned his own poesy. And since she was often 
like one inspired when she delivered oraeles, they 
say that she was also called Sibylla, for to be inspired 
in one's tongue is expressed by the word sibyllatmein. 

67. The Epigoni, after they had made their cam- 
paign renowned, returned to their native lands, bear- 
ing with them great booty. Of the Cadmeans who 
fled in a body to Tilphossaeum, Teiresias died there, 


and the Cadmeans buried him in state and accorded 


him honours equal to those offered to the gods; but 
as for themselves, they left the city and marched 
against the Dorians; and having conquered them in 
battle they drove out of their native lands the in- 
habitants of that country! and they themselves settled 
there for some time, some of them remaining there 
permanently and others returning to Thebes when 
Creon, the son of Menoeceus, was king. But those 
who had been. expelled from their native lands 
returned at some later period to Doris and made 
their homes in Erineus, Cytinium, and Boeum. 
Before the period in which these things took place, 
Boeotus, the son of Arné and Poseidon, came into 
the land which was then called Aeolis but is now 
called Thessaly, and gave to his followers the name 


of Boeotians. But concerning these inhabitants of 


Aeolis, we must revert to earlier times and give a 
i 31 
































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detailed account of them. In the times before that 
which we are discussing the rest of the sons of 
Aeolus, who was the son of Hellen, who was the son 
of Deucalion, settled in the regions we have men- 
tioned, but Mimas remained behind and ruled as 
king of Aeolis. Hippotes, who was born of Mimas, 
begat Aeolus by Melanippé, and Arné, who was the 
daughter of Aeolus, bore Boeotus by Poseidon. But 
Aeolus, not believing thatit was Poseidon who had lain 
with Arné and holding her to blame for her downfall, 
handed her over to a stranger from Metapontium 
who happened to be sojourning there at the time, 
with orders to carry her off to Metapontium. And 
after the stranger had done as he was ordered, Arné, 
while living in Metapontium, gave birth to Aeolus 
and Boeotus, whom the Metapontian, being childless, 
in obedience to a certain oracle adopted as his own 
sons. When the boys had attained to manhood, a 
civil discord arose in Metapontium and they seized 
the kingship by violence. Later, however, a quarrel 
took place between Arné and Autolyté, the wife of 
the Metapontian, and the young men took the side 
of their mother and slew Autolyté. But the Meta- 
pontian was indignant at this deed, and so they 
got boats ready and taking Arné with them set out 
to sea accompanied by many friends. Now Aeolus 
took possession of the islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea 
which are called after him '' Aeolian " and founded 
a city to which he gave the name Lipara;* but 
Boeotus sailed home to Aeolus, the father of AÁrné, 
by whom he was adopted and in succession to him 
he took over the kingship of Aeolis; and the land 


1 In Book 5. 7. 5 Diodorus states that this ciby was named 
after Liparus. 
33 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


KaL Tv uev yópav &mÓ TÍjs poros "Aprgv, robs 
8é Aaois àó* cavToó Boucrrois cvóp.age. Bouorob 
9€ "LIrwvos yevópievos érékva)oev vioUs Térrapas, 
"IEmmáAkutov kai " HAekrpóowa,, éri O. "ApxiÀiicov 
kal '"AXeyfvopa.  Troórov O mmáAKuuos. pev 
eyévmae IIyvéAeav, "HAerrpicv 86 Axvrov, AAe- 
ynjveop 8é KAovíov, "ApxiÀvkos Óé Ipo&ojjropa ica 
"ApkeaiAaov TOUS émi "Tpoíav ocparevcagévovs 
Tyyeuóvas TÓV dmávrav Bowróv. 

68. Toórov $9' zjptv Owevkpurnuévew, qeuwpa- 
cóp.eBa. BueAOety Trepi XaÀucvéos kal Tupoós 
kai TÓV aroyóvav éos Néovopos Tob OTporeó- 
cavros émi Tota. Zi Aoveos yàp Tv vios 
AióAov ToU "EAAqvos Tob Acura Alvos" o9Tos 
9' ék Tfj . AioA(óos óppumOels perà, TTÀeLÓvcov AioAécw 
QiKie Tfs. 'HAeías vapà TÓv "AÀgeóv TOTO ÓV 
má «ai ékdAescevi dj éavroo ZaÀucvíiav. 
Yüpas 6^ " AJuGüeqv T1)v ' AMéov éyévvgoe Üvyarrépa 
Tv zrpoooryopevÜetaay Tvpo, k&AAet Dua. épovooy. 
Tfs Oé yvvaucós " AAktoUkms dmoÜavovons éméynue 
TT óvojto.Loj.éviy Zion pc abr Oé XoAemás 
Seren vpós Tv lupo, cs àv paoyrputdá. perá 
óc Ta0ro ZaApoveós, )Bpuori]s Gv KQL doefhíjs, 
JqO qgév TÓv ÜroTeraypévov épuonj0n, j7O O6 
Auós 8i TV dcéBeuav éxepavvaóUn. Tf o6 Tupot, 
mrapÜévo KoT. éketvous TOUS Xpóvous ovp, ILoceióv 
puyeis maióas eyévwvnae IeMav ia NnAéa. Ü 
óc Tupo gwvouciaaca Kpn8et érékvooev " AyvÜ&ova 
kat Géprra kai Alcova. KpnÜécs 06 TeAevrj- 
cavros éoraoíacay cepi TÍjs Bacwelas IIeAias Té 
kai N«Aeís: crojrcv 06 lleMas pév '"loMo8 kai 
! So Vogel: xal wóXw &kricev MSS., Dindorf, Bekker. 
34 | | 


Lene eS Le E c nel cuales 1n 


CIS WU 


BOOK IV. 67. 6-68. 3 


he named Árné after his mother, but the inhabitants 
Boeotians after himself. And Itonus, the son of 
$ Boeotus, begat four sons, Hippalcimus, Electryon, 
AÁrchilycus, and Alegenor. Of these sons Hippal- 
cimus begat Peneleos, Electryon begat Leitus, 
Alegenor begat Clonius, and  Archilycus begat 
Prothoénor and Arcesilaüs, who were the leaders 


L .of all the Boeotians in the expedition against 
|: Troy. | 

| 

l 


L de mn—————————Ó 


68. Now that we have examined these matters 
we shall endeavour to set forth the facts concerning 
|: Salmoneus and Tyro and their descendants as far as 
1 Nestor, who took part in the campaign against Troy. 
| ^  , Salmoneus was a son of Aeolus, who was the son of 
j^ Hellen, who was the son of Deucalion, and setting 
i out from Aeolis with a number of Aeolians he 
| founded a city in Eleia on the banks of the river 
li Alpheius and called it Salmonia after his own name. 
| And marrying Álcidicé, the daughter of Aleus, he 

begat by her a daughter, her who was given the 
p name Tyro, a maiden of surpassing beauty. When 
| his wife Aleidicé died Salmoneus took for a second 
| wife Sidero, as she was called, who treated Tyro 

unkindly, as a step-mother would. Afterwards 
Salmoneus, being an overbearing man and impious, 

came to be hated by his subjects and because of his 
| impiety was slain by Zeus with a bolt of lightning. 
q As for Tyro, who was still à virgin when this took 
^i place, Poseidon lay with her and begat two sons, 
m Pelias and Neleus. Then Tyro married Cretheus 
and bore Ámythaon and Pheres and Aeson. But 
at the death of Cretheus a strife over the kingship. 
arose between Pelias and Neleus. Of these two 
Pelias came to be king over loléus and the neigh- 


(a : - ta 
g" 3 : 35 ) r 
i: 








sm Ead 
yécmss 





ESESGSS 
5 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


TÓV  wÀqotov  ycptov eBaotAevoe, NqAebs 66 
4grepoAapov t MeAdyzroba. Kai Bíavra TODS "Apw- 
Üdovos kai 'AyAatas uloos KaL Tiwas GAAovs TÓV 
"Axatáv ? (Ouoróv ka TÓV AioAéavw é corpárevaev 
4 eis ILeAonóvynoov. ka MeAMijmrovs pev  Mvrus 
2 TÓS "Apyeías yvvatkas paveloas 0. Tv Ato- 
vócov pw ,SÜepdzrevaev, dvri 06 raíTas Tfjs 
ciüepyyeatas xydpw éAape Trap Tob BaciMécs TÓV 
"Apyelaw "Ava£ayópov TOÜ MeyamévÜovs TÀ Ovo 
pépn Tfs Bacietas* karoucjoas O0 év "Apye« 
Kou émoujoaro TV Bacieiay Bíavrt TQ GBA op. 
yniuas 0€ Iéi&vetpav Tiv MevazrévÜovs é érékvaaev 
Avriédry Kai Mavró,, € ert 6€ Bíavra kai ILpovóqv: 
"Avrujárov. 06 kai ZevÉórTQS Tíjs 'lmmokómvros 
OixMis Kai "ApdáAes jmfp£fav, OixAéovs óé 
Ka "Ymeprjorpas TÍs Ocomiov 'léwvewpa. kai 
IIoAsfota «ai "Ap.éuápaos € éyévovro. MeAápurovs 
pev oov kai Bias kai oi dz éKelvov oUTC) Tfjs év 
"Apyev Baciuetas peréoxov, NAeis 9€ perà TÓv 
cvvakoAovÜnaávrcv mraparyevópuevos eis Mecojyn 
óv € ékruice llóAov, Dóvrav aUTÓ TÓV éyxeptv. 
vaór)s 9€ Bacwebaw kai yas AXApw Tv 'Àu- 
$iovos ToU (n»Baiov, To ibas éyévvnae Oj8eko,, 
àv 7v mpeoBvraros uév. IlepukAspevos, vecmacos 
6€ Néorap ó eni Tpoíav orpareóoas. 
Ileot uév ov rÀv Néocropos mpoyóvew. &pkeg- 
: OnoópueDa. Tots puÜetow ocroxalóuevot Tf ovp- 
p.erptas. 
69. ITepi 8é vOv? MAamÜGv xai Kevrajpov 


! So Vogel, vapaAapam 8é NgAÀe2s À, NgAeos omitted by the 
other MSS. 
? kgl after "Axotóv deleted by Hertlein. 


36 


BOOK IV. 68. 3-69. x 


bouring districts, but Neleus, taking with him 
Melampous and Dias, the sons of Amythaon and 
Aglaia, and certain other Achaeans of Phthiotis and 
Aeolians, made a campaign into the Peloponnesus. 
Melampous, who was a seer, healed the women of 
Argos of the madness which the wrath of Dionysus 
had brought upon them, and in return for this 
benefaction he received from the king of the Argives, 
Anaxagoras the son of Megapenthes, two-thirds of 
the kingdom; and he made his home in Argos and 
shared the kingship with Bias his brother. And 
marrying Iphianeira, the daughter of Megapenthes, 
he begat Antiphates and Manto, and also Bias and 
Pronoéó; and of Antiphates and of Zeuxippé, the 
daughter of Hippocoón, the children were Oecles 
and Amphalees, and to Oecles and Hypermnestra, 
the daughter of Thespius, were born Iphianeira, 
Polyboea, and Amphiaraüs. Now Melampous and 
Bias and their descendants shared in the kingship 
in Árgos, as we have stated, but Neleus, when he 
had arrived in Messené together with his com- 
panions, founded the city of Pylus, the natives of 
the region giving him the site. And while king of 
this eity he married Chloris, the daughter of Ámphion 
the Theban, and begat twelve sons, the oldest of 
whom was Periclymenus and the youngest the 
Nestor who engaged. in the expedition against 
Troy. | 

[4 regards the ancestors of Nestor, then, we shall 
be satisfied with what has been said, since we are 
aiming at due proportion in our account. 

69. We shall now discuss in turn the Lapiths and 





? ry omitted by DM, Vogel. 
37 





t5 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ev pepe Oié£uuev. — 'uceavoo «ai Two0os xarà 
TOUS uii ous mra ióes éyévovro rÀe(ovs mroTaquÀyy 
émóvupot, év ots kai Ives, áo oO cvvéBn TOV 
év OerraAg IUgveióv óvopiàa $jva..  obros € 
puyeis vópdn Tf mpocayopevojuévy Kpeoton za Gas 
éyévvnaev "Tyéa ai PSU D 7 yes AqróAAcov 
Aamüüqv | kat Kévravpov eyévvyoe. Ka TOUTGV 
Aamiüns uév korroucv Trepi TOV IIyvedv orav 
eBacievae TÓYV TÓT(OV .ToUrav, yas 96 "Opowó- 
wv TÜv Eópvvóuov éyévvmoev vioUs Oo, Góp- 
Bavra kai lLepióavra.. o9roL pév ov évra.üUa 
éBaoiÀAevcav, ot O6 cóparavres Àaol duró AomiBov 
AamiÜaw «poowyopeíUqcav. | «cv 8' viv TÓv 
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éé js perameulápevos  aiTOÓv "AÀérerop o Tfjs 
"HAetas BacwAeos BonOóv, dofoUpevos 73v ILéAosros 
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ék € dDápBavros omfjptav viol Ojo, Aiye)s kal 
"AKTOp, oí Tiv "HAeto»w Baoielav vapaAafóv- 


Tes. ó Ó' Émepos TÓV Aamübov vro aov Hept$as. 


yü)pos Agrudyvua TV Yyrécos éyévvnaev ok) 
vatóas, Ov Tv mpeoBroros "AÁvritv, Óg peyels 
IepuuifAg Tjj ApvÜdovos éyévvnoev "I£dova. oPTOS 
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ok daréócoke T eóva Tf yvvauki, Ó 5" ' Htovevs 
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eBaAÀev eis Bátpov vvpos pueoTóv. Oi 06 TO uéyeÜos 


39 


Ebr e EET 
USC T TER x 


Eee 


SE 


BOOK IV. 69. r-4 


Centaurs. To Oceanus and Tethys, so the myths 
relate, were born a number of sons who gave their 
names to rivers, and among them was Peneius, from 
whom the river Peneius in Thessaly later got its 
name. He lay with the nymph named Creüsa and 
begat as children Hypseus and Stilbé, and with the 
latter Apollo lay and begat Lapithes and Centaurus. 
Of these two, Lapithes made his home about the 
Peneius river and ruled over these regions, and 
marrying Orsinomé, the daughter of Eurynomus, he 
begat two sons, Phorbas and Periphas. And these 
sons became kings in this region and all the peoples 
there were called '' Lapiths " after Lapithes. As 
for the sons of Lapithes, Phorbas went to Olenus, 
from which city Alector, the king of Eleia, sum- 
moned him to come to hís aid, since he stood in fear 
of the overlordship of Pelops, and he gave him a 
share of the kingship of Elis; and to Phorbas were 
born two sons, Áegeus and Actor, who received the 
kingship over the Eleans. "The other son of Lapithes, 
namely, Periphas, married Astyaguia, the daughter 
of Hypseus, and begat eight sons, the oldest of whom . 
was Antion, who lay with Perimela, the daughter of 
Amythaon, and begat Ixion. He, the story goes, 
having promised that he would give many gifts of 
wooing to Eàioneus, married Dia, the daughter of 
Eioneus, by whom he begat Peirithoüs. But when - 
afterward Ixion would not pay over the gifts of 
wooing to his wife, Eioneus took as security for these 
his mares. Ixion thereupon summoned Eioneus to 
come to him, assuring him that he would comply in 
every respect, but when Edoneus arrived he cast 
him into a pit which he had filled with fire. Because 
of the enormity of this crime no man, we are informed, 


39 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


^ |J o Lá jÀ 8 0a 1 
Tf vapavouías wruóéva BovAecÓn. kaÜpat TÓv 

/ / Sei, RR. ^ A M i " 
dóvov.  véAos 9 ówó ro) Áuós xarà robs uÜÜovs 
* 7 5 / , X ^ Uu A / 
dyvioÜeis, )páo0n puév Tfs "Hpas xai kareróA- 
uQoev Ómép ovvovoías Aóyovs sowtoÜot. —Emevra 

X X [4 » / ^ e / 
TÓv uév Ala. eiücov sovijcavra Tfjs "Hpas vedéAqv 
3 ^ X i2 7 ^ / / 
éfamooretÀos, vÓv 8e 'l£tova cfj veóéÀg pwyévra 
yevvijca. roUs Ovouaiopévovus Kevrajspovs àvÜpc- 

^ / M ^ 1 5 / ^ 
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évOeÜfjvau, kai TeÀAevrijcavra Tiv Tuuopiav éxew 
QUcOvUOV. 

10. Toos 8é Kevraspous Twég pév daow év 
T IgA rpadvas xo Nupuóóv, avopwÜévras 
Sé Kol pwyévras Vmmow ÜwWAeiaus yevvfjoat ToUs 
OvonuaLlouévovus Oujvets 'Lmmokevravpous: —Tivés 
06 Aéyovoi vroUs ék NeóéAqs kai 'l£(ovos yevvg- 
Óévras KevraópoUs mporovs ümmevew émuewnj- 
cavras 'Icmokevradpovs ovoudoÜat kai eis vrÀdopa 

Pi ^ e ^ Ld M j 
piov kararayÜgva. cs Owjvéis Ovras.  $aoi 0€ 
TOUTOUS sS  Guyyevets Ümwápyovras | QGmowríjcat 
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oUk ázoOuóvros 96 roO llew(0ov sóAepov é£evey- 
Kely mpós aDrÓv ve kai ro)s AamiDas.  Dorepov 
O6 OwAÀvÜÓÉvrov | abrOv Tlewí(Ü0ovs pgév ycopas 
*TI E / A B /, 1l. A À / ? 

wmo0dpeuv Tiv Bovrov; xai xaAécavros eis 
ToUs yduovs TÓv re Ümoéa kai ro0s Kevraspovs, 
$aocí peUvoÜévras émuflaAéa0at raís kekAmuévous 
yvvou£t kai Bíg. uoyeoÜ0a, 8uà 8e Trjv srapavopav 

! So Palmer: forov. 
4o 


BOOK IV. 69. 4-70. 3 


was willing to purify him of the murder. The myths 
recount, however, that in the end he was purified 
by Zeus, but that he became enamoured of Hera 
and had the temerity to make advances to her. There- 
upon, men say, Zeus formed a figure of Hera out of 
a cloud and sent it to him, and Ixion, lying with the 
cloud (Nephelé) begat the Centaurs, as they are 
called, which have the shapes of men. But the 
myths relate that in the end Ixion, because of the 
enormity of his misdeeds, was bound by Zeus upon 
a wheel and after death had to suffer punishment 
for all eternity. 

10. The Centaurs, according to some writers, were 
reared by Nymphs on Mt. Pelion, and when they had 
attained to manhood they consorted with mares and 
brought into being the Hippocentaurs, as they are 
called, which are creatures of double form; but 
others say that it was the Centaurs born of Ixion and 
Nephelé who were called Hippocentaurs, because 
they were the first to essay the riding of horses, and 
that they were then made into a fictitious myth, to 
the effect that they were of double form. "We are 
also told that they demanded of Peirithoüs, on the 
ground of kinship,! their share of their father's king- 
dom, and that when Peirithoüs would not yield it to 
them they made war on both him and the Lapiths. 
At a later time, the account goes on to say, when 
they had made up their differences, Peirithoüs 
married Hippodameia, the daughter of Butes, and . 
invited both Theseus and the Centaurs to the wed- 
ding. The Centaurs, however, becoming drunken 
assaulted the female guests and lay with them by 


1 Ixion was the father both of the Centaurs and of 
Peirithoüs. det 


41 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Tóv ve ÜOmoéa kai ros AamiÜas sapo&uvÜévras 
, 5 / A ? ^ 1 8é A X ? À ^ E 
oix oAyovs p.év üveAety, rooc 96 AovroUs éxBaAety ér 
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pov mavOnuet orparevaávrov érri ros Aomibas kal 
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QoAóqv ! cfs 'ApkxaO(as, réAos ? 8' eig MaAéav 
ékrreaóvras évraüÜa. karouctjaaut, — Toos 06 Kevrav- 
povs uerecop.aÜévras Tols porepi)uaot, kai Óppuco- 
or , ^ / / M / ^ 
pévovs ék 7fjs GoAóns, A beoÜat rovs srapuóvras rdv 

"EAMjvcv kai sroAAo)s TÓv srepvoücoyy àvaupety. 
Tl. Toórev 9' cuív Owvkpwnouévow  mewa- 
/ $ ^ $5 À E NE NE. / 
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3 ^ ^ s 3 EE, / 

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jyíe.av | àvÜpcmrow | é£evpetv. | évi Trocoüro 8€ 
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TOoÀÀoUs Ookeiv TÓv TeTeÀevrwkÓTOW Toietv. aráAuv 
LOvras. OX kai vróv uév "Aibyv uvÜoAoyotoww 
éykaAoüvra TQ 'AokXAgmuo  karnyopíav  aiTo0 
M ^^ ^ 
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i For QoAóq» Eichstádt, followed by Dindorf and Bekker, 


reads (Deveóv. ! | 
* célos Wurm, Vogel, rwàs D, Dindorf, Bekker, zuwés TI. 


42 





sve pcr Rupee i ec ade 
GS ecu ewe pepe nER LU 


Revier 


m 


— 


SEES 


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- E 


D 
D 





BOOK IV. zo. 3-71. 3 


violence, whereupon both Theseus and the Lapiths, 
incensed by such a display of lawlessness, slew not 
a few of them and drove the rest out of the city. 
Because of this the Centaurs gathered all their 
forces, made a campaign against the Lapiths, and 
slew many of them, the survivors fleeing into Mt. 
Pholoó in Arcadia and ultimately escaping from 
there to Cape Malea, where they made their home. 
And the Centaurs, elated by these successes, made 
Mt. Pholoé the base of their operations, plundered 


the Greeks who passed by, and slew many of their 


neighbours.! | 

71. Now that we have examined these matters 
we shall endeavour to set forth the facts concerning 
Asclepius and his descendants. "This, then, is what 
the myths relate: Asclepius was the son of Apollo 
and Coronis, and since he excelled in natural ability 
and sagacity of mind, he devoted himself to the 
science of healing and made many discoveries which 
contribute to the health of mankind. nd so far 
did he advance along the road of fame that, to the 
amazement of all, he healed many sick whose lives 
had been despaired of, and for this reason it was 
believed that he had brought back to life many who 
had died. Consequently, the myth goes on to say, 
Hades brought accusation against Asclepius, charg- 
ing hir before Zeus of acting to the detriment of 
his own province, for, he said, the number of the 
dead was steadily diminishing, now that men were 
being healed by Asclepius. So Zeus, in indignation, 


1 "The text of the preceding sentences has been suspected, 
Contrary to the accepted tradition Diodorus makes the 
Centaurs, not the Lapiths, vietorious, and locates the ultimate 
home of the Lapiths, not of the Centaurs, on Cape Malea. 


43 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


cQVTO TOV "Aaiduyrióv Bua dbetpau, TOv O. 'AqóA- 
Acva Ou Tv avaipegw TODTOU mapo&vvOévra 
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zrapo£vvÜévra, TOV Aa zpoorá&ai TÓ AaóAov 
OvreÜcac map àvÜpcymo, kal raüUTQV TTV Tuucopiay 
AaBetv rap a)rob TÓv éykAgpáTov. "AexX- 
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Ilo8aAeipiov, kai Tv Téxvy ékmrovijcavras, émi 
Tpotay cvarporeüoat Tots mepi TÓV "Ayapuepwova: 
KüTà O6 TÓv 7rólepov peyáAas Xpetas a.roUs 
mapagyéaÜa, TOS "EAAgot, Üepo;reovras e epareupó- 
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&reÀets O' adroUs &óetva. TOv karà TS páxas 
KtvOUvcv | kai TÓy GAAcYv Aevrovpryiáy 9i 7T» 
ómepBoAiv Tfs év TQ Üepamevew eoxpnorias. 

Ilepi uév oóv "AokAqmioó kal vüw viv ajro0 
Tots onÜetow àpkeoÜ0noópe0a. 

12. Ilept 8é vv 'Aowoü Ovyarépov kai vÓv 
Alokdà yevojiévay vidv vv Otéeusev. "Quiceavoo 
kal "Iq6óos KaTà, To)s pi8ovs eyévovro. "raíbes 
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éat Iveióv koi "Agcmóv. IInveiós pe ov 
karouciaas zrepi Tiv vbv obcav OerroAiay emd- 
vuuov éavroÜU TOV mpoewnpévov mroTagóv emoby- 
O€y* "Aawrós 9  év OAwvbvrL karoucoas Eynie 
Merorqv Tv AáOwcvos, é£ $s éyévovro Oo pev 





! Literally, ''liturgies." Diodorus throws back into 
mythological times the ^ liturgie " services of many Greek cities, 
which were performed in turn and at their own expense by 
wealthier citizens, such as the equipping and maintenance of à 


44 


BOOK IV. rz. 3-72. 1 


slew Asclepius with his thunderbolt, but Apollo, 
indignant at the slaying of Asclepius, murdered the 
Cyclopes who had forged the thunderbolt for Zeus; 
but at the death of the Cyclopes Zeus was again 
indignant and laid a command upon Apollo that he 
should serve as a labourer for a human being and 
that this should be the punishment he should receive 
from him for his crimes. To Asclepius, we are told 
further, sons were born, Machaon and Podaleirius, 
who also developed the healing art and aecompanied 
Agamemnon in the expedition against "Troy. 
Throughout the course of the war they were of 
great serviee to the Greeks, healing most skilfully 
the wounded, and beeause of these beneéfactions 
they attained to great fame among the Greeks; 
furthermore, they were granted exemption from the 
perils of battles and from the other obligations of 
citizenship,! because of the very great service which 
they offered by their healing. | 

Now as regards Asclepius and his sons we shall be 
satisfied with what has been said. 

12. We shall now recount the story ofthe daughters 
of Asopus and of the sons who were born to Aeacus. 
According to the myths there were born to Oceanus 
and Tethys a number of children who gave their 
names to rivers, and among their number were 
Peneius and Ásopus. Now Peneius made his home 
in what is now Thessaly and called after himself 
the river which bears his name; but AÁsopus made - 
his home in Phlius, where he married Metopé, the 
daughter of Ladon, to whom were born two sons, 


warship, the training of à chorus for a dramatie performance 
or of a team of men from each tribe for the torch-race, and the 
like. | | 

45 








2 


3 


E: 


b 


6 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


viol, ILeAaoyyós kat "lounvós, Üvyarépes bé OcóÓexa, 
Kópkupa. Kai ZaAajuis, € ert 89  Atywa «ai leu» 
kai KAecv1, Tpós 06 ra. Uraus Ox1Bn T€ Kai Távaypa 
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vos pev eis Boworíay cA àv kardnae Tepi TÓV 
mroTO41ÓV TÓv dz ékeivov Tf ójucovvjutav AaBóvra, 
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Zpos éfaatAevoe Tv dm éketyou Zijpcv óvouaa- 
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eis víjoov Tj» d. eketyms Kópkupav óvop.abop.évay 
ék cars 906 kai IlooeióGvos eyévero Daía£, 
&$' o) TOUS (Dbatakas cvvégn TUXe Taco Tfjs 
mpoovyopias. Daíakos o eyévero '"AAkivoos ó 
TÓV O8vcaéa Küa/ra/yayav eis TT)V T6daen. ZoAÀa- 
pis o mo ILoceiódvos àpzayetoa ékopicÓn eis 
Tv dr abríjs víjaov ZiaÀa tva mpoooyopevÜetoay- 
amm 66 pwyetoca, ILooeiióvi Kvxpéa r eyéwqoev, 
Óg BaciAeócas Tfs wüjoov TOÜTQS kai Jyevóp.evos 
ém$avis drékTeivev ou orepóvf) TÓ géyeÜos 
kai Avpicuvópievoy TOUS éyxcopiovs. Avywa, 
ek (QDAoóvros $70 Ados &prroryetoa. eis. víjoov 
dxekopiaÜn Tiv dm eketvrs Alywav ovop.a.o- 
Ücicav, év Tay or Aui puyetoa, érékvcoev Aiakóv, 
óg éfaolAevoe Tfjs vov. 

Tocrov 9 eyévovro vioi IIyAeos Kai TeAopów. 
TOUTCOV E lmAeós Oioiqp Bao dmrércrewev GKovaics 
Qxov óuovárpov dBeAdv, é£ aAAÀqs Oé Mnrpós 
yeyevguévov. Ou. 9é «óv dóvov IlgAebs vw 


BOOK IV. 7a. 1-6 


Pelasgus and Ismenus, and twelve daughters, Cor- 
eyra and Salamis, also Aegina, Peirené, and Cleoné, 
then Thebé, Tanagra, Thespeia, and Asopis, also 
Sinopé, and finally Ornia and Chaleis. One of his 
sons, Ismenus, came to Boeotia and settled near the 
river which received its name from him; but as for 
the daughters, Sinopé was seized by Apollo and 
carried off to the place where now stands the city of 
Sinopé, which was named after her, and to her and 
Apollo was born à son Syrus, who became king of 
the Syrians, who were named after him. Corcyra 
was carried off by Poseidon to the island which was 
named Corcyra after her; and to her and Poseidon 
was born Phaeax, from whom the Phaeacians after- 
wards received the name they bear. To Phaeax 
was born Aleinoüs, who brought about the return of 
Odysseus to Ithaca! Salamis was seized by Poseidon 
and taken to the island which was named Salamis 
after her; and she lay with Poseidon and bore 
Cychreus, who became king of this island and 
acquired fame by reason of his slaying à snake of 
huge size which was destroying the inhabitants of 
the island. Aegina was seized by Zeus and taken 
off by him from Phlius to the island which was named 
Aegina after her, and lying with Zeus on this island 
she gave birth to Aeacus, who became its king. 

'To Aeacus sons were born, Peleus and Telamon. 
Of these, Peleus, while hurling a discus, accidentally 
slew Phocus, who was his brother by the same 
father although born of another mother. Because 
of this slaying Peleus was banished by his father and 


1 Qf. the Odyssey, 13. 1 ff. 





1 So Wesseling : Key xpijo. 
| La 4] 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


TOoÜ maTpós dvyabevOeis é$vye Tíjs vüv OerraAMas 
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éyévvqoev , Otvóuaov. oóros Oé Üvyarépa govo- 
yevij yevvijoas dvópaaev IEmmroódjiewxv. Xpnen- 
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Kópmv. Umeoríjouro ó armoopopiay amo TÍs 


498 


à 


BOOK IV. 2. 6—3. 3 


fled to Phthia in what is now called Thessaly, where 
he was purified by Actor the king of the country 
and succeeded to the kingship, Actor being chbild- 
less. To Peleus and Thetis was born Achilleus, who 
accompanied Ágamemnon in the expedition against 
Troy. Telamon, being also a fugitive from Aegina, 
went to Salamis and marrying Glaucé, the daughter 
of Cychreus, the king of the Salaminians, he became 
king of the island. When his wife Glaucé died he 
married Eriboea of Athens, the daughter of Alcathus, 
by whom he begat Ájax, who served in the expedition 
against Troy. | 

13. Now that we have examined these matters we 
shall endeavour to set forth the facts concerning 
Pelops and Tantalus and Oenomaüs, but to do so 
we must revert to earlier times and give in summary 
the whole story from the beginning. The account runs 
like this: In the city of Pisa in the Peloponnesus 
Ares lay with Harpiné, the daughter of Asopus, and 
begat Oenomatüs, who, in turn, begat a daughter, an 
only child, and named her Hippodameia. And once 
when he consulted an oracle about the end of his 
life the god replied to him that he should die 
whenever his daughter Hippodameia should marry. 
Consequently, we are told, he proceeded cautiously 
regarding the marriage of his daughter and decided 
to see that she was kept a virgin, assuming that only 
in this way could he escape from the danger which 
her marriage would entail. And so, since there were 
many suitors for the girl's hand, he proposed a con- 
test for any who wished to marry her, the conditions 
being that the defeated suitor must die, but who- 
ever should win would have the girl in marriage. 
The contest he set was a chariot-race from Pisa to 


49 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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OweAÜeiv, tva. ,jr8év vv ükofs fiev mvapaÀim- 


5o 


BOOK IV. 73. 374. 1 


the altar of Poseidon on the Isthmus of Corinth, 
and the starting of the horses he arranged as follows : 
Oenomaüs was to be sacrificing a ram to Zeus, when 
the suitor should set out, driving a chariot drawn 
by four horses; then, when the sacrifice had been 
completed, Oenomaüs was to begin the race and 
make after the suitor, having a spear and Myrtilus 
as his driver, and if he should succeed in overtaking 
the chariot which he was pursuing he was to smite 
the suitor with the spear and slay.him. By employ- 
ing this method he kept overtaking the suitors as 
they appeared, his horses being swift, and was slay- 
ing them in great numbers. But when Pelops, the 
son of Tantalus, came to Pisa and looked upon 
Hippodameia, he set his heart upon marrying her, 
and by corrupting Myrtilus, the charioteer of . 
Oenomaüs, and thus securing his co-operation to- 
ward winning the victory, he was the first to arrive 
at the altar of Poseidon on the Isthmus. And 
Oenomaüs, believing that the oracle had been ful- 
filled, was so disheartened by grief that he removed 
himself from life. In this way, then, Pelops got 
Hippodameia for his wife and succeeded to the 
sovereignty of Pisa, and increasing steadily in power 
by reason of his courage and his wisdom, he won 
over to himself the larger number of those who dwelt 
in the Peloponnesus and called the land after his own 
name "Peloponnesus."? . | |. 

74. And since we have made mention of Pelops, 
we must also relate the story concerning his father 
Tantalus, in order that we may omit nothing which 

1 About eighty miles, as the crow flies, but there was no 


* direct road between the two points. 
3 ** Island of Pelops."" 


51 


zu E 3 
NR 3 Je x 
aU &, "T Pul 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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75. T4$s Tpqodá8os xdpas vpóos épaoiAevae 
* Bo Bekker: sapoAe/mcpev. ^ ? So Dindorf: xorax0eís. 


emeío  Btadepovoas ouo by D, Bekker, Vogel, 
setained iained by d Dindorf. i B 


1 Leto was the mother of Apollo and Artemis. 





52 


BOOK IV. 74. 1-75. 1 


deserves to be made known. Tantalus was a son 
of Zeus, and he possessed surpassing wealth and 
renown, dwelling in that part of Asia which is now 
caled Paphlagonia. And because of his noble 
descent from Zeus his father he became, as men say, 
a very especial friend of the gods. At a later time, 
however, he did not bear as a human being should the 
good fortune which came to him, and being admitted 
to the common table of the gods and to all their 
intimate talk as well he made known to men 
happenings among the immortals which were not 
to be divulged. For this reason he was chastened 


while yet in this life and after his death, as the myths - 


relate, was condemned to eternal punishment by 
being rated in Hades among the impious. To him 
were born a son Pelops and a daughter Niobé, and 
Niobé became the mother of seven sons and an equal 
number of daughters, maids of exceeding beauty. 
And since she gave herself haughty airs over the 
number of her children, she frequently declared in 
boastful way that she was more blest in her children 
than was Leto. At this, so the myths tell us, Leto 
in anger commanded Apollo to slay with his arrows 
the sons of Niobé and Artemis the daughters. And 
when these two hearkened to the command of their 
mother and slew with their arrows the children of 
Niobé at the same time, it came to pass that immedi- 
ately, almost in à single moment, that woman was 
both blest with children and cbhildless. But since 
Tantalus, after he had incurred the enmity of the 
gods, was driven out of Paphlagonia by Ilus, the son 
of Tros, we must also set forth all that relates to Tlus 
and his ancestors. CE T 

15. The first to rule as king over the land of Troy 


53 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


TeóKpos, vis dv Xkapávüpov ToU mworapuot kai 
l8atos vip.dus, &v1)p émujavijs, Kai TOUS ÀaoUs [74 
cavToU Teóxpovs mpooyyópevae. Teókpov 9 eye- 
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t é£ Dindorf: pev é£. 





! This nymph was later known, ;by the name Idaea. 
? Iliad, 20. 220-21. 


54 


BOOK IV. rs. 1-5 


was Teucrus, the son of the river-god Scamandrus and 
a nymph of Mt. Ida;! he was a distinguished man 
and caused the people of the land to be called 
Teucrians, after his own name. . To Teucrus was born 
a daughter Bateia, whom Dardanus, the son of Zeus, 
married, and when Dardanus succeeded to the throne 
he ealled the people of the land Dardanians after his 
own name, and founding a city on the shore of the sea 
he called it also Dardanus after himself. To him a 
son Erichthonius was born, who far excelled in good 
fortune and in wealth. Of him the poet Homer? 
writes: | "e ! | 

The wealthiest was he of mortal men; 

Three thousand mares he had that grazed through- 

| out | 

His marshy pastures. 


To Erichthonius was born a son Tros, who called the 

people of the land Trojans, after his own name. To - 
Tros were born three sons, llus, Ássaracus, and 
Ganymedes. llus founded in a plain a city which was 
the most renowned among the cities in the Troad, 
giving it after himself the name Ilium... And to Ilus 
was born a son Laomedon, who begat 'Fithonus and 
Priam; and Tithonus, after making à campaign 
against those parts of Asia which lay to thé east of 
him and pushing as far as Ethiopia,? begat by Eos, 
as the myths relate, Memnon, who came to the aid 
of the Trojans and was slain by Áchilleus, whereas 
Priam married Hecabé and begat, in addition to a 
number of other sons, Hector, who won very great 
distinction in the Trojan War.  Assaracus became | 
king of the Dardanians and begat Capys, whose 


.3 Perhaps Assyria is meanb; op. vol 1, p. 422, note 2. 
TR LES STET: 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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Üccw, dore Ookeiv elivau TO karaokevaoÜüév &p- 
oxov bQov. TpóTos Ó opupuaráoas kai oia pe- 
Pukóra à okén moujcas, ér, 66 TÀg Xeipas 
Óuareraquévas Tov, eikóres. cÜavpáCero 7apá 
TOÍs dvÜpeoiw* ot yàp po TOUTOU Texvura 
kareakeialov TÓ &ydAguarra, TOÍS BLév Ópnpact 
pepokóra, TÓg O6 Xeipas €xovra kaÜeuuévas 
kai ras mrÀevpaiis KekoAApévas. 

€ » 1 " 

O 9' oov AaíóaÀos xarà Tv dWoreyviav 
56 


BOOK IV. 75. 5-56. 4 


son was Anchises, who by Aphrodité begat Aeneas, 
the most renowned man among the Trojans. And 
Ganymedes, who excelled all men in beauty, was 
snatched up by the gods to serve as the cupbearer of 
Zeus. 

But now that we have examined these matters we 
shall endeavour to set forth what relates to Daedalus, 
the Minotaur, and the expedition of Minos into Sicily 
against King Cocalus. 

T6. Daedalus was an AÁthenian by birth and was 
known as one of the clan named Erechthids, since he 
was the son of Metion, the son of Eupalamus, the son 
of Erechtheus. In natural ability he towered far 
above all other men and cultivated the building art, 
the making of statues, and the working of stone. 
He was also the inventor of many devices which 
contributed to the advancement of his art and built 
works in many regions of the inhabited world which 
arouse the wonder of men. In the carving of his 


. Statues he so far excelled all other men that later 


generations invented the story about him that the 
statues of his making were quite like their living 
models; they could see, they said, and walk and, in a 
word, preserved so wellthe characteristics of the entire 
body that the beholder thought that the image made 
by him was a being endowed with life. And since 
he was the first to represent the open eye and to 
fashion the legs separated in a stride and the arms and 
hands as extended, it was a natural thing that he 
should have received the admiration of mankind; 
for the artists before his time had carved their statues 
with the eyes closed and the arms and hands hanging 
and attached to the sides. | 

But though Daedalus was an object of admiration 


57 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Bowuobápevos éduyev éx cfjs arpíbos, KO/ragu- 
xagoÜeis émi dóvo 9i. Tox oras arias. Tfj 
GBeAÀdfjs Tfjs AciBáAov yevópevos viós Tá&Aos 
émrauDeUero Op AaiBáAc, srats cv Tiv TÀuctav: 
eóóvéorepos ó' cv Tob Bia kdvov TÓV T€ kepa-- 
pievrucóv Tpoxóv eÜpe kai auaryóv TepuTUXQV 
ó$eus, iai Tay £uMjuov puKkpóv | Ouvmrpioas, 
epufooro Tv rpaxórura cÀv óOóv rcv Ouómrep 
karagkevaadquevos ék ci pov mpiova, Kai Oi 
TOUTOU zrpibo The év Tots épyois £u voy vv, 
£Oofev eUyprorov eopnkévat ueya mrpós TTV Tek'To- 
vuciy Téyvyv. opoícs O6 kai TÓv Tópvov .eüpov 
kai érepá Tw n d eL Só£av dammvéykomo 
peyáAv. Ó 8c AaibaAos $0 ovícas T Oo0í, 
kai voniLov odróv 70À) TÍj 66£g apoéfei 08 
SiBaokdAov, TÓv Tín c6oAodóvrce. Üdmrreov 
o ary Kai mrepucaráymros yevópevos, émnpa- 
Tín (va Ücrret, kai éónoev ó$w karmaycvvoew. 
Davpáco. 9. àv Tus TO vapáSo£ov, Ó óru Oud, TÓ b ov : 
éf ob To0 mrpiovos. éveUvpi]8n Tv Ka maokeviv, 
Oià ToOTov kai roD dóvov Tiv émbyvaw cvvéBn 
7 yevéofaa. KarmyopmÜeis 8é xal karabucagÜeis 
jr Tv "Apcorraryvrá $óvov, TÓ pév mpóvov 
ever eis €va, TÓV KOQTà vo Amrucyv Srjpucov, 
€v d ToUs karowoÜvras dm ékeivov AaiQaAQDas 
óvopaocDfva.. 

Tí. Meràü 8$ cabra OwBpàs eig KWpürqv, kai 


1 8u T0 Coy, deleted by Hertlein; BEichstádt Suggested ui 
TOU Lov. 





l i.e. * descendants of Daedalus."  À deme by this name 
is known in Attica; i& was probably composed chiefly of 
eraftsmen who claimed descent from Daedalus. 


58 


Xm 


TXS 


CEQLESRASAS 


ed 


We 


BOOK IV. 76. 4-77. 1 


because of his technical skill, yet he had to flee from 
his native land, since he had been condemned for 
murder for the following reason. "Talos, a son of the 
sister of Daedalus, was receiving his education in the 
home of Daedalus, while he was still a lad in years. 
But being more gifted than his teacher he invented 
the potter's wheel, and then, when once he had come 
by chance upon a jawbone of a snake and with it had 
sawn through a small piece of wood, he tried to 
imitate the jaggedness of the serpent's teeth. Con- 
) sequently he fashioned a saw out of iron, by means of 
| which he would saw the lumber which he used in his 
x work, and for this accomplishment he gained the 
i reputation of having discovered a device which would 
|. J- be of great service to the art of building. Ie like- 
1 . wise discovered also the tool for describing a circle t. 
and certain other cunningly contrived devices 
| whereby he gained for himself great fame. But 
k Daedalus, becoming jealous of the youth and feeling 
, that his fame was going to rise far above that of his 
" teacher, treacherously slew the youth. And being 
i detected in the act of burying him, he was asked what 
he was burying, whereupon he replied, "I am 
inhuming a snake." Here a man may well wonder 
; at the strange happening, that the same animal 
! that led to the thought of devising the saw should also 
have been the means through which the murder came 
to be discovered. And Daedalus, having been 
accused and adjudged guilty of murder by the court 
of the Areopagites, at first fled to one of the demes of 
Attica, the inhabitants of which, we are told, were 
named after him Daedalidae.! 
TT. Afterwards Daedalus made his escape out of 
94 Attica to Crete, where, being admired because of the 
jn 59 
VOL. III. fi C 





——— 
EPUM IUe 


ipee 


uS 


SE 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Bu Tv év Tf Té VQ Oófav Pavpabópevos, $ilos 
éyévero  Mivoos 100 Baowés. Kkarà Oé TOv 
zrapaBeBop.evov uó6ov Iaouódns Tfs. Míve»os yvvoi- 
Kós épaoÜcions Tob Ta pov, uoxávmpa. Trovjoas 
duowop.évov Bot cvwvüpygoe 75 llaouwbán 7rpos 

9 TÜV émBvpulay. pÜoAoy otc yàp Tpó -ToÜvTOv 
TÓV Xpóve Mívoa kar. é cvawróv cguvijücos ka8vepotv 
TOV KdAAo TOV TOV ywoptévoo TO cV TQ TI oceidvt 
kai Üjew Tobrov TQ ÜeQ* , Yevoévov oe Tóre 

vapou Ká Aet Busdiépovros éTepov TÓV Tyrróvav 
vrajpov co TÓv óé HoceiBÀva povicavra 
TQ Mí» wowdjcas T)» yvuvatka abTob llaoubángv 

3 épaoOva. ToU raUpov.  Oi& 8€ Tfjs TOÓTOU $uUoe- 
Xvías T)v llao:á«v uwyetcav 7Ó Tap yevvíjoaa 
TOV poUoAoyoópevov Mwdravpov. TODTOV 8é $ac. 
O.óvf yeyovévaa, Kat TÓ pév avárrepa nep. TOU 
Od Loros Gxpt TÓv OXucv €yew TaUpov, Tà óc 

4 Aovrà üvÜpomov. TQ O6 Tépari TOÜT(  Tpos 
Bur podv Aéyera, karaakevága, ,AaíBadov AaBó- 
pwtov, Tüs Ote£ó0ovs aKoXs Exovra kai TOS 
zreipots Ovaevpérovs, € év Q Tpedópevov TÓv Mwá- 
Tavpov TOUS é£ A8nvàv damooreMopiévovs émTÀ 
Kópous kai Kópas émrà * kareoDiew, srepi v mpoet- 
prikaqiev. 

5  Tóv oiv Aai&aAov eru ópuevov TT darew)v ToO 
Mivoos Su TÜv karagkeviv Tfjs Boós $aot $ou- 
Üévra Tv OpyTv Tob BaotMécs € ek TÍjs Kpijros é ék- 
vÀeÜca, cwvepyosons Tíjs Iaouóáns kai TrÀotov 

ó Oojons pos TÓv cicmÀoUv. perà O0é rovrov TÓV 


* érrà omitted CD, Vogel; but cf. 61. c. 3: érrà kópovs xol 
Tàs (gas kópas. 


60 





BOOK IV. 77. 1-6 


fame of his art, he became a friend of Minos who was 
king there. Now according to the myth which has 
been handed down to us Pasiphaé, the wife of Minos, 
became enamoured of the bull, and Daedalus, by 
fashioning a contrivance in the shape of a cow, 
assisted Pasiphaé to gratify her passion. In explana- 
tio of this the myths offer the following account: 
Before this time it had been the custom of Minos 
annually to dedicate to Poseidon the fairest bull born 
in his herds and to sacrifice it to the pod; but at the 
time in question there was born a bull of extra- 
ordinary beauty and he sacrificed another from among 
those which were inferior, whereupon Poseidon, 
becoming angry at Minos, caused his wife Pasiphaé 
to become enamoured of the bull. And by means of 
the ingenuity of Daedalus Pasiphaé had intercourse 
with the bull and gave birth to the Minotaur, famed 
in the myth. "This creature, they say, was of double 
form, the upper parts of the body as far as the 
shoulders being those of a bull and the remaining parts 
those of a man. Ás a place in which to keep this 
monstrous thing Daedalus, the story goes, built a 
labyrinth, the passage-ways of which were so winding 
that those unfamiliar with them had diffieulty in 
making their way out; in this labyrinth the Minotaur 
was maintained and here it devoured the seven youths 
and seven maidens which were sent to it from Athens, 
as we have already related.! 

But Daedalus, they say, on learning that Minos 
had made threats against him because he had 
fashioned the cow, became fearful of the anger of the 
king and departed from Crete, Pasiphaé helping 
him and providing a vessel for his escape. With bim 

3 Op.ehap. 6l. . 
Eo: 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


vióv "Ikapov d$vyóvra kaoreveyÜfvau mpós Twa 
víjoov veAayíav, mpós Tv TOv "lkapov sapafióAcs 
àxoflaivovra sreoctv els ÜdAorrav kai TeAevríjoau, 
&$' oH kai rÓó méAoyos 'l«ápwv óvouacÜfvat koi 
T)» víjcov 'lkapíav xÀq0Sgvoi.  vóv 86 AaioaAov 
ék Tís vjcov TaÓrQgs ékmAe/cavra karevexÜfjva. 
afje 3ieMas mrpós xcopav je BactAevovra KaaAov 
àvaÀaBetv róv AaíóaAov, xai Già rov eóQviav xai 
8ó0£av mowjoacÜa. diXov éri srÀéov. 

 'Twés 84 nuvÜoAoyoto:, xarà cv Kpw5rgv ém 
AoibáAov OtwrpiBovros kal jmó Tfs llaowbáns 
KpvrTouévov, Mívea qév Tóv aoa ovAoO- 
pevov cupias àfuoau. vóv AaióaAov, kai unm) 
Svvápevov eópetv, vá Te mÀota sávra TàÀ kord 
Tv víjcov épevváv kai xpuuárov mAÀfj8os émay- 
yéAAéoÜat Odcoew TQ TÓv AalGaAov veupóvzt. 
évraüÜa TOv AaiBaAov dmoyvóvra TOv Ou TÓw 
vÀoicv Ópaouóv, korackevácar Tapa80£cs mTé- 
pvyas ediorexyvquévas xoi Ou kw«pobü Üav- 
paorüs Toknuévas- émiÜévra O6 caras TQ Te 
ToÜ vioU o«djuxr. kai TQ éavroÜ mapadótuos ék- 
zeraoÜjvor. kai Oua8püva, * «Ó mÀqotov 7fjs Kpi- 
TS vücov wéAayos. kai TOv pév "Ikapov Già Tv 
veóry)Ta perécpov TT TrTijow ToLi0ULevov Treoeiv 
eis TO véÀayos, rakévros Oi vÓv djÀwov ToD owv- 
éxyovros Tràs wTépvyas npo), aÓrÓv Bé mapà Tv 
Ü&AoTrav serópevov kai arap  €kacTov Téyyovra 
Tàs Tépvyas OiocÜfvau apaBófws eis T^v 
ZueAav.  dAÀÀà sept uév ToUrov ci kai mapá- 
Oofós écrww Ó uos, Ojos ékpivauev. uj) srapadu- 
qreitv abróv. 

1 So Dindorf: Gu páca:. 
62 | 





BOOK IV. z;. 6-9 


fled also his son Icarus and they put in at a certain 
island which lay in the open sea. But when Icarus 
was disembarking onto the island in a, reckless 
manner, he fell into the sea and perished, and in 
memory of him the sea was named the Icarian and 
the island was called lcaria. Daedalus, however, 
sailing away from this island, landed. in Sicily near 
the territory over which Cocalus reigned as king, who 
courteously received Daedalus and because of his 
genius and his renown made him his close friend. 

But certain writers of myths have the following 
account: Daedalus remained a while longer in 
Crete, being kept hidden by Pasiphaé, and king 
Minos, desiring to wreak vengeance upon him and 
yet being unable to find him, caused all the boats 
which were on'the island to be searched and an- 
nounced that he would give à great sum of money to 
the man who should discover Daedalus. Thereupon 
Daedalus, despairing of making his escape by any 
boat, fashioned with amazing ingenuity wings which 
were cleverly designed and marvellously fitted to-. 
gether with wax ; and fastening these on his son's body 
and his own he spread them out for flight, to the 
astonishment of all, and made his escape over the 
open sea which lies near the island of Crete. As for 
Icarus, because of the ignorance of youth he made his 
flight too far aloft and fell into the sea when the wax 
which held the wings together was melted by the sun, 
whereas Dardalus, by flying close to the sea and 
repeatedly wetting the wings, made his way in 
safety, marvellous to relate, to Sicily. Now as for 
these matters, even though the myth is a tale of 
marvel, we none the less have thought it best not to 
leave it unmentioned. NEC 


63 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


78. Aaí8alos 8é «apá ve cQ KtwkáMp kal 
TOÍS Zukavois Siérpuje vÀeico . xpóvov, Üavuató- 
juevos ey 1 Tfj KüvT à. Tiv Téxvv bmepBoAf). Karre- 
akeóage 9" év mf vijoq TOUTy TLiVQ TÓy épycov & 
puéyp. ToD vbv Owuéve. mrmotoy pev yàp TÍS 
Meyapí8os (uoréxvos  émoiyse  T?v óvopa- 
Lopévnv xoAvupyÜpav, éf ds péyas TOTO4LÓS 
eis T - arÀqotov ÜdAocrrav ef epeóyerai Kao) 
puevos "AAaBáv. Korà Oé Thv vÜv "Arporyavri- 
vv ev TÓ KapakQ kaAovpéveo móAw éri mérpas 
o9cav magóyv óxvporáTqQv kareokejaae kai TOV- 
TeÀÓs € ék Días &àváAcrrov: oreviv yàp Kai ckoÀàv 
T?v GváBaoiw abríjs $i oreyrijaas égoínce 8ó- 
vaoÜa. Ou Tpuv 7 rerrápa &vÜpaymav ,duMir- 
TeoÜa.. Diórrep ó KckaAos év raa movjoas Tó 
BaoiAeua KG TG XPripiora karamÜépevos dvá- 
Acro € Eo xev aDTT)vr Oud Tfjs emwotas TOD Texvíérov. | 
TpÜrov 8c omjAacov karà Tv ZieAvvovvriav xepav 
kareakebagev, €v Ó T)v d&TpO0n ToÜ kar. aÜT)v 
vUpós oUTCS eüoróxcs é£éAafev ? core Ou Tv 
paAakórmra Tfjs Üeppiaatas é£iBpotv AcAnBórcs 
«ai Karü pikpóv TOUS. évGuarpiBovras Kai? nerd 
Tépilecos Üepazredew TÓ apa pngoév TTG. evox- 
Aovuévovs. Dm Tfjs eppiórnros. Ka. Oé TOV 
"Epvka. grérpas oos &movouáóos eis vios é£aí- 
cuv, KaL Tfs karà TÓ lepóv Tfjs "Adpobtrns C'T€vo- 
xcpias | ávarykalosans eni TO TÍ]s séTpas Gaó- 
&pnuvov TovjcacÜa. Tr» oikoOouíav, kareokeva- 


- e Vogel: P 
or é£éAafev Capps suggests é£éBaAev * extracted." 
5 Kai Ladded by V edal i : 2e Á 


64 








BOOK IV. ;8. 1-4 


718. Daedalus spent a considerable time with 
Cocalus and the Sicani, being greatly admired for his 
very great skill in his art. And on this island he 
constructed certain works which stand even to this 
day. For instance, near Megaris he ingeniously 
built à £olumbethra: as men have named it, from which 
a great river, called the Alabon, empties into the sea 
which is not far distant from it. Also in the present 
territory of Acragas on the Camicus ? river, as it is 
called, he built a city which lay upon a rock and was 
the strongest of any in Sicily and altogether im- 
pregnable to any attack by force; for the ascent to it 
he made narrow and winding, building it in so in- 
genious a manner that it could be defended by three 
or four men. Consequently Cocalus built in this city 
the royal residence, and storing his treasures there 
he had them in a city which the inventiveness of its 
designer had made impregnable. A third construc- 
tion of his, in the territory of Selinus, was a grotto 
where he so successfully expelled the steam caused 
by the fire which burned in it that those who fre- 
quented the grotto got into a perspiration imper- 
ceptibly because of the gentle action of the heat, and 
gradually, and actually with pleasure to themselves, 
they cured the infirmities of their bodies without 
experiencing any annoyance from the heat. . Also at 
Eryx, where a rock rose sheer to an extraordinary 
height and the narrow space, where the temple of 
Aphrodité lay, made it necessary to build it on the 
precipitous tip of the rock, he constructed a wall 

i * Swimming-bath "; probably & kind of reservoir, ab 
least some contrivance to control the floods of the river. 

2 In Strabo (6. 2. 0) " Camici" is called the *'royal 
residence " of Cocalus; Camicus was the name of both a city 
and a river. a— 

65 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ccv ém' aDroU ToU kpmuvoOU Totyov, «vpopidáoas 
apabó£cs TO mepketpievov roO kprjuvoU. — xpvoo0v 
ve kptóv Tj Aópo8írg vfj Epvkivg $aciv abróv 
dulorexvfjcat vepvrrós eipyaopévov kai TQ kar 
dXÜe.ay. kp dxrapeyxewniros epowouévov. GÀÀa 
Te soÀÀAá $aow aróv daAoveyvífoo. karà Tv 
XuceMay, & 0i TO aXíj0os ToU ypóvov Od0apra. 

19. Mivos 9" ó àv Kporóv BaotAeos 0aAorro- 
Kpa.r&v kam ékelvovs ro0s xpóvovs, kai rvÜópuevos 
Tijv Aai0Aov jvyjjv eis ZiuceMav, éyvc orpaebet 
ém' abvv.  aapackevacáuevos 06 OUvapav vaurv- 
xijv à£uóAoyov éfémAevoev ék cTfs Kpwrgs, kai 
kaTfpe Tfj; '"AÁkpayavrivgs eis v]v Qm ékeivov 

wea» kaAovuévgv.  àmopipBácas 8é Tv Owva- 
pav kal séjbas dyyéAovs mwpós KokaAov cÓv 
facia déírew Tóv Aaióalov eis Tuwopíav. Ó- 
óé KekaAos eis o/AAoyov mpokaÀeaáuevos ai 
vávra, sovjcew  émayyewuevos émi cTÀ Ééwa 
vapéAafe róv Mívo.  Aovpévov 9' abro, Ko 
«aÀos pév sapakaraoyov mAÀetova wpóvov év T 
ÜspuQ TÓv Miveoa O$Üewpe, kat, 7TÓ opa àé- 
Oc ke Tois Kpnot, mpójaow éveykov ToU ÜOavá- 
TOV Otórt Kkaüvrà TOv Aovrpiva. cjMoOnke kal sreocv 
eig TO Üepuóv JOnp éreAeórgoe.  perà 06 Ta00 
oí pév cvveorparevpévow rÓ có ToU Baou ws 
&Üoijav neyaAorrperás, kat OvirAotv TáQov olko8o- 
pücarres kar pv Tóy Kekpupuévov TómOV &Üecay 
7à, 00TÓ, kavrà, 8é rÓv ávecypévov émoígoav ' Aópo- 
OUrgs vedcw.  oÜros O. émi yeveüsg mAetovs érwuáro, 





1 Just such & tomb as this, the upper storey serving as a 
temple, and the lower structure forming & sepulchre, has been 
found at Cnossus in Crete (see Sir Arthur Evans, T'he Palace of 


66 | 


BOOK IV. 78. 4-79. 3 


upon the very crag, by this means extending in an 
astonishing manner the overhanging ledge of the 
crag. Moreover, for the Aphrodité of Mt. Eryx, 
they say, he ingeniously constructed a golden ram, 
working it with exceeding care and making it the 
perfect image of an actual ram. Many other works 
as well, men say, he ingeniously constructed through- 
out Sicily, but they have perished because of the 
long time which has elapsed. 

19. Minos, the king of the Cretans, who was at that 
time the master of the seas, when he learned that 
Daedalus had fled to Sicily, decided to make a cam- 
paign against thatisland. After preparing a notable 
naval force he sailed forth from Crete and landed at a 
| place in the territory of Acragas which was called 
after him Minoa. Here he disembarked his troops 
and sending messengers to King Cocalus he de- 
manded Daedalus of him for punishment. But 
Cocalus invited Minos to a conference, and after 
promising to meet all his demands he brought him 
to his home as his guest. And when Minos was 
bathing Cocalus kept him too long in the hot water 
and thus slew him; the body he gave back to the 
Cretans, explaining his death on the ground that he 
had slipped in the bath and by falling into the hot. 
water had met his end. Thereupon the comrades of 
Minos buried the body of the king with magnificent 
ceremonies, and constructing a tomb of two storeys, 
in the part of it which was hidden underground they 
placed the bones, and in that which lay open to gaze 
they made a shrine of Aphrodité.! Here Minos 
received honours over many generations, the inhabit- 
"Minos, 4. 959 ff); the residence of the priest of the temple 
lay not far from the tomb. The discovery is striking evidence 
for the trustworthiness of many details of the old sagas. - 

z : 7 








— 7 


TX OK WkcowerqupRMME T mc 
Pe ce EE 


Lene enm z- 


CE XC 


DC C 
mrt eat ME. cin 


p xs 
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ERG 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


/, e^ ? / e 3 / » (^ 
Üvóvrow TÀv éyyopiv os 'Adpooirgs óvros ToO 
4 ved" karà 8é ro)s vewrépovs kapoUs KrwaÜelons 
pév Tfje rÀwv 'Akxpayavrivow aóAecs, yvoo0etons 
86 ríe rv óorüv Üécews, ovvéDy Tóv uév vádov 
kaÜatupeÜfjva,, rà 9" óor& vois Kpnotv àro8o0fjvat, 
Qjpcvos OvvaereDovros r&v "Axpayavrivov. 

5 O9) ux» GÀY. ot karà mij» ZuxeMav Kpfjyres pera. 
Tiv Míveos TeÀevri]v éovraciacav Oi c?» àvap- 
xíav, r&v 86 veOv Ono TÀv «epi vróv KokaAov 
XucavOv éumvpwÜewdv T)v pév eis Tàg waTpi- 
Gas émwávoOov dméyvoocav, kpivavres 9. .év «jj 
XukeAiq kooiwkeiv, oí uev évrab0a vóMv dkiwav 
jv dmó roD BaciMéws abrÓv MwQav ovóuacav, 
oí 8é Oià 7fjs ueooyetov aÀavroÜévres kai karaAa- 
Bópevoc x«optov óyvpóv écruwcav. móÓlv Tv àwó Tfjs 
év Tfj mÓÀe. geojogs mw«yíjs cvóuacav "Eyyvov. 

6 Dorepov O6 uerà * 77v Tfjs 1poias &Acow Mypivov 
ToÜ Kpnrós pocevexÜévros Tf; 23ukeMa, mpoo- 
eGéfavro To)Us koramAeócavras Kpfjyas Ou TTv 
cwyyéveuav ka& Tfs ToÀwve(as peréóocav, Óppd- 
p.evou 9^ é£ Oxvpás sóAews kai kacmamroAeujoavrés 
vivas TÓ Teptoikov iKavrv kaTekrY0ayTO Ycopav. 

7 àei 8é puGAAov a)fópevow, kai kaoraokevácavres 
éepov vrÀv M«répov, Oudópos éricev 7às eds, 
àvaO5uacu voAÀÀots koopoóvres TÓ iepóv aDTÓv. 
vraóras O' àdipvÜfva( $acw éx rfs Kporgs Gi 

! uerà Eichstádtb: xard. 





! 'Theron died in 472 m.c. after he had been tyrant of 
Acragas for sixteen years; ep. Book 11. 53. 

* Called Engyium by Plutarch, Marcellus, 20, where there, 
is an interesting instance of the awe which the inhabitants 
felt for the '* Mothers " mentioned below. 


68 


BOOK IV. 79. 31 


ants of the region offering sacrifices there in the 
belief that the shrine was Áphrodité's; but in more 
recent times, after the city ofthe Acragantinihad been 
founded and it became known that the bones had 
been placed there, it came to pass that the tomb was 
dismantled and the bones were given back to the 
Cretans, this being done when Theron! was lord over 
the people of Ácragas. 

However, the Cretans of Sicily, after the death of 
Minos, fell into factious strife, since they had no 
ruler, and, since their ships had been burned by the 
Sicani serving under Cocalus, they gave up any hope 
they had had of returning to their native land; and 
deciding to make their home in Sicily, a part of them 
established on that island a city to which they gave the 
name Minoa after their king, and others, after wander- 
ing about through the interior of the island, seized a 
place which was naturally strong and founded a city 
to which they gave the name Engyum? after the 
spring which flowed forth within the city. And at 
a later time, after the capture of Troy, when Meriones 
the Cretan came to shore in Sicily, they wel- 
comed, because of their kinship to them, the Cretans 
who landed with him and shared with them their 
citizenship; and using as their base a well-fortified 
city and having subdued certain of the neighbouring 
peoples, they secured for themselves a fairly large 
territory. And growing steadily stronger all the 
while they built a temple to the Mothers? and 
accorded these goddesses unusual honours, adorning 
their temple with many votive offerings. The cult 
of these goddesses, so men say, they moved from their 


$ The Sicilian counterpart. of the Mother Rhea of the 
Cretans, 
69 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


T0 kai capà rots Kpmgoi ruuGoÜat ràs Ücàs raras 
O.a.depóvros. 

80. MvÜoAoyotot "d abrás TO TüÀauÓv Gpéfa. 
TÓv Aía AáBpg. ToO varpos Kpóvov, dvO' Gv 
aDTüs eig TOV , odpavóv &vaPiBaoÜOfiva, kat kara- 
2 orepuaÜetoas GpKTOUS mpoca/yopevÜtvau- T€pi (v 
KaL Tóv Aparov cvup.dovobvra TOUTOis TeÜeucévas 
Ka rà TTv TÓy doTpcv votnaw, 


ejrmaAww eis  Gipous TeTpa4u.évat- LZ éreÓv ye 


Kpryrmtev ketva »ye Auós peyáAov i iórqrL 
oUpayóv. eicavéBnoav, ó pav TrÓT€ KovpiLovra 
Art €v e0cóOer O, ópeos. cxeóóv I8a£ow 
dvrpo éykaéDevro kai érpeóov eis évuavróv 
Aucrato, Kovpfyres óre Kpóvov éfevcavro. 


Ook déLov bé mrapaYurety Tiv epi vàs Üeás 
Gryvelay T€ kai TV Kar ávpdyrrous émujáveuav. 
Tue 9' abràs oU póvov oí raíTQv Tv móAw 
oikoDvres, dÀÀà kai Twes TÓv &AAcv mreptolcooy 
Üvoiais Te p.eyaAonpenéat kai ras dAAQUS Tua ts 
ü7oceuvóvovcu. TÓS eds. évícis 86 TróAeat kal 
TUÜóypnarot xpnopoi mpooéra£av Tuv Tüg Üeds- 
éceo0a. yàp TOS Toto roLs ToUs ve vOv iOwoTÓv 
Biovs «)0niuovas kal Tás TróÀets eDevijoew. 
TéÀos Oé mpoBiouvosars eni groAi Ts kaTrà Tàs 
Ücàs emidaveías, ot pév eyxdptot TroAÀo ts dvaj- 
paow dpyvpols kai Xpvooís O.eréAecav TuAOvres 
&xp. TÀvÓe TÓÀV ioTopuOv ypadopévew. —vev 


1 ]l. 4—5 added by Wesseling. 





* Phaenomena, 30-35 (tr. uy Majir in the L.C.L.). 
? $e, Engyum, — 


19 


BOOK IV. zg. 7-8o. 5 


home in Crete, since the Cretans also hold these 
goddesses in special honour. 

80. The account which the myths preserve of the 
Mothers runs like this: They nurtured Zeus of old 
without the knowledge of his father Cronus, in return 
for which Zeus translated them into the heavens and 
designated them as a constellation which he named 
the Bears. And Aratus! agrees with this account 
when he states in his poem on the stars: 


Turned backwards then upon their shoulders are 
The Bears; if true it be that they from Crete 
Into the heavens mounted by the will 

Of mighty Zeus, for that when he was babe 

In fragrant Dicton near th' Idaean mount 

They set him in a cave and nurtured him 

A year, the while Curetes Dictaean 

Practised deceit on Cronus. 


There is no reason why we should omit to mention 
the sanctity of these goddesses and the renown which 
they enjoy among mankind. They are honoured, 
indeed, not only by the inhabitants of this city, 
but certain of the neighbouring peoples also glorify 
these goddesses with magnificent sacrifices and every 
other kind of honour. Some cities were indeed 
commanded by oraeles from the Pythian god to 
honour the goddesses, being assured that in this way 
the lives of their private citizens would be blessed 
with good fortune and their cities would flourish. 
And in the end the renown of the goddesses advanced 
to such a degree that the inhabitants of this region 
have continued to honour them with many votive 
offerings in silver and gold down to the time of the 
writing of this history. For instance, a temple was 


71 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


pév yàp avrais kareakeUacay o) póvov TÓ peyé- 
gei Oiidopov, &4AAà kai Tf) vroAwreAeta Tj karà 
TÜV oikobopay PavpaLópevov: oUK éXovres yàp 
karà T?v iOíav xopav Aifov á£uóAoyov Tap TÓYV 
GcTUyevTÓVov "Ayupwatcov 3, jyoyov, TÓV uev TTÓAecov 
Dueorryvuóv ds ékaTÓv ora&iovs, Tfjs Y ó000 
àv US dváyyen kojutLea0ac ro9s AiDovs Ürrapyovans 
rpaxelas kai mravreMas Ovomopeórov: (Ov Tv 
airíay karaaieudoavres ,ápá£as Terpa.«ckAovs 
ékomov £ebyeot Bo&v ekópucay TÓV Atfov. Oud. 
yàp TÓ vAj0os Tív tepdv yp rov ebmopojLevot, 
Tfl OauAeia. Tfjs somopias Ümepetbov TÓYy àvaÀo- 
pray ppax) yàp "po Qv eityov at feai Boüs 
pév tepás rpuoytMas , xyopas 96 mAfjfos core Aap- 
Bávew ueyáAas srpooó jovs. 

81. '"Hpeís Oé vrepi TroUTOv &pkobvrav Svel- 
AvÜóres epi "Apioraiou ypádew éyxeunjaopev. 
" ApuoTa.tos yàp 5v vios pév '"AsóÀMovos kai 
Kuprvns Tfjs "Yjécs Üvyarpós TOÜ Ive 
mwepi 8€ Tfs yevécens ajro9 puBoAoyotct TES 
obras. '"AgóAAova, sepi rÓ llyAtv vpedouévas 
Kópms Svoua. Kvpyvns káAet Duabeposons, épacÓf- 
va. Tíjs mapÜévov, xai p.ereveykety. adr Tfjs 
Aufóns eis ,raUrqv Tv Xepav, év 1 Kam TOUS 
Üorepov xpóvovs Tt kricavra móAw a éketvrs 
óvop&aau Évprjenv. TOv O' ov "AqróAAo kaTà 
TOÓTTQV Tw Xdpav ek Kuprivus yevriícavra viov 

purralov Toürov pv vijmov óvTG mra paBoGvaa 
rais Npuous vpédew: raras 86 vd) wai Tpeis 





1 The native city of Diodorus. 


72 


a Ar 


BOOK IV. 8o. 5-81. 2 


built there for them which not only excels in size but 
also occasions wonder by reason of the expense 
incurred in its construction; for since the people had 
no suitable stone in their own territory they brought 
it from their neighbours, the inhabitants of Agyrium,! 
though the cities were nearly one hundred stades 
apart and the road by which they had to transport 
the blocks were rough and altogether hard to traverse. 
For this reason they constructed wagons with four 
wheels and transported the stone by the use of one 
hundred span of oxen. Indeed, because of the vast 
quantity of the sacred properties of the temple they 
were so plentifully supplied with means that, by 
reason of their abundant prosperity, they took no 
account of the expense; for only a short time before 
our day the goddesses possessed three thousand head 
of sacred cattle and vast holdings of land, so that they 
were the recipients of great revenues. 

81. But now that we have discoursed upon these 
matters at sufficient length, we shall next undertake 
to write about Aristaeus.  Aristaeus was the son of 
Apollo and Cyrené, the daughter of Hypseus the son 
of Peneius, and the manner of his birth is given by 
certain writers of myths as follows: Apollo became 
enamoured of a maiden by the name of Cyrené,? 
who was reared in the neighbourhood of Mt. Pelion 
and was of surpassing beauty, and he carried her off 
from there to that part of the land of Libya where in 
later times he founded a city and named it, after her, 
Cyrené. Now Apollo begat by Cyrené in that land 
à son Áristaeus and gave him while yet a babe into 
the hands of the Nymphs to nurture, and the latter 


? (p. the account of Apollo and Cyrené in Pindar, Pythian 
Odes, 9. 5. ff. 
73 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


óvopu.acias mrpoacajat- kaÀetv yàp aróv Nópuov, 
" Apiaratov, "Aypéa.. ToUrov Bé sapà vOv Nvn- 
$àv paBóvra Tí T€ TOÜ ydAoucros ew Kai TÜV 
karackeviy TÓv ocuxvov, ert O6 Tv éAauQv TT 
karepyaaíay, &i8á tas vpóyrov TOUS avÜpdymovs. 
0d Óé Tiv eÜypqoríav Tiv ék robTcv vv eópn- 
pra TOUS eDepyernÜévras ávÜpchmrovs ruufjoau 
TOv 'Ápwraiov icoÜéow Twuats, kaÜd kai TOv 
Atóvvaov. 

Merà 8é rabrá. doow aorOv eis Bowríav korav- 
T'jcavra yfjpat cv Kdópuov Üvyarépcov Abrovógv, 
éÉ Ts $acw " Àkrécova yevéoUa. TÓV KQTÀ TOUS 
uilovs bó TÓv Ov kvvi SuxomracÜévza. 
Tv 9 airíay ázro0.06a01 Tfjs Grvxías oL pev ÓTL 
karü TÓ TÍS "Apréjubos iepóv Ou TÓV üvaTi- 
Üepéveov dkpoDwiav éK TÓV  Kuviyytcov mporpetro 
TÓv yápov karepydoao0a. Tíjs "AprepaBos, oí 8 


ÓTt Tíjs "AprépaBos aoróy TppuTeUemy Tas KkvvQ- 


yiaus &medivoro. oUK GmíDavov 06 ém Gp. poré- 
pows Tobrois umvisaa T Ücóv- etre yàp ,Toís 
dÀtokoprévois mrpós TT)V GKowdvrrov TOS ydpuots 
karexpfiro mrpós TÓ GUvTeÀéoat TV iotav emvpav, 
evre xai TOUTT)S éróAunoe ebreiv aipercTepov 
aDTÓY etyaa kvviyyóv 7 «ai «oi vrapaicexcopij- 
Kaci Tfjs ev TOÓTOLS ipis, ópoAoyovp.évqv Ka 
Oucadav ópy?v &axe Trpós aUTOV 1 0eós. | ka8óAov 
8e miÜavéás eis Tiv TÓY  GAtakopLévcov Ünpicov pera- 
popéoels iOéav oO vÀv kai TÀÀÀa Ünpía yewpov- 
pévow kvvàv 9d0ápn. 





1 $.e. to make cheese. 
74 | | 


inue 


Be edes 


Ec T EON 


Qr ec odes iagg ur 


ey 


— iE 


perro c — di 


Ames 


E 


H 

D 

" 

1 
D 








BOOK IV. 81. 2-5 


bestowed upon him three different names, calling 
him, that is, Nomius, Aristaeus, and Agreus. Le 
learned from the Nymphs how to eurdle milk! to 
make bee-hives, and to cultivate olive-trees, and was 
the first to instruct men in these matters. And 
because of the advantage which came to them from 
these discoveries the men who had received his 
benefactions rendered to Aristaeus honours equal to 
those offered to the gods, even as they had done in 
the case of Dionysus. 

Afterthis,they say, Áristaeus went to Boeotia, where 
he married one of the daughters of Cadmus, Autonoé, 
to whom was born Ácteon, who, as the myths relate, 
was torn to pieces by his own dogs. "The reason for 
this bad turn of fortune of his, as some explain it, was 
that, presuming upon his dedication to Artemis of the 
first-fruits of his hunting, he purposed to consummate 
the marriage with Artemis at the temple of the god- 
dess, but according to others, it was because he re- 
presented himself as superior to Artemis in skill as a 
hunter. But itis not incredible that it was for both 
these reasons that the goddess became angry; for 
whether Ácteon made an improper use of the spoils 
of his hunting to satisfy his own desire upon her who 
has no part in marriage, or whether he was so bold as 
to assert that as a hunter he was to be preferred above 
her before whom even gods withdraw from rivalry in 
the chase, all would agree. that the goddess was 
justified in having become indignant at him.  Ánd, 
speaking generally, we may well believe that, when 
he had been changed into the form of one of the 
animals which he was wont to hunt, he was slain by 
the dogs which were accustomed to prey upon the 
other wild beasts. | 


15 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


82. Tóv 8' '" Apworatóv $aoct uerà T?)v ' Akréovos 
TcÀeur]]v éAÜetv eis TÓ xpuorípiov ToD rwrpós, 
kai vOv 'AsóAMo «poeuretv aDTQ T)v eis Kéwv 
vijcov nueráBacw écouévqw a)roÜ kai ràs écoué- 
vas rapà rois Keíois riuds. —«óv D mAÀe0cas uév 
els 77)v vfjcov ravrqv, Aouto0 96 5v 'EAAd9a. kara- 
cyóvros mowjcacÜa. Trzv Üvoiav jmwép dmávrovw 
TÀOv 'EXMjvov.  yevouévgs 96 cíjs Üvotas xarà 
Tv ToU cewíov á&orpov émvroAQv, kaÜ' Tv owvé- 
fowe sveiv Toós érgoías, Affe. màs Aowwkds 
vócovus.  Trobro O. àv mis cvAAoyiLónevos eikórcs 
Üavpuácau TÓ Tíjs srepumeretas iOL.0v: Ó yàp mo 
TÓVv kvvüv inv TÓv viov TereÀevrqkÓTa, oÜUTros 
TÓVv karà rÓv o)pavóv dovpow TÓ T)v abT?v éyov 
mpooyopiav kat dOeipew vopaLOj|.evov Toos àvÜpo- 
TOUS Ézavce, kal rois GÀÀow airios éyévero cíjs 
ocrnpítas. 

Aéyovou. 8é TÓv 'Ápwratov éryóvovs év «fj 
Kéc karaAwmóvra, xat perà vabra eis ry. AuBóqv 
ézaveA0óvra,| $wm0? 4s pwqrpós Nóu$«gs ^w 
àvayc'yi?v owcáuevov «eis T)v 2apóo vícov 
karoamAeUca..  év Oé cTaUTg karounwjcavra, kai 
v5v víjcov 04 v0 káAos orépfavra, $óvreücal re 
aoT)v ka& TO mpórepov é£wypuopuévqv fuepáoa. 
yevvíjca, 8 év adr1j 9vo vai8as, Xdápuov kai KaAM- 
Kaprov.  peràü O6 raüra dAAas Te vioovus émeA- 
Üetv kai karà r)jv 2ukeAMav 8wrpülat rwa. ypóvov, 

1 For éraveMóvra, Wurm suggests ézucAyBévra. 
* oro MSS., Bekker, ànó Wesseling, Dindorf, Vogel, 

! i.e. another name for Sirius: was the '* Dog-star." 
mis i.e. he could not save his own son, but he saved everyone 


76 





BOOK IV. 82. 1-5 


82. As for Áristaeus, after the death of Acteon, we 
are told, he went to the oracle of his father, Apollo, 
who prophesied to him that he was to change his 
home to the island of Ceos and told him likewise of the 
honours which would be his among the Ceans. To 
this island he sailed, but since a plague prevailed 
throughout Greece the sacrifice he offered there was 
on behalf of all the Greeks. |. And since the sacrifice 
was made at the time of the rising of the star Sirius, 
which is the period when the etesian winds customarily 
blow, the pestilential diseases, we are told, came to 
an end. Now the man who ponders upon this event 
may reasonably marvel at the strange turn which 
fortune took ; for the same man who saw his son done 
to death by the dogs likewise put an end to the 
influence of that star which, of all the stars of heaven, 
bears the same name! and is thought to bring 
destruction upon mankind, and by so doing was 
responsible for saving the lives of the rest? 

We are further informed that Aristaeus left 
descendants behind on the island of Ceos and then 
returned to Libya, from where he set forth with the 
aid of his mother, à Nymph,? and put ashore on the 
island of Sardinia. Here he made his home, and 
since he loved the island because of its beauty, he set 
out plantings in it and brought it under cultivation, 
whereas formerly it had lain waste. Here he begat 
two sons, Charinus and Callicarpus. And after this - 
he visited other islands and spent some time in Sicily, 

3 The text is corrupb; in the preceding chapter it is stated 
that Aristaeus was reared by ^ the Nymphs " and there is no 
suggestion that his mother Cyrené was & nymph. Diodorus 
may have written: ''led (or persuaded) by Nyrmphé (or by a 
nymph), who was a friend of his mother, Aristaeus set forth, 


etc," 
14 








Vulp n I un i 
SEE Files std 
AUR Tus 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


8ià 86 civ ddÜovíav r&v év «fj vijlog kaprráv ai 
TO aAfjÜlos r&v év airfj Bookouévcv krqvàv duorc- 
uuÜSva. Tots éyycpíous  évOcitacÜa, às iOuas 
e)epyeoiag. 910 kal map rots karà m» 2ukeAMav 
oikotot Su. depóvros aoi ru Üjvas Tóv '" Apioratov 
ds Üeóv, kai páAoÜ! $mó TOv ovykojLóvrcw 
TOv Tíje éAa(ag kapmóv.  TÓ Óé reAevratov puvÜo- 
Aoyoücw aOrÓv eis Opdkw» vapaBaÀóvra pos 
Auóvucov qeraoyetv cTÓv Opyiov, kai ocuvói- 
vpübavra Td ÜeQ soAAà uaÜctv wap! abro8 Tv 
xpnatpev: -zepl 9é T0 Ópos TO kaAoUuevov Ainov 
oucjcavrá wa xpóvov àóavrov vyevéoÜoi, xai 
Tvxyetv. dÜavárcv Tiv o) uóvov évraüUa szapàá 
Tois BapfBápow, àÀAà kat erapá rots "EAMQo1. 

83. Kal wepi pév! 'Apwraiov Tols QnÜeiow 
ápkeoÜnoópeÜa, epi 86 AdówB8os kai "Epvkos 
qeupacóp.e0a  OwADetv. "Epukd d$aow viv uév 
yevéa0a, ' Adpo8irqs kai Bosra, DaciAécns TtwÓs 
éyxopiov Bótm Sua. óépovros" Trobrov 86 ouk TY 
dmó Tfj purpós eyéveuw Üavuac0fval ve Ümó 
TÀVv Ééyycpiov kai Bacoue0ca. uépous cfjs vijcov. 
krica. O06 kai sóAw d£ióAoyov Opdvvpov aórQ, 
keuiévyv émi Twos vw9Ào0 vózov: korà O6 cj 
G4«pav Tiv év Tj mÓAÀev Tíjs uvrpós iepóv (OpU- 
cacÜmu,, xai kocuüca. Tjj Te karackevj o0 
veo kai vQ mXjÜe TOv üvaÜnudrov.  -T)v 8é 
Ücóv Bi ce Tv dmÓ TÓÀv éyycpiov e?oéfeav 
kaií Oià Tv dmÓ coU TekvoÜévros vio Twuwv 
dyazíjoau mepwvrrórepov cT]v sóAw- Bimep aÜrTw 


1 So Dindorf: koi abra uév mepí. 





* ie, on Mount Eryx. 


78 


BOOK IV. 82. :-83. 2 


where, because of the abundance of the fruits on the 
island and the multitude of flocks and herds which 
grazed there, he was eager to display to its inhabitants 
the benefaetions which were his to bestow. Con- 
sequently among the inhabitants of Sicily, as men 
say, Áristaeus received especial honour as a god, in 
particular by those who harvested the fruit ofthe olive- 
tree. And finally, as the myths relate, he visited 
Dionysus in Thrace and was initiated into his secret 
rites, and during his stay in the company of the god 
he learned from him much useful knowledge. And 
after dwelling some time in the neighbourhood of 
Mount Haemus he never was seen again of men, and 
became the recipient of immortal honours not only 
among the barbarians of that region but among the 
Greeks as well. 

83. But as regards AÁristaeus we shall rest content 
with what has been said, and we shall next endeavour 
to set forth what relates to Daphnis and Eryx. "This 
is whatis told of them : Eryx was a son of Aphrodité - 
and Butas, a certain native king of Sicily of very 
great fame, and he was admired by the natives . 
because of his noble birth on his mother's side and 
became king over a part of the island. He also 
founded a notable city which bore his name; it was 
set upon a lofty place, and on the highest point! 
within the city he established a shrine of his mother, 
which he embellished not only with a beautifully 
built temple, but also with the multitude of his 
dedications. The goddess, both because of the 
reverence which the inhabitants of the region paid 
to her and because of the honour which she received 
from the son whom she had borne, displayed an 
exceptional love for the city, and for this reáson she 


19 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


' AópoBirqv "Epuktvgv óvouacÜfjvo.. | Üavpáca, 9 
dv Tig elkórox; àvaAoywápevos T'jv mepi TÓ Lepóv 
Toro yevouévgv 8ó£av: và uév yàp dÀÀa Teuévm 
dvÜjcavra cats O9ófaus moAAákig OuÀ mrepiaráaews 
Tivàs erameivcrau, póvov O0é ToÜro cv! éf 
ailQvos dpyjv AaBoóv o)v0émore OuAwre  TuiO- 
pevov, GÀÀà kal voUvavriov dei OteréAeoe TroAMjs 
Tvyxávov ajf(ceos.  perà yàp Trüs mpoewmnuévas 
iz "Epukos rtuàs vorepov Áiveías ó '"AdpoOírns 
vÀécv eis '"lraMav xai mpoooppuoÜeis Tfj wvoq 
zoAofs dvaDóuaci TÓ iepóv, às àv iBías wrpós 
Órápxov, ékóopumoe: pquerü O6 voürov éri moAAas 
yeveüs Ttuvres oí 2ikavot Tiv Üeóv Üvoiaus Te 
peyaÀomperéow avvexós kai àvaÜsjuaciw éxóopovv: 
perà 8é rabra Kapynóówwow, uépovs Tfj$ 3ukeAMas 
KvpweUcayres, o0 OuAÀvrov  Tuvres TT»  Üeóv 
O.udepóvros. | TO O06 TeÀAevratov *Popatot, eáons 
ZukeAMas kparoavres, omepeDáAovro wávras roUs 
TpO a)rüv ais eis TraUTQv Tias. kai ToUTo 
eikórcos érrotovv: TÓ yàp 'yévos eis raUrqv dvaméyur- 
ovres, kai Ouà Toro év TaÍs mpá£eow émwvrvyeis 
Ovres, v?v airíiav Tíjs ajÉyoecs )»)Leifovro cats 
mpocnkoócdus xápuci. xai Tuíais. oi pev yàp 
karavrüvres eis TT]v víjcov Üzarou kai orparmyyoL 
kai vávres oi uerá vwos éfovoías éwmiwuobvres, 
éreidày eis TOv "Epvka mapafáAwot peyaAa- 


! cy Wettstein: rí».- 


8o 


BOOK IV. 83. 2-6 


came to be called Eryeinian Aphrodité. And a 
man may well be filled with wonder when he stops 
to sum up the fame which has gathered about this 
shrine; all other sanctuaries have indeed enjoyed a 
flush of fame, but frequently sundry happenings have 
brought them low, whereas this is the only temple 
which, founded as it was at the beginning of time, 
not only has never failed to be the object of venera- 
tion but, on the contrary, has as time went on ever 
continued to enjoy great growth. For after Eryx 
has bestowed upon it the honours we have described, 
Aeneas, the son of Aphrodité, when ata later time 
he was on his way to Italy and came to anchor 
off the island, embellished the sanctuary, since it 
was that of his own mother, with many votive 
offerings; after him the Sicanians paid honour to 
the goddess for many generations and kept con- 
tinuallp embellishing it with both magnificent 
sacrifices and votive offerings; and after that 
time the Carthaginians, when they bad become the 
masters of a part of Sicily, never failed to hold the 
goddess in special honour. And last of all the 
Romans, when they had subdued all Sicily, surpassed 
all people who had preceded them in the honours they 
paid to her. And it was with good reason that they 
did so, for since they traced back their ancestry to 
her and for this reason were successful in their 
undertakings, they were but requiting her who was 
the cause of their aggrandisement with such ex- 
pressions of gratitude and honours as they owed to 
her. The consuls and praetors, for instance, who 
visit the island and all Romans who sojourn there 
clothed with any authority, whenever they come to 
Eryx, embellish the sanctuary with magnificent 


ex 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


apeméat Üvoiats kal ruuGis Kocpobcu TÓ Téu€vos, 
xal 7Ó oxyvÜperóv Tíjs é£ovoías dmoÜéuevot pera- 
jj BáAAovoiw elg aai&iàg kal yvvaukcdv ópiMas per 
5 zoAMjs Aapórnros, uóvcs oor vopuitovres kexopua- 
uévqv vfj ÜeQ woujcew T)v éavrÓv wapovoiav: 
7 d$ re cykÀnros TV *Popaiv eis ràs Tíjs Üco0 
cuuàs dioruiÜetaa ràs uv migToráTas vÓv kará 
civ XueMav wóÀecv obcas érrakaiBeka, ypvoo- 
dopetv éOoypdmiwe Tfj 'Adpo8try kai ovparuwóTas 
^ . 6ukoociovs Tüpetv TÓ iepóv. 
Do Kai sepi pév "Epukos el kai semAÀeovákaguev, 
àAX o$v olkelav mwemowjueÜa civ mepl vf 0e&s 
drrayyeAav. 

84. Nuvi 8é wepl AddwiBos meipacópe0a OLeA- 
ctv à pvÜoAoyoUpeva. 'Hpota yàp 8pm Ko Tá, 
v)v XueMav. éovív, & aot káAMet ve kai día iai 
cómo. lBuórgow mpós Üepwi]v Gveaw kai ámóAovow 
eÜ «edukévoi.  moMs Te yàp mwyàs €xew T[) 
yÀekórgri TOv ÜOóárcv Swdjópovs koi 8évÓpeot 
- mavroíous  memo)póotaa. elva. 86 Kai Opvàv 
. peydáÀew mAj8os, óepovaüv kapmóv TÓ peyéüe 
^ S.aAAderrovra, OvrAaciáLovra TÀv év vais &AÀAaus 
ydpous dvouévov. Éxew Dé kai vÀv T)Aépcov 
— kapmóv abrojrev, djmréAov e vroAMijs óvopérgs 
2 xai püAcv dpwÜdjrov «XjÜovs. Oi kai oTpaTó- 
zeBóv more KapywOoviov Ómó ApoU m«wLópevov 
S.aDpéliat, mapexopévev v pv soM ats popiot 
yopr]ylas eis rpodi]v &vékAeurrov. 

'"E» raór] Bé vf xópg ocwvoykeías Oévüpow 












s 
| 


pumice 
ETE 


e zm 


CRUS 
ES 


mnes 


diee 
P RO 
X 


BOOK IV. 85. 6-84. 2 


sacrifices and honours, and laying aside the austerity 
of their authority, they enter into sports and have 
conversation with women in a spirit of great gaiety, 
believing that only in this way will they make their 
presence there pleasing to the goddess. Indeed 
the Roman senate has so zealously concerned itself 
with the honours of the goddess that it has decreed 
that the seventeen cities of Sicily which are most 
faithful to Rome shall pay a tax in gold to Aphrodite, 
and that two hundred soldiers shall serve as a guaxd 
of her shrine. 

Now if we have dwelt over-long on the topic of 
Eryx, we have at least given an account of the 
goddess such as was rightly her due. 

84. At this time we shall endeavour to set forth 
what the myths relate concerning Daphnis. There 
are in Sicily, namely, the Heraean Mountains, which, 
men say, are naturally well suited, by reason of the 
beauty and nature and special character of the region 
round about, to relaxation and enjoyment in the 
summer season. For they possess many springs of 
exceptionally sweet water and are full of trees of 
every description. On them also is a multitude of 
great oak-trees which bear fruit of extraordinary 
size, since it is twice as large as any that grows in 
other lands. And they possess as well some of the 
cultivated fruits, which have sprung up of their own 


accord, since the vine is found there in profusion and 


iree-fruits in quantities beyond telling. Conse- 
quently the area once supported a Carthaginian 
army when it was facing starvation, the mountains 
supplying many tens of thousands of soldiers with 
sources of food for their unfailing sustenance. 

It was in this region, where there were glens filled 


83 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ofogs Ücompewoüs kai Nógóais dAcovs dveuiévov 
puÜoAoyotot even fva. vov óvouatógevov Aádvw, 
*Epuob uév kai Nóudms vióv, àzó 8€ ro vAcgovs 
kai rfje vvkvórqros Ts jvouévgs Oádvgs cvoud- 
cÜa. Aádwvw.  Toürov 9 ónó Nvujóv rpadjévra, 
kai Bodv dyéAas mapmAgÜets kexrnguévov, rosrwv 
moLetoÜau.  moÀM)v  émuéAewav: — Àj! Ts  airías 
BoukóAov a)róv óvouaoÜSva.. | jécev 06 Qiudópo 
7pós e)uéAewav keyopxyynuévov éfevpety v0 ov- 
koAucóv Toinua kai uéAos, 6 péxpu ToU vüv kará 
T)» XueAMav  rvyyáve)  Owévov  év | dmoOoyf. 
puuÜoAoyobo: 86 cóv Aádww uerà Tífs '"ApréuOos 
kuvmyetv  jmpperoüvra Tj ÜeQ  kexyapwpuévcos, 
kal Ou Tfs ocüpwyyos kai BovkoAufjs ueAqOías 
répmew ajr)v Oudjepóvros.  Aéyovow 9' abro0 
píav  TÀÓv Nvuéóv épaoÜctoav poewretv, éàv 
dÀÀm vii wAÀqoiáom, crep/oeoÜa. Tfs Opáoecns' 
KdKeivov Omó Tivos Üvyoarpós DaoiuMéws kara- 
pe0voOévra, kai vÀqowucavra abTf, orepnÜSva. 
Tfs Ópácens karà T)v yeyevquévgyv ÜDmó cfe 
Nónóns cpóppqow. kaiaepi uév Adádwióos ikavés 
7piv etprjoOo. | 

85. IIlept 8é 'Qpivos và qwÜoAoyosueva vv 
Oué£wuuev.  Meyerau yàp robrov odpuoros peyéOet ial 
pop ToÀ) TÀv uwrnpuovevouévov 3)pdxwv vrepdyovra. 
duÀokóvoyov yevéoÜat kai karaokevdcat peyáAa 
épya Ouà T)v ioy)v Kali $uAo8ofíav.  koarà pév 
yàp Tiv 2XukeÀav karaokevácat ZáykAq 7 TÓóTe 
paciuebovr. 7íjs Tóre puév ám a)DroU ZáykXgs, 
uh de 0 LUI MIN ur AN SNL S 

* "Thucydides (6. 4. 5) says that the Sicels gave it this name 


because the place was sickle-shaped; *''for the Sicels call a 
&ickle zanclon."* | 


84 


BOOK IV. 84. 2-85. 1 


with trees and meet for a god and a grove consecrated 
to the Nympbhs, that, as the myths relate, he who was 
known as Daphnis was born, a son of Hermes and a 
Nymph, and he, because of the sweet bay (daphné) 
which grew there in such profusion and so thick, was 
given the name Daphnis. He wasreared by Nymphs, 
and since he possessed very many herds of cattle and 
gave great attention to their care, he was for this 
reason called by the name Bucolus or '* Neatherd." 
And being endowed with an unusual gift of song, 
he invented the.bucolic or pastoral poem and the 
bucolie song which continues to be so popular 
throughout Sicily to the present day. The myths 
add that Daphnis accompanied Artemis in her 
hunting, serving the goddess in an acceptable manner, 
and that with his shepherd's pipe and singing of 
pastoral songs he pleased her exceedingly. The 
story is also told that one of the Nymphs became 
enamoured of him and prophesied to him that if 
he lay with any other woman he would be deprived 
of his sight; and indeed, when once he had been 
made drunken by a daughter of a king and had 
lain with her, he was deprived of his sight in 
accordance with the prophecy delivered by the 
Nymph. As for Daphnis, then, let what we have 
said suffice. | | 

85. We shall now recount what the myths relate 
- about Orion. "The story runs like this: Orion, far 
surpassing in size and strength of body all the heroes 
of whom we have record, was a lover of the chase and 
the builder of mighty works by reason of his great 
strength and love of glory. In Sicily, for instance, 
for Zanclus, who was king at that time of the city 
which was called at that time after him Zanclé,! 


85 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


vüv Gé Mecojyos óvopa.bopévrs, &AÀa T€ Kai TOV 
Auséva, mpooxdoavra mv ovop.abopévqv "Arr 
vovicau. émei O6 mis Meconjvus epo "uev, 
0UK &volicevov mrpooUeivat vouíLopev Tos Tipoket- 
pévots. Tüs epi TOV zropÜuóv Svyyrjoeis. $aci 
yàp oí sraYauot puÜoypádo: Tiv £ukcAMav TÓ Tpó 
TOÜ Xsppóvnaov o)cay Porepov yevéa&a. víjoov 
9. rota ras airíias.  rÓv ioÜnov kaTà TÓ OTevÓ- 
TOTOV Óó Ovotv mrÀeupav ÜBoArTQ : mpoakXvLó- 
pevoy dvappoyfjvat, Koi TÓy TómOV &TÓ TOÜTOU 
Prfytor óvouacÜ$vaw kai viv Üorepov. zroMotis 
éT€ot kruÜetaav TÓAw  TvXetv Ts. Op.covópiov 
"rpoomyoptas. évto, O6 Aéyovau geo uv peyáAov 
yevopéva Suapparyf]vat TOV aGUxéva Ts rymeipov, 
Kai yevéaQau TOV mopÜnóv. Bveupyovas Tfs 0aÀdr- 
TIS TV rreupov dz Tfjs vjoov. "Hoto8os- o 
Ó mrouyrijs $yot TOÜVAVTLOV Gvamemrajuévov TOÜ 
qreAdoyyovs. "picva, pooxóoat T0 karà Tiv ILeAc- 
pióa ketip.evov óKporrijptov, kal cTÓ Tépievos TOÜ 
Iloceióóvos koraokevácat, Tuuuevov mo TÓÀv 
éyxcopteov Ouadepóvrons TaÓTa, Óé Svampasápuevov 
eis Edfou peravaovfjvat Küket karowcfjoau- uà 
06 T)v Oófav év rots kac oUpayóv d OTpots Kürr- 
apiOpÜévra TUxetv dÜavárov pj. qrept ob 
Kai $ vovyr)s "Oumqpos év vj Nekvig puuvqokó- 


pevós. $t, 
! So Vogel (cf. 1. 31. 2): Ae 





.1 ** Promontory." . 
* "The present Séraits of Messina. 
* Rhegium. | 
* Erg. 183 (Astronomia. 18), Rzach. 
* The northeast tip of Sicily. ^ $5 Odyssey, 11. 572-5. 


96 


BOOK IV. 85. 1-6 


but now Messené, he built certain works, and among 
them he formed the harbour by throwing up a mole 
and made the Acté,! as it is called. And since we 
have mentioned Messené we think it will not be 
foreign to our purpose to add to what has been set 
forth thus far what men have written about the 
Strait "The ancient mythographers, that is, say 
that Sicily was originally a peninsula, and that after- 
ward it became an island, the cause being somewhat 
as follows. "The isthmus at its narrowest point was 
subjected to the dash of the waves of the sea on its 
two sides and so a gap (rhegma) was made (anar- 
rhegnustkai), and for this reason the spot was named 
Hhegion, and the city? which was founded many 
years later received the same appellation as the place. 
Some men say, however, that mighty earthquakes 
took place and the neck of what was the mainland 
was broken through, and in this way the Strait was 
formed, since the sea now separated the mainland 
from the island. But the poet Hesiod * states the 
very opposite, namely, that when the sea extended 
itself in between, Orion built out the headland which 
lies at Peloris 5 and also erected there the sanctuary 
of Poseidon which is held in special honour by the 
natives; after he had finished these works he 
removed to Euboea and made his home there; and 
then, because of his fame, he was numbered among 
the stars of heaven and thus won for himself immortal 
remembrance. And he is also mentioned by the 
poet Homer in his " Necuia " ? when he says: 


7 This is the title which the ancients gave to the eleventh 
Book of the Odyssey, which contains the story of the descent 
* of Odysseus into the underworld and of his meetings with the 
dead. ) | 


87 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


vóv 8é uéz* "Opicva seAópvov eloevónoa 

0jpas óuo0 eiAcÜvra. kar ácdo8eAÓv Aeuiva, 

ojc abrOs karémeóvev év oiomóAoww Opeoon, 

xepotv &ycov pósraAov qraryyáAkeov, aiév &aryés. 
Op.oicog O6 kai mepi ToU peyéDovs éujavibov, koi 
epoekÜéjevos à sepi roUe '"AMoá8as, Órt évva- 
eretg Jjoav TÓ uev epos aryy&v évvéa, ró O6 ufikos 
TÓV ioc Ópyvuv, émióépet, 

ToUs 07) uxkitoovs Üpébe CeiGcpos dpovpa 

Kai vroÀ) kaAMorovs uerá ye kÀAvróv "Qpicva. 

"Huets 96 xarà 72v év üpyfj mpó0eow repli rv 
Jpocov kai QUWÜéov àpkovvrcs cipnkóres aTo0 
srepvypdalojuev 1 mv8e 73v BiBAov. 

: So Wesseling : zapaypáilouev. 


88 


D—— 


BOOK IV. 8s. 6-7 


And after him I marked Orion huge, 
Driving wild beasts together o'er the mead 
Of asphodel, the beasts that he himself 
Had slain on lonely hills; and in his hands 
He held à mace, ever unbroken, all 

Of bronze. 


Likewise, to show forth also his great size, whereas 
he had spoken before of the Aloiadae,! that at nine 
years of age they were nine cubits in breadth and 
an equal.number of fathoms in height, he adds :? 


These were the tallest men that ever earth, 
Giver of grain, did rear, and goodliest 
By far, save for Orion, famed abroad. 


But for our part, since we have spoken, in accord- 
ance with the plan which we announced at the 
beginning, at sufficient length about the heroes and 
demigods, at this point we shall close the present 
Book. 


* Otus and Ephialtes, the sons of Aloeus and Iphimedeia, 
? Odyssey, 11. 309—10. $ Cp. chap. 1. 5. 


89 





rt BOOK V 





VOL. Ill. D 





Táóe &veortwv év Tfj méum T, TÓÀV 


Awo8cpov BiBAdv 


Iepi TV o oXoyovpévay. Kürà Tijv XukeAíav kal To 
c XfjpaTos kal jey£Oovs TS vij ov. 

lei AdájxQrpos kai Kópys kal 72s e0péc os ToU vrvpíivov 
kaproi. 

Leo Aurápas kai vy &AXov TOv. AloA(Gov kaXovuévov 
vicav. 

IIeoi MeAírygs kal l'aYAov kal Kepkívgs. 

Ilepi 19e AlÜaA«(as * kai Kipvov kal ZapOóvos. 

Ilepi Ilirvovoo gs kai vOv v6jcev TOv lvuvgaieov, ds 
Twes BoAwpíoas óvouátovot. 

ILept vrüv év dkeavQ vájcov TOv  "wpós éoamépov 
Keu.évoy. 

ILepi TÍS Bperravufjs * vijrov Kai Ts óvopu.a£ouévns Ba- 
c'Ae(as kaB' Tv TO TjXekrpov yiveraa. 

ILepi T'aAarías Kai KeArtf8pías, € éru 8. Ifnpías kal Ac 
yvoTiKis Kai Tvppqvías, kai TQv év caUrats korouobvrov, 
TícL XpGvrau vouip.ots. 

ILei TOV kaTà Tiv peau Bpíxv éy dkeavQ vij av, rijs 
T€ Iepüs óvopabopérgs Kal Ts Iloyxoías,. Kai TOV £V 

3 
abrats Lropovj.évav. 

IIepi ZioLoÜpdkys KGl TÀYy & abry wvcoTopiov. 

Ilepi Ná£ov ka Xóums kai KoAóóvys. 

ILepi "PóOov xai TOv kar' abr3v pvÜoXoyovp.évov. 


1 Cf. ch. 13: Alf'aMas. 
* IIperravuctjs D, Vogel. 


92 





l 


CONTENTS OF THE FIFTH BOOK OF 
DIODORUS ] 


On the myths which are recounted about Sicily 
and the shape and size of the island (chap. 2). 

On Demeter and Coré and the discovery of the 
fruit of wheat (chaps. 3-6). 

On Lipara and the other islands which are called 
the Aeolides (chaps. 7-11). 

On Melité, Gaulus, and Cercina (chap. 12). 

On Aethaleia, Cyrnus (Corsica), and Sardinia 
(chaps. 13-165). 

On Pityussa and the Gymmnesiae islands, which 
some call the Baliarides (chaps. 16—18). 

On the islands in the ocean which lie towards the 
west (chaps. 19-20). 

On the island of Britain and that called Basileia, 
where amber is found (chaps. 21-23). 

On Gaul, Celtiberia, Iberia, Liguria, and Tyrrhenia, 
and on the inhabitants of these countries and the 
customs they observe (chaps. 24—40). 

On the islands in the ocean to the south, both the 
one ealled Hiera and that called Panchaea, and on 
what they are said to contain (chaps. 41—46). 

On Samothrace and,the mysteries celebrated on 
the island (chaps. 47-49). — ! 

On Naxos and Symé and Calydna (chaps. 50-54). 

On Rhodes and the myths which are recounted 
concerning it (chaps. 55-59). 

: 93 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


IIepi X«ppovijaov Tfs ávrarépay rijs Poóías keuterrs. 

TIeoi Kpírys Kol TOv é&v ab)Try WuÜoXkoyovpévov uéxpi 
TÓV veoTépov Kaupày. 

IIepi Ao ov kal r&v eis Xíov kaí Záyov koi Kóv kai 
ty / 3 ^ £o 0X L4 
Pó6ov ázoua&v $ró Maxkapéws. 

Hi * 2 b ^ 1 3 5 P^ M P^ [4 M 

epu 'Tevébov kai ToU kar abrTv olkiw0jL0U Kaül TOV WTO 

"Teve8cov srepi Térvov pvÜcvouérov. 

Ileoi rTüv KvkAdóov vjoov Tv éAarTrÓvov 
vró Miívoos. 


b 7 
OLKLO JL.OU 


! Kal Tvyovo cov after éAarróvos omitted by D, Vogel. 


94 


"n 








i, 


CONTENTS OF FIFTH BOOK OF DIODORUS 


On the Cherronesus which lies over against the 
territory of Rhodes (chaps. 60-63). 

On Crete and the myths which are recounted 
about it, down to comparatively recent times (chaps. 

64—80 

en and the colonies which were led by 
Macareus to Chios, Samos, and Cos (chaps. 81-82). 

On Tenedos, the colonization of the island, and the 
fabulous tales told by the Tenedians about Tennes 
(chap. 83). 

On the colonization by Minos of the islands of the 
smaller Cyclades (chap. 84). 


95 





NS rU 
veda r 
VASE is 
PLE 
Won oli ] 
Ms rd 


BIBAOZ IIEMIITH 


l. IÍávrew puév Tv év rats àvaypajats wpm- 
ciuuv mTpovonréov roUs LoTopiav cvvraTTOUévovs, 
páAcra 8é cfe karà puépos oixovopías. abr: 
yàp o góvov év vois iOworwois Bíow oMa 
cvuBdáAAeras mpós 9uuuoviyv kal av£nouw víjs o90(as, 
dÀAÀà Kai xarà às Loropías oUk OÀvya rout 
mporep?ora Tots ovyypa$eücw.  éviot Óé kai 
kaTrà T)v Àéfw kai karà Tv woÀvmewpíav Tv 
ávaypadopuévov  rpá£ecw | émouvoUuevow | Gucates, 
fév TÀ karà T oikovouíav xeu Ov)uaprov, 
cOT€e TOUS piv móvovs kai TT]v émtuéAewav aUDTÓV 
dzoOoyfjs Tuyydvew wapà Tolg dGvoyweoockovot, 
T)v Oé ráfw TÓv üvayeypapuévov Owualas Tvy- 
xyàvew émwruwoeos. "Tíuoaws pév ov weytorqv 
Tpóvoiav qremowuévos Tíjs TÓVv xpóvev ükpiuetas 
kai rfjs roÀvrrewtas qrebpovrucos, 0v, às ükaipous 
Kai pakpàs! émvrwuwjoess | e)AÓycs Ova dAAeras, 


1 mpás, '! Sharp," suggested by Hertlein. 





1 'The word oikonomia, literally * management of & house- 
hold," translated ' arrangement " in the preceding sentence 
and ' disposition of private affairs" here, in its transferred 
sense may mean *' prudent management," '' good organization 
of material," or, as here, ''skilful disposition and arrangement." 


96 


BOOK FIVE 


1. Ir should be the special eare of historians, 
when they compose their works, to give attention to 
everything which may be of utility, and especially 
to the arrangement of the varied material they 
present. "This eye to arrangement, for instance, is 
not only of great help to persons in the disposition of 
their private affairs! if they would preserve and 
increase their property, but also, when men come 
to writing history, it offers them not a few advan- 
tages. Some historians indeed, although they are 
worthy objects of praise in the matter of style and in 
the breadth of experience ? derived from the events 
which they record, have nevertheless fallen short in 
respect of the way in which they have handled the 
matter of arrangement, with the result that, whereas 
the effort and care which they expended receive the 
approbation of their readers, yet the order which 
they gave to the material they have recorded is 
the object of just censure. Timaeus, for example, 
bestowed, it is true, the greatest attention upon the 
precision of his chronology and had due regard for 
the breadth of knowledge gained through experience, 
but he is criticized with good reason for his untimely 
and lengthy censures, and because of the excess to 


* Cp. Book 1. 1 f. for the value of the vicarious * experience "' 
which history stores up for readers. | 


97 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Kai Ou Tv bzepfoXrv cíjs émvruijoecs Emri- 
pauos Dzó Twov cocvopudoOn. "Edopos óc TÓs 
KOLS mpá£ews &vorypá.dcov o) góvov kaTà TT)V 
Aé£w, dAAG xat KkaTó. Tv oikovojutav émvrérevxe: 
TÓV yàp BipAcv ékáomTqv memotnke Treptéyew 
kara yévos TÓS mpá£es.. Duómrep Kai muets Tobro 
TÓ yévos ToU xewwpo0 mpokpíivavres, KO/TÓ, TÓ 
OvvaOv avrexóp.eBa, TaUTT)S TÍS Tpoc4péoecs. 2. kai 
TOÜTTV TÜv BuüBAov émiypádovres vcrum GKo- 
AoUbcos Tfü vpaéQ Trepi "pons 7s ZukeMas 
epopev, émei kai kparíaTr TrÓv víccv éoTi kai 
Tf zraAciórnTU TÓV ploAoyovpiévciv mrempdáreukev. 

yàp vífjcos TÓ TraÀauóv à dzró uev TOÜ oxynjpiaros 
Tpwakpia kÀnÜctoa, dsó Oé vÓv karroucraávroov 
QTT)V Zukavdv 2ikavia. "pocayopevÜetaa, TO ! 
TeÀevratov ddró ZukeÀóyy TÓÀYV ék TÍjs raMas TAV- 
óyp.el mepauÜévrcov QVÓLOOTaL ZuceAta. éor. Ó. 
oovfs 7 mepiperpos oTaOicov s TerpaKuy- 
Acov Tpuukoaiav éPükovra: TÓY yàp Tpuv vÀevpóv 
7 pev dro Tfj ILeAeopuá8os émi TÓ AuiBouov 
Ümdpyet oraBiov yiMcov PSOE j o mà 
AuÀvBatov péxpt Iaxóvov Tfjs Yvpakootas xopas 
oraBiav xiv. kai mevraKoGicv, 7 9 dmoÀeuro- 
pévy oraDicov uMeov ékaTOv TeOcapákovra. oi 
TOUTQV oOv karoucoüvres ZiukceAiora vapeux- 
$act mapà TÓV mpoyóvav, del Tfs drums s 
aivos mapaOeO0ojévns. rots ékyóvois, tepàv Omáp- 


! So Madvig: reAcuratov 8é. 





! ie, each book was a unit. Diodorus says in another 
place (16. 76. 5) that each book had an Introduction. 
? No such title appears in the MSS. 


98 


BOOK V. rz. 5-2. 3 


which he went in censuring he has been given by 
some men the name Epitimaeus or Censurer. 
Ephorus, on the other hand, in the universal history 
which he composed has achieved success, not alone 
in the style of his composition, but also as regards 
the arrangement of his work; for each one of his 
Books is so constructed as to embrace events which 
fall under a single topic! Consequently we also 
have given our preference to this method of handling 
our material, and, in so far as it is possible, are - 
adhering to this general principle. 2. And since we 
have given this Book the title " On the Islands," ? 
in accordance with this heading the first island we 
shall speak about will be Sicily, since it is both the 
richest of the islands and holds first place in respect 
of the great age of the myths related concerning it. 
The island: in ancient times was called, after its 
shape, Trinacria? then Sicania after the Sicani who 
made their home there, and finally it has been given 
the name Sicily after the Siceli who crossed over in a 
body toitfrom Italy. Its circumference is some four 
thousand three hundred and sixty stades; for of its 
three sides, that extending from Pelorias to Lily- 
baeum is one thousand seven hundred stades, that 
from Lilybaeum to Pachynus in the territory of 
Syracuse is a thousand five hundred, and the remain- 
ing side is one thousand one hundred and fort 
stades. "The Siceliotae who dwell in the island bave - 
received the tradition from their ancestors, the report 
having ever been handed down successively from 
earliest time by one generation to the next, that the 


3 '*'Three Capes "; ep. Strabo, 6. 2. 1. 
4 'The sum of the lengths of the three sides falls 20 stades 
short of the total circumference given before. 


99 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


1 ^ I4 A / » M 
xyew T5» vfoov Aównrpos kai Kópus: éwow 8é 
TÓV sovyráv uvÜoAoyoÜat xarà vov ToU lAobrcvos 
kai Depoedóvgs yáuov 9:0 Aus àvakdAvmTpa Tf 
voudm Ge0óoÜa. caírqv cv víoov. To)s Oe 
karoucoÜüvras aüT)v TO maÀaióv 2ukavo)s a)TÓ- 
xyÜovas eivai dacw ot voyuurarow TÀv ovyypa- 
óéwv, kai rás Te mpoewmnuévas Üeàs év To)T; 
Tf veo mparras. $avfjvat kai Tóv Tob ciTOU kapmóv 
car» vpdyrnv vetvat bua Ti» àper)» Tfjs xo)pas, 
mepi v kai vOv ésijavéorarov rÓv souróv puap- 
Tupetv Aéyovra 


2 ^ / ? » 3» 7 , Á/ 

GAAÀQ Tá y' Qovapro, kat àvi)pora srávra, $vovrat, 
vvpoi kai kpia£, 0. duareAot, ab Te Gépovow 
otvov épuaráóvAov, kat adu Aus Opufpos àc£e. 


év re yàp TQ Aeovrívq TeOU«p kal karü qoAÀÀoUS 
dAAovs TróTovs Tfjs àiuceMas péypu ToU vOv $icoÜ0a. 
To)g ypiovs OvopaLouévovs rvpoís.  kaÜóÀov 
06 mpó ! rfj eópécews To) oírov Ünrovuévov xarà 
volar Tfje oiKov.évns yfv wpórov éóávnaav ot 
mpoeuévo, kaprmot, eikós éarw &ro8tóoa0a, TÓ 
mpuoreiov Tf Kparíory xdpq' Kai ràs eas. óé 
Tàs e0povoas dkoAoU0ws rois eipnjévows pv éort 
pda, Tuu«opévas vapà Trois Ziuceoyrous. 
3. Kai rájs àpmayífs Ts korà T)v Kópqv év 
TOUT] yevouévns ? àóóe£w elvat Aéyovot $avepo- 
! zpó Vogel, epi À, Bekker, Dindorf. 
* cjv ápmoy)s Tiv . . . yevopévg» Hertlein, 





! 'The Greek word meant originally ** festival of unveiling," 
when the bride first took off her maiden veil and received 
presents, 


IOoO 


BOOK V. 2. 3-3. 1 


island is sacred to Demeter and Coré; although 
there are certain poets who recount the myth that 
at the marriage of Pluton and Persephoné Zeus gave 
this island as a wedding present!to the bride. That 
the ancient inhabitants of Sicily, the Sicani, were 
indigenous, is stated by the best authorities among 
historians, and also that the goddesses we have 
mentioned made their first appearance on this island, 
and that it was the first, because of the fertility of 
the soil, to bring forth the fruit of the corn, facts to 
which the most renowned of the poets also bears 
witness when he writes:?- 


But all these things grow there for them unsown 
Ánd e'en untilled, both wheat and barley, yea, 
And vines, which yield such wine as fine grapes give, 
And rain of Zeus gives increase unto them. 


Indeed, in the plain of Leontini, we are told, and 
throughout many other parts of Sicily the wheat men 
call " wild " grows even to this day. And, speaking 
generally, before the corn was discovered? if one 
were to raise the question, what manner of land it 
was of the inhabited earth where the fruits we have 
mentioned appeared for the first time, the meed of 
honour may reasonably be accorded to the richest 
land; and in keeping with what we have stated, it 
is also to be observed that the goddesses who made 
this discovery are those, who receive the highest 
honours among the Siceliotae. 

3. Again, the fact that the Rape of Coré took place 
in Sicily is, men say, proof most evident that the 


? Homer, Odyssey 9. 100—11, deseribing the land of the 

Cyclopes. | 
3 i.e. before the cultivation of wheat was known and then 
passed on from people to people. 
: IOI 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


TÓTQY ÓTL TOS Buarpifas ai Ücal karà ravTqv Tiv 
vfjoov emotobvro Ou 7Ó crépyecÜa, uáMoca ap 
asco s. Tar. yevéaQa, 0€ piuÜoAoyobot Tv 
ápmoyiv TÍS Kópns. ev rois Aeuidot Tos Kara. 
TU "Evwvav. ocv 9 ó TÓmOs oDTos mÀQotov juév 
TÍjs nóAews, t tous 0€ kat Tols dÀÀow QvÜeot rravro- 
Dazrots ékmrpers kai Tíjs Üe&s d£ios. Oà 8é 
Tv do TÓYV d$vouévovw ayOdy eoa ó(av Aéyerat 
ToUg kvvmyetv eic Üóras kóvas p?) 99vaoÜau oTi- 
Besew, Sparobibojévovs Tv $vouv alo0ncw. 
éori. 8 Ó mpoewpnuévos Aeuuoy. ávoÜev. uév ój.aAOs 
kal savreÀdos evópos, KÜkAq O9 OjmAós kai 
vrovraxólev «pnpvots ázóropos. Boket O0 év 
uéoq ketaÜau Tfs ÓÀns v9ocov, Bio kai ZukeAMas 
Op$aAÀós OmÓ Twv mwpocayopevera..  éxew 8€ 
«ai mÀqotov dÀaw ! kai vepi rabra éÀQ, kai omj- 
Aauov eünéyeÜes, éwov xdopua kardyevov pos 
TÜV  &pkTOYV vevevkós, Ov o9 puÜoXoryoGio TÓV 
IlAosrcva. peO" dopporos emeMóvra moujaacÜai 
TV dpmayT TÍjs Kópns. TO. 8€ (a, kai TÓVv GÀÀcov 
ávÜOv Tà apexópeva Tj eDc)Otav arapaóóÉ cos 9c 
OÀov ToÜ éviavro0 mra.paprévew OáAAovra. kai Tl)v 
óÀgv vpócoduv dvOnpàv. Kai érrvrepsrij rrapexópeva.. 

Mv0oAoyotot óé pera Tíjs Kópygs ràs Tfjs Ópotas 
vapÜevias Tm£wopuévas 'AOnvüv Te kai Aprepur 
cvvrpedop.évas gwdyew. per aoríjs T dvÓm «ai 
karagkevácew ,Kowfj T vüarpi Ad TÓv srémAov. 
8. 06 ràüg uer dX jAcov Our piBás T€ kai ójuALas 
ànácas erép£as Tv víjoov ra rhy páAwra, kai 
Aaxeiv ékdáoTrQ]v aürÀv xopav, v)v uév 'AÜ8mváy 


N 2 M Aeurdvas after iAoy deleted by Vogel. . Cf. Cic. Verr. 


102 


BOOK V. $. 14 


goddesses made this island their favourite retreat 
because it was cherished by them before all others. 
And the Rape of Coré, the myth relates, took place 
in the meadows in the territory of Enna. "The spot 
lies near the city, à place of striking beauty for its 
violets and every other kind of flower and worthy of 
the goddess. And the story is told that, because of 
the sweet odour of the flowers growing there, trained 
hunting dogs are unable to hold the trail, because 
their natural sense of smell is balked. And the 
meadow we have mentioned is level in the centre and 
well watered throughout, but on its periphery it 
rises high and falls off with precipitous cliffs on every 
side. And it is conceived of as lying in the very 
centre of the island, which is the reason why certain 
writers call it. the navel of Sicily. Near to it also 
are sacred groves, surrounded by marshy flats, and a 
huge grotto which contains a chasm which leads down 
into the earth and. opens to the north, and through 
it, the myth relates, Pluton, coming out with his 
chariot, effected the Rape of Coré. And the violets, 
we are told, and the rest of the flowers which 
supply the sweet odour continue to bloom, to one's 
amazement, throughout the entire year, and so the 
whole aspect of the place is one of flowers and delight. 

And both Athena and Artemis, the myth goes on 
to say, who had made the same choice of maidenhood 
as had Coré and were reared together with her, 
joined with her in gathering the flowers, and all of 
them together wove the robe for their father Zeus. 
. Ànd because of the time they had spent together and 
their intimacy they all loved this island above any 
other, and each one of them received for her portion 
a territory, Athena receiving hers in the region of 


103 


pie s b Ae CRAT UN UD a Mp MEE E EE - 


semet 


us desse Mec LR Vito pirtttgeduc egenos aquas eeemeteiee GM MITTERE es Mes 


Sushgdiecasseeteno uo 


ETUUUEANUU A GRNOSETO e Ciim Aie e 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


év Toís vrepi TÓV Iuépav pépecw, év ois ràs uv 
Nipóas xapitop.évas "A0nv& rás TÓv Üeppdv 
jOdTcv avetvat Jmyyás KaTà Tv "HpakAcovs 
mo povaíav, TOUS 0' éyycopiovs zróÀw avri kaÜ.epá- 
gau Kai xdpav Tv óvopaojévmy péxpi TOU vÜv 
"Afrjvauov: Tr) O. "Aprepav T?) év Tas 2vpakoi- 
caius vijoov AaBeiv "ap TOv Üedv Tiv &T  éketvms 
'Oprvyiav nó Te TÓv xencopév KQi TÓV avOpci- 
TOV óvop.aoÜ eta. óptolcos c kal KaTrà Tv 
vijcov raórqv &vetvat Tás Nónéas Toros xapibo- 
pévas Tfj Aprép4GL peyiargv myynr TÜv óvoua- 
Copévqv "ApéÜovcav. TaUr1v oU póvov Ko rà 
TOUS dpyaiovs Xpóvovs exe peyáAovs kat sroAAoUs 
ixB0s, GAÀÀà kai karà TTV "uerépav Tutav Óua- 
pévew cup Batvet Tobrovs, éepoós Ovras kai ái 
krovs àvÜperrots- e dv sroÀÀákus Twv iam Tàs 
mroAejukás "epu rágeis $ayóvrcv, mapa8óécs éme- 
ope TÓ Óctov kai ueydÀous cvpóopaois sepi- 
eae TOUS , ToMuajcavras apocevéykaa0aa- srepi 
Gv &kpiBOs à àvaypd OpL€v év Tots oceous xpóvots. 
4, Onotcs óé Tas Trpoetpn)p.évaus Oval 0ca.ts 
KQL TV Kópyv Aaxetv ToUg mepi T)v "Evwvav 
Aeuivas- ToQyyTv oe peyáXy» abr kaBiepc)Üfj- 
vat év f vpakooíg T7v Óvoua opévy Kudvnv. 
TÓV yàp IIAosrcova puUoAoyotot TV áp pmaynv 
zrovjodpuevov dTOKopÁcQu TV Kópnv ed GpjLorros 
arÀqatov TÀv Zpakovad, «al TV yfv àvappiü- 
favra abrOvr ne perà Tíjs áprayeiovs óbvat 
kaÜ' dBov, myyüv 8' àvetvo. 7]v óvoualouévav 








1 Mentioned before in Book 4. 93. 1. 
104 


BOOK V. 3. 4-4. 2 


Himera, where the Nymphs, to please Athena, caused 
the springs of warm water* to gush forth on the 
occasion of the visit of Heracles to the island, and 
the natives consecrated a city to her and a plot of 
ground which to this day is called Athena's. And 
Artemis received from the gods the island at Syracuse 
which was named after her, by both the oracles and 
men, Ortygia. On this island likewise these 
Nymphs, to please Artemis, caused a great fountain 
to gush forth to which was given the name Arethusa. 
And not only in ancient times did this fountain con- 
tain large fish in great numbers, but also in our own 
day we find these fish still there, considered to be 
holy and not to be touched by men; and on many 
occasions, when certain men have eaten them amid 
stress of war, the deity has shown a striking sign, 
and has visited with great sufferings such as dared to 
take them for food. Of these matters we shall give 
an exact aecount in connection with the appropriate 
period of time.? 

4. Like the two goddesses whom we have men- 
tioned Coré, we are told, received as her portion the 
meadows round about Enna; but a great fountain 
was made sacred to her in the territory of Syracuse 
and given the name Cyané or * Azure Fount," For 
the myth relates that it was near Syracuse that Pluton 
effected the Rape of Coré and took her away in his 
chariot, and that after cleaving the earth asunder 
he himself descended into Hades, taking along with 
him the bride whom he had seized, and that he caused 

? «Quailisland."  Severalislands of this name are known 
in the Greek world, and on one of them Artemis slew Orion 
(Odyssey, 5. 193); hence she received the name ** Ortygia." 

3 Instances of punishments for the desecration of the shrines 
of Demeter and Coré are given in Book 14, 63 and 70-1. 

105 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Kuávqv, wpós f$) kar éwavróv oi Xwvpakóoio 
zaváyuspw  émujavíj ovvreAoDo:, kai Üvovow ot 

pév iOudra, và éAárre) TÓv Lepeiv, Ónuocia Oe 
vaspovs PwÜiLovow év cf Au, vavrqv Tv 
Üvoiav karaóei£avros 'HpakAéovs ka0' óv xaupov 

Tüàs w«pvóvov fos éAasvow  mepijAÓe  mácav 
uKeAiav. 

Merà 8é «^v Trífjs Kópqs àpmoynv pvÜoAoyoto: 
T)»  Ác$unrpav uj Ovvauévgyv  Qvevupetv TT 
Üvyarépa Aapmráóas ér TÓv kará. Tv Atrvny 
Kparjocov dvasjapévgv eneAUei émri ToÀM uev 
Tfjs oikovuévns, rÀv O. àvÜpdomwv rovs udAwT 
abr» mpoo8efauévovs eDepyerijca, TOV TÓV TrUpóv 
kapróv üvriOcpucauévqv. | duiAavOposrórara | é 
TÀv 'ÁÜmvaiv b-oócfauévov TTv Üeóv, mporow 
TODTOLlS ueTà ToOs ZuxeAvras 6cprjcacÜat TÓv TÀv 
vvpóv kapzóv: àvO' àv 0 Ofjuos o9ros mepvrróre- 
pov TÀv GAÀcv ér(uqoav T)v 0cÓóv Üvoicus T^ émt- 
$aveoráraus kal Toig. év 'EAevotw pwvornpiois, 
& 8X 7))v omepfoAMv Tf àpyaiórgros kal dyvetas 
éyévero müoiw àvÜpeow mepipónra.  mapà 96 
TÓv 'Afwvatv zoÀÀoi ueraÀaBóvres Tíjs ék ToO 
córou diÀAavÜpermías, kat rois Àqotoydpow pera- 
Oi8óvres ToÜ omépuoros, émA)pocav m6cav Tv 
oiKovjévQyv. oi 0é karà T)v 2ukeA(av, Ouà Tv 
Ts A"5nuTrpos kai Kópus mpós aDroUs oüceiórTa 
Tpóvro. Tíjs eUpécecs ToÜ oürov peraAapóvres, 
éxoTépa TOv ÜeGv karéBeav Üvoias xai smavm- 
yüpew, émovóuovs aDrats vovjcavres kal TÓ 





1 Cp. Book 4. 23. | See note on p. 114. 
106 


See neescri ces ucc 


d 


EID OSEE cpeuii uem nisse eg 
SEI CESONE 


d 
1 
j 
M 
: 
b 
| 








BOOK V. 4. 2-5 


the fountain named Cyané to gush forth, near which 
the Syracusans each year hold & notable festive 
gathering; and private individuals offer the lesser 
victims, but when the ceremony is on behalf of the 
community, bulls are plunged in the pool, this manner 
of sacrifice having been commanded by Heracles 
on the occasion when he made the circuit of all 
Sicily, while driving off the cattle of Geryones.! 
After the Rape of Coré, the myth goes on to re- 
count, Demeter, being unable to find her daughter, 
kindled torches in the craters of Mt. Aetna and 
visited many parts of the inhabited world, and upon 
the men who received her with the greatest favour 
she conferred benefactions, rewarding them with the 
gift of the fruit of the wheat. And since a more 
kindly weleome was extended the goddess by the 
AÁthenians than by any other people, they were the 
first after the Siceliotae ? to be given the fruit of the 
wheat; and in return for this gift the citizens of 
that city in assembly honoured the goddess above all 
others with the establishment both of most notable 
sacrifices and of the mysteries of Eleusis, which, by 
reason of their very great antiquity and sanctity, 
have,come to be famous among all mankind. From 
the Athenians many peoples received a portion of 
the gracious gift of the corn, and they in turn, sharing 
the gift of the seed with their neighbours, in this way 
caused all the inhabited world to abound with it. 
And the inhabitants of Sicily, since by reason of the 
intimate relationship of Demeter and Coré with them 


they were the first to share in the corn after its dis- 


covery, instituted to each one of the goddesses 
sacrifices and festive gatherings, which they named 
after them, and by the time chosen for these made 


I07 








6 


E 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Xpóve Bisonpfvavres TS SoUeícas Ocopeás. Tíjs 
pev yàp Kópns Tiv Kara émovfjoawro Trepi 
vOv kaipóv év d TÓv ro oírov kapmóv TeÀeoiovp- 
yetoÜa,. cuvéfawe, kal vaórqgv cv ÜÉvotav «ai 
zav$yvpw pgerà Toca)rüs dyvelas kai crovodjs 
émvreAotüoi:w Óons |! «eikós éorw voUs Tj] Kkpam(oT] 
Ocoped apokpiBévras TÓV GAÀÀcv avÜpdymrcoy &3100106- 
vaL Tàs xápvras Ts Oc Afjumyrpos TÓV Kaupóv Tfjs 
Üva(as vpoékpivav v à «yv àpyTyv Ó ovrópos rof airov 
AauBávew émi 8' juépas Oéka mavwyvpw üyovouww 


érovvpov Tfjs Üco0 rar0s, rij Te Aaumrpórqrt Tíjs - 


vapaokevífjs ueyaÀAompemeorármv kai 7j Owokevfj 
pukoópevou TÓv dpxatov fiov. $&0og 9' éocviw 
a)Tois év raíTous TaÍs cuépous alcoypoAoyetv kará 

5 M 1AA 2A e A e A M M M HE. 
Tüs vpoós GÀMjAous Op4AMas Owà TO T7v Üeov émi 


Tá Tás Kópns dpmayf Avmovuévgv yeAácas Óuà 


TTv G4cypoÀoyíav. 

5. IIepi 8é Trájs «arà vr5v Kópgv dprayfjs, óc 
yéyovev cs mpoew7kajev, vzoÀÀol TOv üpxyaicv 
cvyypadécv kat movgyróv uepapruprkaot. — Kapki- 
vos Lév yàp ó 7v TpayqOu)v sous, vrÀeovákts 
€v rats 2wpako)vcau apemióeOnuukos kai TTv 
TOv éyycpicv  TeÜcauévos  GmwovOTv epi às 
Ovoias kai wavqy)pess Tfjs Te AwW|wgrpos kal 
Kópns, karexyopuoev év Tols srovjpact rovoOe rovs 

/ 
oTÜxovs* 


! óoys Hertlein, Vogel, deg Wesseling, Bekker, Dindorf: 
óaqv. 


ro8 ' 


BOOK V. 4. ss. 1 


acknowledgment of the gifts which had been con- 
ferred upon them. In the case of Cor&, for instance, 
they established the celebration of her return at 
about the time when the fruit of the corn was found 
to come to maturity, and they celebrate this sacrifice 
and festive gathering with such strictness of observ- 
ance and such zeal as we should reasonably expect 
those men to show who are returning thanks for 
having been selected before all mankind for the 
greatest possible gift; but in the case of Demeter 
they preferred that time for the sacrifice when the 
sowing of the corn is first begun, and for a period of 
ten days they hold a festive gathering which bears 
the name of this goddess and is most magnificent by 
reason of the brilliance of their preparation for it, 
while in the observance of it they imitate the ancient 
manner oflife. nd it is their custom during these 
days to indulge in coarse language as they associate 
one with another, the reason being that by such 
coarseness the goddess, grieved though she was at 
the Rape of Coré, burst into laughter. 

5. That the Rape of Coré took place in the manner 
we have described is attested by many ancient his- 
torians and poets. Carcinus! the tragic poet, for 
instance, who often visited in Syracuse and wit- 
nessed the zeal which the inhabitants displayed 
in the sacrifices and festive gatherings for both 
Demeter and Coré, has the following verses? in his 
writings: M 


1 "Two writers of tragedies by this name are known, both of 
Acragas in Sicily, & Carcinus the elder, who was exhibiting 
in Athens at the opening of the Peloponnesian War, and his 
grandson. 

? Frg. 5 (Nauck). 


IO9 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Aéyova: Acjuxvpós mor! dppoyrov kópcv 

IIAovrwva. kpuóio:s &práca: BovÀeipaot, 

98va£ ve yalas eis pueAapdaets uvxos, 

vó0« 86 uxrép. f) $avauévos kópys 

paoccvíjp! émeAjetv qácav év kkAq xÜova. 

kai yijv * uév Airvatow. 2iuceAas ráryous 

supós yépuovoav pespaow OvoeuBóÀors 

vácav oTevá£au, qrévÜeoww 8é srapÜévov 

circ &jowov OGorpeódés $Üivew yévos. 

OUev Ücàs ruuA cw eis Tà vOv ét. 

2  Oóík fiov 86 mapaAMmelv 7ífs Üeco0 raíTQs vTjv 
jmepfoX)v «íjs eie ToUs dvÜpoWrovs ec)epyeoias: 
xcpls yàp Tfs e)péoecs ToÜ ciírov Tv T€ karep- 
yaciay aóro0 roos ávÜpcWovs éO0(0afe kai vóuovs 
elomy)caro xaÓ' oüs Ouoworpayeiv eiÜicÜncav, 
0 Tjv airíav $aciv ari» Ücouodópov érovopac0f- 

9 vai. Tovrov O6 mv eópnuárcv ok Gv mig 
érépav «ejepyeoíav «Opow pueitova: xai yàp TÓ 
L4jv kai rÓ kaAOs Lov mepiéyovou. srepi uév otv 
Táv uuÜoAoyovpéva srapá rots XiuceAorats &pkea- 
00ój.e0o. rots puÜetow. 

6. IIepoi 8é r&v karowcgoávrov év ajrf mpó- 
TOv  2ukavdv, émet «wes TÓv ovyypajéov 
01aócvotow, vaykatóv éor. avvrÓpos ciet. 
Q/uoros puév vyáp dw«ow éf 'Ifnoí(as a)ro)s 


*oyfjv o... XukeMas Nauck, rov . . . ZukeMav, Rhodomann, 
all editors: c?» . . . XuxeMas. 





1 Qp. Book 1. 14. 4, 
Iro 





To 


Eum, E 


BOOK V. s. 1-6. 1 

Demeter's daughter, her whom none may name, 

By secret schemings Pluton, men say, stole, 

AR UR he dropped into earth's depths, whose 
ight 

Is darkness. Longing for the vanished girl 

Her mother searched and visited all lands 

In turn. And Sicily's land by Aetna's crags 

Was filled with streams of fire which no man could 

Approach, and groaned throughout its length; 
in grief 

Over the maiden now the folk, beloved 

Of Zeus, was perishing without the corn. 

. Hence honour they these goddesses e'en now. 


But we should not omit to mention the very great 
benefaction which Demeter conferred upon mankind ; 
for beside the fact that she was the discoverer of corn, 
she also taught mankind how to prepare it for food 
and introduced laws by obedience to which men 
became accustomed to the practice of justice, this 
being the reason, we are told, why. she has been 
given the epithet Thesmophoros or Lawgiver.! 
Surely à benefaction greater than these discoveries 
of hers one could not find; for they embrace both 
living and living honourably. However, as for the 
myths which are current among the Siceliotae, we 
shall be satisfied with what has been said. 

6. We must now write briefly about the Sicani 
who were the first inhabitants of Sicily, in view of the 
fact that certain historians are not in agreement 
about this people. Philistus,? for instance, says that 


? Shortly before his death in about 365 5.0. Philistus of 
Syracuse composed in thirteen Books his history of Sicily 
from the earliest times to approximately his own day. ! 


III 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


á&roucaÜévras karoucfjoa TV vícov, dó Twos 
Zukavoo morapoo Kam "IBgpíav óvros Tereuxóras 
raórns Tís mpocnyopías, Tiuotos 0€ Tv &yvouay 
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vat. ot 9 o9v Ziucavol TO sraÀauóv Kaum Bóv 
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karaakevátovres 5uà To)s ÀpcTás: o) yàp fjcav 
DmÓ pav fyepoviay BacwMécs TerOypévot, Kod 
aóAw € ékáorqv ets 7v ó OvvaoTeÜcv. kai 
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«di TV xópav epyalópevot TÓS TpoQás eov: 
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émwepopévov moANy Xópav, $oBnOévres TÓÀ pev 
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éyévovro "róAepot TÀeovákus abro (e «pós ToUs 
Zikavoós, écs .gvvÜrjkas som aápievou cup. óovovs 
ópovs &Üevro Tis xdpas- epi Gv TÀ Ka rà pépos 
év vols oike(ows xpóvow dvaypdabouev.  Voracma 


II2 


e WENT e DNUS 


BOOK V. 6. 1-5 


they removed from Iberia and settled the island, 
having got the name they bore from a certain river 
in Iberia named Sieanus, but Timaeus adduces proof 
of the ignorance of this historian and correctly 
declares that they were indigenous; and inasmuch 
as the evidences he offers of the antiquity of this 
people are many, we think that there is no need for 
us to recount them. The Sicani, then, originally 
made their homes in villages, building their settle- 
ments upon the strongest hills because of the pirates; 
for they had not yet been brought under the single 
rule of a king, but in each settlement there was one 
man who was lord. And at first they made their 
home in every part of the island and secured their 
food by tilling the land; but at a later time, when 
Aetna sent up volcanic eruptions in an increasing 
number of places and a great torrent of lava was 
poured forth over the land, it came to pass that a 
great stretch of the country was ruined. And since 
the fire kept consuming a large area of the land 
during an increasing number of years, in fear they 
left the eastern parts of Sicily and removed to the 
western. And last of all, many generations later, 
the people of the Siceli crossed over in à body from 
Italy into Sicily and made their home in the land 
which had been abandoned by the Sieani. And since 
the Siceli steadily grew more avaricious and kept 
ravaging the land which bordered on theirs; frequent 
wars arose between them and the Sicani, until at last 
they struck covenants and set up boundaries, upon 
which they had agreed, for the territory. With regard 
to the Sicani we shall give a detailed account in con- 
nection with the appropriate period of time.! The 


1 No such account is found in the extant books of Diodorus. 
| II3 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


O' dxoucau TÓV EAajvcov éyévovro KQTà TT 
2ukeMav dEióAoyot kai aóAetg  vrapà ÜdAo;rrav 
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TÓ mÀfjÜos cTÓv KüTaamrAeóvrov EAAMjveov T/V T€ 
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Qévres TO TeAcvra Tov Uv BápBapov Ou&Aekrov 
dua kal 75v mpoowyopíav ?jÀAá£avro, XuceAóyrat 
mrpocayopevÜévres. 

T. 'Hpets 96 Trepi TOUTGV Gpkobvras elpnkóres 
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bopiévas AioAtGas. abraa 8. eioi TOv pév üpiÜuóv 
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c Ueías à &TÓ vropÜpoó Ka Tíjs "pós éco mpós sow. 
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oraótovs, kai TÓ éyeÜós eto dAArjAaus ma parAdj- 
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eiot $avepá. ev 0€ 7jj ZapoyyóAn kai Tf lep& péxpt 
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péyeÜos «ai Bpóuos éfaicws: éxóvoüra. Bé kai 
dppos. Kai Addo Suarópos "Abos, kaÜdsrep 
&orw ópav KQ Trepi Te A trvgv ywópevov. A€yovat 
yáp Twes ék roUrcv rÀv vijocv omovópovs etvat ka. 


1 "This name obviously í is used here to include, not only the 


Greeks in contrast to Sicels, as in other authors, but such 
natives of Sicily a as adopted the Greek language and manners. 
I14 


BOOK V. 6. s-7. 4 


colonies of the Greeks—and notable ones they were 
—were the last to be made in Sicily, and their cities 
were founded on the sea. All the inhabitants 
mingled with one another, and since the Greeks 
came to the island in great numbers, the natives 
learned their speech, and then, having been brought 
up in the Greek ways of life, they lost in the end their 
barbarian speech as well as their name, all of them 
being called Siceliotae.* 

7. But since we have spoken about these matters 
at sufficient length we shall turn our discussion to 
the islands known as the Aeolides.? 'These islands 
are seven in number and bear the following names: 
Strongylé, Euonymus, Didymé, Phoenicodes, Eri- 
codes, Hiera Hephaestuj? and Lipara,* on which is 
situated a city of the same name. They lie between 
Sicily and Italy in a straight line from the Strait, 
extending from east to west. They are about one 
hundred and fifty stades distant from Sicily and are 
all of about the same size, and the largest one of 
them is about one hundred and fifty stades in circum- 
ference. All of them have experienced great vol- 
canic eruptions, and the resulting craters and open- 
ings may be seen to this day. On Strongylé and 
Hiera even at the present time there are sent forth 
from the open mouths great exhalations accompanied 
by an enormous roaring, and sand and a multitude of 
red-hot stones are erupted, as may also be seen 
taking place on Aetna. The reason is, as some say, 
that passages lead under the earth from these islands 


? 'The Lipari islands. | 
$ *' Sacred to Hephaestus." 
4 The modem names. are Stromboli, Panaria, Salina, 
Filieuri, Alicuri, Vuleano, and Lipari respectively. 


IIS 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


yfjs Méx pt Tfjs Albrvos kai .Tofis em auóórepa oTo- 
páots cvvoupévous- LO kal KaTa TÓ 7ÀeC toTrov évaÀ- 
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TÓV KüTÓ TÜV Airvqv. 

(aot àé vüs AióXov vijoovs TÓ pev vaÀoLOv épfj- 
povs yeyovévau, perà 66 TraÜTa TOV óvoua.bópuevov 
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ev raÓry O6 T)v émóvvpov a)TroD vÓÀw xT(ca, 
kal Tàs &ÀÀas vijaovs Ts mrpoetpnpiévas yecpyfjaat. 
TOUTOU Oé yeynpakóros AióAov TÓV Ammórov perá 
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Tf) Tob Trvpós mrpocnpaotas vrapareriprkóra 
POET TO)s éyycpiovs? dvéuovs  eDoTóycs, 

1 ajrÓ deleted by Reiske, 


? rofs éyycwpíow A, Bekker, Dindorf, rois éyywpíovs other 
MSS., Vogel. E 


rir6 


mmm ee 


BOOK V. 5. 4-7 


to Aetna and are connected with the openings at both 
ends of them, and this is why thecraters on these islands 
usually alternate in activity with those of Aetna. 

We are told that the islands of Aeolus! were 
uninhabited in ancient times, but that later Liparus, 
as he was called, the son. of Auson the king, was 
overcome by his brothers who rebelled against him, 
and securing some warships and soldiers he fled from 
Italy to the island, which received the name Lipara 
after him; on it he founded the city which bears his 
name and brought under cultivation the other islands 
mentioned before. And when Liparus had already 
come to old age, Aeolus, the son of Hippotes, came 
to Lipara with certain companions and married 
Cyané, the daughter of Liparus; and after he had 
formed a government in which his followers and the 
natives shared equally he became king over the 
island. To Liparus, who had a longing for Italy, 
Aeolus gave his aid in securing for him the regions 
about Surrentum, where he became king and, after 
winning great esteem, ended his days; and after he 
had been accorded a magnificent funeral he received 
at the hands of the natives honours equal to those 
offered to the heroes. "This is the Aeolus to whom, 
the myth relates, Odysseus came in the course of 
his wanderings.? He was, they say, pious and just 
and kindly as well in his treatment of strangers; 
furthermore, he introduced sea-farers to the use of 
sails and had learned, by long observation of what 
the fire ? foretold, to predict with accuracy the local 
winds,* this being the reason why the myth has 

1 Called above the '* Aeolides."' | 

? 'The account is in the Odyssey, 10. 1 1f. 

5 i.e. of the volcano. | 


* Or'' predicb . . . winds to the natives " (cp. critical note). 
II7 








bo 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


é£ oí vagíay abróv elvai, TÓY á&vépov ó p0os 
dvéBei£e-. 8ià. 06 Tv ówepBoMjv ví evoeeias 
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8. Too 8' AldAov viods yevéoÜo. róv àpiÜpóv 
££, 'Aoríoyov kal Eob0ov kal '"Av8pokÀéa, «pos 
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kará, 70 "Prjytov vówov, Oepatjuov 06 kai ' ÁvOpo- 
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xard ovv Xuceiot, và 9€ wpós 8vouáàs Xucavot. 
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xeu. éaoíÀevce Bé kal HoüÜos Tífs Trepi 
zoüe A«ovrivovs ydpas, Jjrs áw ékeivov péxpi 
roÜ vüv xpóvov SovÜia mpocayopejera,. — Ayd- 
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8é yeveds vOv éxyóvow OwBeyopévov Tüs Ovva- 
aTelag, rà TeÀevraiov oí dar AióNov yeyovóres 
Bacuets xarà vij» XuceMav OweAiUnaav. 


ri8 


má xeesogeeus 


BOOK V. ;. 7-8. 3 


referred to him as the " keeper of the winds ";! 
and it was because of his very great piety that he 
was called a friend of the Gods. | 

8. To Aeolus, we are told, sons were born to the 
number of six, Ástyochus, Xuthus, and Androcles, 
and Pheraemon, Jocastus, and Agathyrnus, and they 
every one received great approbation both because 
of the fame of their father and because of their own 
high achievements. Of their number Jocastus held 
fast to Italy and was king of the coast as far as the 
regions about Rhegium, but Pheraemon and Androcles 
were lords over Sicily from the Strait as far as the 
regions about Lilybaeum. Of this country the parts 
to the east were inhabited by Siceli and those to the 
west by Sicani. These two peoples quarrelled with 
each other, but they rendered obedience of their own 
free will to the sons of Aeolus we have mentioned, 
both because of the piety of their father Aeolus, 
which was famed afar, and because of the fair-dealing 
of the sons themselves. Xuthus was king over the 
land in the neighbourhood of Leontini, which is 
known after him as Xuthia to this day.  Agathyrnus, 
becoming king of the land now called Agathyrnitis, 
founded a city which was called after him Agathyrnus ; 
and Astyochus secured the lordship over Lipara. 
All these men followed the example which tbeir 
father had set for both piety and justice and hence 
were accorded great approbation. Their descend- 
ants succeeded to their thrones over many genera- 
tions, but in the end the kings of the house of Áeolus 
were overthrown throughout Sicily. 


1 Cp. the Odyssey, 10. 21. 





1 «o6 after àró omitted by D, Vogel. P 
! 119 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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1 Gózep deleted by Reiske. 
? So M EErLE $Uodpóvos. 


120 


Dex vespa 


EASECREORIOT m cw 


BOOK V. 9. r-4 


9. After this the Siceli put the leadership in each 
case in the hands of the ablest man, but the Sicani 
quarrelled over the lordship and warred against each 
other during a long period of time. But many years 
later than these events, when the islands! again 
were becoming steadily more destitute of inhabi- 
tants, certain men of Cnidus and Rhodes, being 
aggrieved at the harsh treatment they were receiving 
at the hands of the kings of Asia, resolved to send 
out a colony. Consequently, having chosen for their 
leader Pentathlus of Cnidus—who traced his ancestry 
back to Hippotes, who was a descendant of Heracles 
—in the course of the Fiftieth Olympiad,? that in 
which Epitelidas of Sparta won the ^" stadion," 3 
these settlers, then, of the company of Pentathlus 
sailed to Sicily to the regions about Lilybaeum, where 
they found the inhabitants of Egesta and of Selinus 
at war with one another. And being persuaded by 
the men of Selinus to take their side in the war, they 
suffered heavy losses in the battle, Pentathlus himself 
being among those who fel. Consequently the 
survivors, since the men of Selinus had been 
defeated in the war, decided to return to their homes ; 
and choosing for leaders Gorgus and Thestor and 
Epithersides, who were relatives of Pentathlus, they 
sailed off through the Tyrrhenian Sea. But when 
they put in at Lipara and received a kindly reception, 
they were prevailed upon to make common cause 
with the inhabitants of Lipara in forming a single 
community there, since of the colony of Aeolus there 
remained only about five hundred men.  Át a later 


.1 &,e, the ÁAeolides. 
* i.e between 580 and 576 ».c. | P 
3 ''he famous foot-race a5 Olympia, 6062 feet long. 


i2rI 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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*: X / 
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KOTà cvGcGiTuX, OieréAecav  érvi was  xpóvoug 
^ ^ : M 
kottvucts Buobüvres. | ÜDorepov O6 Tiv uév Avwrá- 
5 «4 ll € jA LN b 7, A o 
pav, kaÓ' Tv xai 7) vTOÀw 7v, Oveveiuavro, vàs 
&AÀas éyedpyovv kowfj. TÓ 0&6 TeÀevratov máoas 
Ts vijcovs eis etkogt er) OLeAópuevot ráAw kÀnjpov- 
^ T / M 
yoOoi:v, Órav Óó xpóvos obros OuAÜn. pera 8é 
S ^ x 
Ta)ra qoÀÀaÍs vavpaytaus évikgcav roUs luppy- 
z 3 99 M ^ A "4 À / » À / 
voUs, kai &mó rÀv Aa$Upov vÀe«ovákius àftoAóyovs 
/ 2 4/ ? z 
Oekáras aàvéÜcoav eis AeAdovs. 
^ ^ ^ 7 
10. Aebimerau 9. Tutv epi Tíjs TOv Awra pato 
TróÀecos às air(as droGoÜvat, OV às év Tots Docepov 
xpóvows éAaBev aséqoiw o) póvov Tpós e)00uio- 
/ E s A A 7 e 3 / 
viov, &ÀÀà kai mpós Oófav. abr5 yàp Agéoi 
^ , ^ ^ 
Te KaÀoís jmO Tfj jocos kekóownQra. kai Üep- 
pots v0ac. Tots OwaBefonuévow: o) póvov yàp 
^ : A 
vpóg jÜyíeav TÓVv vogoUvrov TÀ kar  abriv 
^ ^ / » * A A 1 
Aovrpà ToÀÀÀ ovpfáAÀAerou àÀÀà kai karà Tv 
TÓv Üepuóv O8árcv (OTQra mapéyerau Tépiuv 
kai d&zóÀavow o) T]v cruxobDcav.  Oumep moAAol 
TÓv karà Tr)v IueMav jmÓ vóocv iOwrpómcv 





1 Póhlmann, Geschichte der sozialen Frage und des Sozialis- 
mus vn der antiken Welt? 1. 86 ff. sees no ground for questioning 
the historicity of the preceding picture of à communistie state 
of the Liparians. Many parallels to its organization are pro- 


122 


BOOK V. 9. 4—ro. 1 


time, because they were being harassed by the 
Tyrrheni who were carrying on piracy on the sea, 
they fitted out a fleet, and divided themselves into 
two bodies, one of which took over the cultivation 
of the islands which they had made the common 
property of the community, whereas the other was 
to fight the pirates; their possessions also they 
made common property, and living according to 
the public mess system, they passed their lives 
in this communistic fashion for some time. At a 
later time they apportioned among themselves the 
island of Lipara, where their city also lay, but culti- 
vated the ther islands in common. And in the 
final stage they divided all the islands among them- 
selves for à period of twenty years, and then they 
cast lots for them again at every expiration of this 

eriod. After eífecting this organization they 
defeated the Tyrrhenians in many sea-fights, and from 
their booty they often made notable dedications of à 
tenth part, which they sent to Delphi. 

10. It remains for us now, as regards the city of 
the Liparians, to give an explanation of the causes 
why in later times it grew to a position, not only of 
prosperity, but even of renown. These, then, are 
the reasons: The city is adorned by nature with 
excellent harbours and springs of warm water which 
are famed far and wide; for not only do the baths 
there contribute greatly to the healing of the sick, 
but they also, in keeping with the peculiar property 
of such warm springs, provide pleasure and enjoy- 
ment of no ordinary kind. Consequently many 
people throughout Sicily who are afflicted by illnesses 
vided by the customs of the Germanic tribe of the Suebi, 
described by Caesar, T'he Gallic War 4. 1. 

LEN. es i23 
VOL. III. dm x E ond RR 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


évoxAospievot karavrÓow eis abi, KaL Toís 
Aov1pots Xpop.evot vapaGóÉcs Dyiets kaÜtovavrat. 
exe 9 víjcos arm T Sui BeBonp.éva. péraAAa 
v orum Toplas, &É $s Aauávovow oí Avrrapatot 
"Popatot peyáAas mpocó8ovs. oX0a4.00 yàp 
ie oikovp.évms Tfjs | orvmruüpias yiopévas Kai 
qoAMjv xpeiav mapexopévns, eiKÓTCO)S LOVOTC)ÀLOV 
&xovres kal TÀS Tuàs dva iBábovres nios 
xpnpdTov AapiBávovow &mworov: év góvm yop 
7 vjoo Mao d$era. papá 7s orvsTIpa, 
pn) uvapévn Ouapkety TroÀAo ts "róÀeaw. &ot 
9é xai 7) vfáoos Tüv Avrapaicy pup uev 7Ó 
péy«8os, kapmodópos 06 ixavOs kai và ,Tpós 
ávÜpemev Tpv$yv €vovca Owuepóvrws: kal yàp 
bxÜscv mrayroOamáv mapéxerat zÀfóÜos rois karot- 
 Koüci kai TÀv &KpoOpcv TÀ pdALoTO Buváueva 
mapéyeaUa. T ék Tfjs Gxr0ÀG.UO€cs Sjóovfv. kal 
vepi uév Avrápas kai T&v GÀAov Tv ÁÀióAov ví- 
O«v kaAouuévov &pkeoOnaópueUa. rots pugetow. 

11. Merà 9€ T)Vv Avwmdpav eis TÓ mpós Óvojàs 
pépos víjoós ear zreAaryía., papa. pév TO uéyeÜos, 
cpnuos O6 aL Oui Tw. mepuréreuay "Ocredóns 
ovouaLouévn.  kaÜ' Ov yàp awpóv Kapyr8óvio. 
vpos lwvpakocious DvorroAejofvres TOÀÀODS Kal 
peydAous moéuovs Ovvápeets etxov d&voAóyovs 
mrebás ? Te kal vavrucás, Trepi Bé ToUrOUS TOUS 
katpo)s paaodópov OvrQv Tap aUToUs mroAA&v 
KG mravroóamáy TOÍS &veow, ooTro, O6 ? Taüpaxdr- 
Oews Ovres kai vzoÀÀás kal ueydÀas oTáceiw eir 


* ovüs omitted by D, Vogel. ? So Vogel: seLucás. 
3 86 deleted by Reiske. 


124 











BOOK V. zo. r-rr. r 


of a peculiar nature come to the city and by taking 
the baths regain their health in a marvellous manner. 
Ánd this island contains the far-famed mines of 
styptic earth,! from which the Liparians and Romans 
derive great revenues. For since styptie earth is 
found nowhere else in the inhabited world and is of 
great usefulness, it stands to reason that, because 
they enjoy a monopoly of it and can raise the price, 
they should get an unbelievable amount of money; 
for on the island of Melos alone is there found a 
deposit of styptie earth, but a small one, which 
cannot suffice for many cities. The island of the 
Liparians is also small in extent but suflieiently 
fruitful and, so far as the wants of men are con- 
cerned, it supports even a high degree of luxury; 
for it supplies the inhabitants with a multitude of 
üsh of every kind and contains those fruit trees 
which can offer the most pleasure when one enjoys 
them. But as regards Lipara and the rest of the 
islands of Aeolus, as they are called, we shall be 
satisfied with what has been said. 

11. Beyond Lipara, toward the west, lies an island 
in the open sea which is small in extent and unin- 
habited and bears the name Osteodes? because of the 
following strange occurrence. During the time when 
the Carthaginians were waging many great wars with 
the Syracusans they were employing notable forces 
on both land and sea, and on the occasion in question 
they had many mercenaries who were gathered from 
every people; such troops are always trouble-makers 
and make it their practice to cause many and serious 

! "This is the alumen described by Pliny (35. 52), probably 
an iron sulphate, which was used in dyeing and in medicine. 

2$ 6 Bony." 

| 125 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Üóres vrouetaUo, kal páXwra óray TOUS pua ods 
eókaipcus p?) AauBávtocw, exp'jcavro xai Tóre 
7j cvvyet pq Sovpyta. T€ KüL TóÀum. Óvres yàp 
TOV apiÜuóv cs éfarioXiAcot, Kai TOUS pua Uo0s 
OUK &moAapuBávovres, TÓ pev Tpóxrov Gvvrpéxovres 
karepócov TÓv orparmyóyv, éketvcov à dmopovpévoy 
Xpnuáreov «ai roÀÀd rus àvaBaAMopévov Tüs dz096- 
ceu, cymeitovv rois ómÀoig üpvvetoÜat TOUS Kap- 
Xn9oviovs, KaL Tàs xetpas mpooéóepov TOoÍs T)yepuóo1. 
3 Tfjs 0€ yepovatas éykaAosars kai TÍjs Oiadopás 
et pov ekkaop.évns, 7j pv yepovaa TOÍS 
orporyots €v dzoppijrois mpocéra£ev &óavíaa. 
Távras ToUs éyrcaAovjuévovs oi 96 Aafóvres Tàs 
évroAás, Kai TOUS pua0odópovs éufiácavres eis 
Tís vas, é£émÀevcav «cs émi mwa mroÀepaktyv 
xpetav. mpocmAeUcavres 06 Tjj mpoe.unuévn vio, 
kai mávras ToUs pu4oÜ8odópovs dmoBuácavres eis 
a)T/v, &émAÀevcav karaAuróvres év aT TOUS 
éykadovp.évovs. ot [Oe paa8odópot mepuavyeis 6 OvTeg 
Tjj TepioTáce, ka py) Ovváp.evot ToOs Kapyn8oví- 
OUS ápsvaca:, Au Ow$Üdpqcav. év vio Bé 
pAKpü TocoUTQV aixpaAcro reAevrqodvrav cvvé- 
Br TÓV TÓTOV oA yov 6 óvra mÀmpaOfjvat TÓV oa TOv 
áo js abr(as 7) vijoos Sruxe Tfjs npocyopías. oc 
pev. odv paaUodópot ToUTOV TÓV Tpómov mrapavou- 
Üévres Tíjs peytarüs ovpjopüs érvxov, évóeig 
vpoéfjs Dad Üapévres. 
12. "Hpets 9 éme 76 Trepi TÓS AioAiBas vijcous 
GujAÜojev, év uéper ràs. ék pc pépovs vijoovs 





! ie. of the Carthaginians, 
126 | 





BOOK Wis iue 


mutinies, especially on occasions when they do not 
get their pay promptly, and at the time of which we 
are speaking they  practised their accustomed 
knavishness and audacity. For being in number 
about six thousand and not receiving their pay, they 
at first massed together and inveighed against the 
generals, and since the latter were without funds 
and time after time kept deferring payment, they 
threatened that they would take up arms and 
 wreak vengeance upon the Carthaginians, and they 
even laid violent hands upon the commanders. 
Though the senate! admonished them, the quarrel 
always blazed forth the more, whereupon the senate 
ave secret orders to the generals to do away with 
all the recalcitrants; and the generals then, acting 
upon the commands, embarked the mercenaries 
upon ships and sailed off as if upon some mission of 
war. And putting in at the island we have men- 
tioned they disembarked all the mercenaries upon it 
and then sailed away, leaving the recalcitrants upon 
the island. The mercenaries, being in deep distress 
at the condition in which they found themselves and 
yet unable to wreak vengeance upon the Cartha- 
ginians, perished from hunger. And since it was a 
small island on which so many confined men died, it 
came to pass that the place, little as it was, was filled 
with their bones; and this is the reason why the 
island received the name it bears. In this way, 
then, did the mercenaries, who were guilty of crime 
in the manner we have described, suffer the greatest 
misfortune, períshing from lack of food. 
19. But for our part, since we have set forth the 
facts concerning the islands of the Aeolides, we shall 
consider it appropriate to make mention in turn of 


127 








& 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Keuévas &varypa djs d£wócouev.  TÍs yàp 2Zuce- 
as ék rob karà ueonufpiav Qiépovs víjao: Tpels 
mpókeumrau TeÀdyiat, kai voUrov ékdovy mÓÀw 
éyeu kai Aunévas Svvaqiévous TOÍS xeu Sopévows 
adeat mapéxeatat TÜV &aédAetav. «ai por) 
pev eeu 5 zpoco;yopevojuévi) MeAirg, Tv Zvpa- 
Kovaóv Gmréxovoa cTaOLovs cs Ókrakociovs, kai 
Auiévas uev exe zoÀÀo)s aL Oa. óópovs rats 
e? yprociats, Tos. Oé «arowkofvras Taís oUDG(0ats 
eióatpovas- Teyviras T€ yàp exet TravrOoOOgOUS 
TOÁS epyactaus, Kpata-Tous Oé ToUs o0 óvta. sroiotv- 
TOS Tfj Te ÀemróvT. kat Tfj uaAa«óry Tw Owmrpenf), 
TáSs T€ oik)ces dfuoÀóyovs kai kaoreokevac- 
pévas diloripucos yetacows kai Kovidja.ot mepvrró- 
Tepov. &on 0' 7 vfjcos [U GDowiiccov Gmroucos, 
ot Tas éparoptaus OtaTeivovres puéyou ToD kaTá 
T)v  OUow keavoü karaQvytv eiyov. ra rq, 
ebAtpievov. obcav Ka Keuuéymy veAoyíav: OU dv 
airiay oL karoucotvres avi cox pra roópuevo 
KaT& woÀÀà Ou TOUS épTÓpovs TOXÜ Tols T€ 
Piois &véópagLov kal ras Só£ois no£8ncav. 

erá óc Ta TT TT vjjoóv éoTiw érépa TTv uev 
mrpooyopiav €XYOvOG. l'a$2os, mreAoyía 9e ai 
Luéotv cÜkaipots kekoopmpévi, Douwteov darOUKOS. 
é£js 9. éoni Képicwa,, Trpós vv AuBoqv veveukvia, 
mróAu &xovoca o pqierpov kai Auiévas e&xpyoro- 
Tárous, o) póvov TGÍs ÉumÓpows, GÀÀà kal cats 
papas vavoiv eüterotivras. 

"Ene óé mepi TÓYV KaTÓ Ti peonufptav vYjOQV 
eipikaqiev, émáviuev ar&Aw. érrt Tàs. é£íjs 7j Awrápa. 


i $e, of Sicily. ? Malta. 
129 





BOOK V. zz. 1-4. 


the islands which lie on the other side.!1 For off the 
south of Sicily three islands lie out in the sea, and 
each of them possesses a city and harbours which 
can offer safety to ships which are in stress of weather. 
The first one is that called Melité,? which lies about 
eight hundred stades from Syracuse, and it possesses 
many harbours whieh offer exceptional advantages, 
and its inhabitants are blest in their possessions ; for 
it has artisans skilled in every manner of craft, the 
most important being those who weave linen, which 
is remarkably sheer and soft, and the dwellings on 
the island are worthy of note, being ambitiously 
constructed with cornices and finished in stueco with 
unusual workmanship. This island is a colony 
planted by the Phoenicians, who, as they extended 
their trade to the western ocean, found in it a place 
of safe retreat, since it was well supplied with 
harbours and lay out in the open sea; and this is 
the reason why the inhabitants of this island, since 
they received assistance in many respects through 
the sea-merchants, shot up quickly in their manner 
of living and increased in renown. | 

After this island there is a second which bears the 
name of Gaulus? lying out in the open sea and 
adorned with well-situated harbours, a Phoenician 
colony. Next comes Cercina,* facing Libya, which 
has a modest city and most serviceable harbours 
which have accommodations not only for merchant 
vessels but even for ships of war. 

But now that we have spoken of the islands which 
are to the south of Sicily, we shall turn back to those 


3 The modern Gozo. 
4 The modern Kerkenna or Kerkenah, at the west end of 


the Lesser Syrtis. 
129 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


vícous rs Keuiévas xarà vó Tuppqyucóv. kaAo- 
pevov qréAo/yos- e ] 
13. Tés yàp Tuppmvias kara Tt" óvop.auLopévmv 
sóv llomAówwv víoós éoTw, jv óvoudLovow 
AiüáAeav. aor 96 Tfj vapaAias ^ dméyovaa 
croBlous de ékaróv v7jv pv mpoonyoptav eter 
àzó ro mÀQovs o8 koc abri] alüáAov.  mérpav 
yàp éxev eroAAi]v ci&qpérw, T|jv répvovotw émi TTV 


M ^ 


yovetav «dl karacKevüy TOU oiofpov, ToÀMyv 
éxovres TO peráAAov GapiAetav. oí yàp Tats 
épyaciats qrpoacÓpedovres kómrovat riy mérpav kai 
vods vu]Üévras ABovs kdovatwe dv 7vot diAoréxvous 
xapívoig"  év 86 cabrous vQ me ToO qrupós 
Tíjkovres TOUS MÜcvs ' kara piepttovaur eis ueyé0n 
opupierpa, rapamrijovu. Tots iBdaus peyáAow omóy- 
yos.  Trabra cvvayopdLovres épmopot kai pera- 
aÀAópevou kopiLovow eis T€ Aukaidpyevav | Kai 
"ee T4ÀÀn Ppmópua.  Tobra, € và dopría miwwés 
dvojpevou kai TexvuTQOV yaAkécv  mÀfjBos áÜpoi- 
Lovres korepyóLovraa, kai mowoÜo: cibfpov TÀd- 
cparo, gavroOurrá. roUrav 86 và uév eis ómiov ? 


címous yoA«evovot, rà Be zpós SuceAAQv kai Ópe- . 


/ A ^^ »y * J ? / / 
aápov. kal rÀv &ÀAov. épyaAetcov eUÜérous TUTrOUS 
duAorexvoloiw- cv KopaLojiévcv Omó TÓY épmrópev 
els mávra Tówmov moÀMA pépu TÍíjs oiKov.évrs 
p.eralauflávet Tfjs ek TobTrOv eüyproTias. 

Mera 86 rjv AlüdAeav víjoós éorw dméyovoa 

^ : i 
pév raíTQS cs vpuukooious oraDtovs, ovoudb erat 

3 ; ^ 
88 jró uéw rQv '"EAXjvow Kéópvos, $zó 96 rÓv 
. 1 mapaMas Wesseling, Awmrápas ADFG, Avrápos mapaMas 
other MSS. L Am qo 
-— 3 óqÀoy Bezzel: ópyéov. 
130 NE 


* 





A EE 3 


e ramis 
Mine Ern 


ioa ART 


A— RC ERE 







BOOK V. r2. ne 3 


which follow upon Lipara and lie in the sea which is 
known as the Tyrrhenian. 

13. Off the city of Tyrrhenia known as Poplonium 
there is an island which men eall Aethaleia.! Jt is 
about one hundred stades distant from the coast and 
received the name it bears from the smoke (aithalos) 
which lies so thick aboutit. For the island possesses 
a great amount of iron-rock, which they quarry in 
order to melt and cast and thus to secure the iron, 
and they possess a great abundance of this ore. 
For those who are engaged in the working of the ore 
erush the rock and burn the lumps which have thus 
been broken in certain ingenious furnaces; and in 
these they smelt the lumps by means of a great fire 
and form them into pieces of moderate size which 
are in their appearance like large sponges. "These 
are purchased by merchants in exchange either for 
money or for goods and are then taken to Dicae- 
archeia? or the other trading-stations, where there 
are men who purchase such cargoes and who, with the 
aid of à multitude of artisans in metal whom they 
have collected, work it further and manufacture iron 
objects of every description. Some of these are 
worked into the shape of armour, and others are 
ingeniously fabricated into shapes well suited for 
two-pronged forks and sickles and other such tools; 
and these are then carried by merchants to every 
region and thus many parts of the inhabited woxld 
have a share in the usefulness which accrues from 
them. 

After Aethaleia there is an island, some three 
hundred stades distant, which is called Cyrnus by 
the Greeks, but Corsica by the Romans and those 


1 Xlba. * The Roman Puteoli. 


l 

" 
" D 
f 


CeSUuSUNEL DUIS 


zu 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


"Popuatan KQi TÓy éyxeplv Kópoika. abr 
ES víjgos e?mpooóppioTros o00a káAAarov éyeL 
Auiéva TÓV óvopa b óp.evov Xwpaxkóotov. Ündpyovot 
9 ev abTj kai mróAets &ÉuAoyot S/o, kal TOTO 
7) pev KáAapis, 7 8é Nüxoua mpocaryopeóeraa. 
roÓrQV 96 Tiv uév KáAapw (baoka«ts eKTLOQV, 
kai xpóvov Tw karroudjoavres ózoó T vppnváv 
e£epArjonaav é« Ts v5joov. Tv Oé Nücatay 
ékTioay Tupprvoi ÜoÀo/rrokparoÜvres Küi Tüs 
Ka rà Ti Tuppnvíav KeuLévas vijgovs iOLoTroLOD- 
pevow.  émi oé Tivas Xpóvovs Tv év Tj Kipyo 
TrÓÀeQv Kupuedovres cAápavov Tap TÓV éyxcoptov 
$ópovs pnrivqv xai knpóv kal poA, Qvopévov 


ToUraYy OcjtAOv év Tfj vijoq. TÀ O dvopdmroBa. | 


Tà Küpru. Ouadépew Soket TÓV &ÀÀcov SosÀcv eis 


Tàüs karà& TOv Díov xpeías, $vaucfis rabr)s Tís 


ióvOT)TOS vapakoAovÉosars. 7 o 6j vfjcos 
eOpeyéOns. oóca moAÀMv Tfs xpas ópewmv yet, 
memvkaapévn Opupiots cvvexéot kab zrorauu0ts Oua.p- 
peopévov pukpots. 

4. QX o cyxcóptou vpodaís pév  xpóvrai 
yáakri kai peur ica kpéaat, 5a. (AÓs TávTO 
TabTa. mrapexopévrs Tíjs xópas, T, Trpós aAM- 
Aovs Biofewy émLelKÓs kai Oucalos Trap, mávras 
gxe00v TOUS GAAovs BapBápovs: c4 Té yàp kar 
TV ópewv év Tos Gévüpeaw. e)puoKópueva, renpta. 
TÓV mp eOptoKóvTQv cart, pijoevós pda 
Tobvros, Tá Te mpópoca. opietous SveiAmpiiéva,, Küv 
unàels $vAárTD, odberat TOS kerrrnevous, €v T€ 
TOig GÀAdus rois év TQ i korà pépos oikovo- 





: Qalled by Herodotus (1. 165) Alalia, the Aleria of the 
Romans, "The ríame 'Calaris " here is probably a corruption. 


132 


Exinde cccuue 


cse 


ipee um 


- EE 
o 






LI E tI NEN Ens: pv CNN ES "c ae RN RR C ———náà 








BOOK V. x5. 3-14. 1 


who dwell upon it. 'This.island, being easy to 
land on, has a most excellent harbour which is 
called Syracosium. "There are also on it two notable 
cities, the one being known as Calaris and the other 
as Nicaea. Calaris! was founded by Phocaeans, 
who made their home there for a time and were then 
driven out of the island by Tyrrhenians; but Nicaea 
was founded by Tyrrhenians at the time they were 
masters of the sea and were taking possession of the 
islands lying off Tyrrhenia. They were lords of the 
cities of Cyrnus for a considerable period and exacted 
tribute of the inhabitants in the form of resin, wax, 
and honey, since these things were found in the island 
in abundance. Slaves from Cyrnus are reputed to 
be superior to all others for every service which the 
life of man demands, nature herself giving them 
this characteristic. And the entire island, which is 
of great extent, has mountainous land over much of 
its area, which is thickly covered with continuous 
forests and traversed by small rivers. 

14. The inhabitants of Cyrnus use for their food 
milk and honey and meat, the land providing al 
these in abundance, and among themselves they live 
lives of honour and justice, to a degree surpassing 
practically all other barbarians. Any honeycomb, 
for instance, which may be found in the trees on 
the mountainside belongs to the first man to find it, 
no one disputing his claim; their cattle are dis- 
tinguished by brands, and even though no man may 
watch over them, they are still kept safe for their 
owners; and in their other ways of living one and 


? But Strabo (5. 2. 7) says just the opposite, owners of 
Corsican slaves repenting of their purchase even though they 
had paid almost nothing for them. 


133 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


P^ ^ A ^ 
picis ÜavpacTós mporuuoi. TÓ Oucomnpayetv. 
9 ^ 7 
2 zapadofórarov O' éori TÓ map abrois ywójevov 
^ d U * e TENA 
KüTà Tüs Tv Tékvo yevéaew- OTav yàp 7) your 
V DR / 
véky, rarus uev o)8euía yiverat sep, 77]v Aoyeiav 
émquiéÀAews, ó 9  áv)p aj$ríás àvameocv ds vocáv 
AoyeVera. raüKkvàs Tuépas, djs ToU acparos abTÓ 
^ & ^ / 
3 kakomaÜoüvros.  $erau O6 xarà 7T)v víjoov raUTqV 
1 ? , A / à * ^ A] A 
kaL TU6os sÀe(orQ kai Ouíjopos, Ov Tv kat TO 
^ / 
péA 7Ó yuvópevov év Taórg mavreAOs yiverai 
/ ^^ o $5 Ld A 8 / 
vikpóv.  karowcotot 9. abT)v DBápBapow r5v Oiw- 
] / 
Aekrov éyovres éf£qMaypuévgv kat Óvokaravonrov: 
TÓv 8' ápiÜuóv Dnápxovoww O-mép To)s rpuapvpiovs. 
15. 'Exouévg 86 raórg9s éot vfjaos 1j rpocayo- 
pevopévg Xap8d, T pév pueyéÜew mapamAnowos 
^ , / 5 £ Á p^ 
Tfj XukeMq, korowcovpévg O0 m0 BapBdpwv TÓÀv 
óvouatopévoy '"TIoAactov, o9s vojttovow drroyóvous 
etva, TOv uerà 'loAdov kai T&v (comiadóv karot- 
kncávrov. kürà yàp ro)s xypovovs év ois 'Hpa- 
KAfjs ro)s OtwaBeBonuévovs dOÜAovs éréAew, vraiówv 
óvrcwv aóTQ oÀAOv ék rv (eamiov Üvyarépow, 
Tovrovs 'HpakAfs kará Two xpnopóv éfamé- 
5 A M » ,; €^ , 3 7 
GTeLÀev eig 2impOc Kai per aUvrÓv OUvauu à£ió- 
A *EAA / C EN Fon ? €t M 3 , 
Aoyov "vov Te kai BapBápcov éri 7j» àvouctav. 
2 raUT)s Oé mpoeorQkos. 'lóAaos ó  dOcAÀduOo0s 
"* S » 2 "^ 
HpakAéovs!  karaAaBOpevos «kwev év abf 
. jA ? A / 3 A £ 
zOÀew GfioÀóÓyovus, kai TT)v xopav karakAÀnp- 





Xu o om mcd i Cus dc om E Rm: 


Soci eA darn re 


— 


^s d !* Vogel would add xai 77v vjcov after "HpaxAéovs. 
134 | | 


SOHSGUEDUEUTE M EE SR e er 


SSE 


Mu D NRI 
CELO Ae 








BOOK V. I4. I-15. 2 


all it is astonishing how they revere uprightness 
before everything else. But the most amazing thing 
which takes place among them is connected with 
the birth of their children; for when the wife is 
about to give birth she is the object of no concern 
as regards her delivery, but it is her husband who 
takes to his bed, as though sick, and he practises 
couvade for a specified number of days, feigning 
that his body is in pain.! There also grows in this 
island box-wood in great abundance and of excellent 
quality, and it is due to it that the honey of the island 
is altogether bitter. And the island is inhabited by 
barbarians who have a language which is different 
from others and hard to understand, and they are 
in number more than thirty thousand. 

15. Adjoining Cyrnus is an island which is called 
Sardinia, and in size it is about the equal of Sicily 
and is inhabited by barbarians who bear the name 
of Iolaés and are thought to be descendants of the 
men who settled there along with lolaüs and the 
Thespiadae.? For at the time when Heracles was 
accomplishing his famous Labours he had many sons 
by the daughters of Thespius, and these Heracles 
dispatched to Sardinia, in accordance with a certain 
oracle, sending along with them a notable force com- 
posed of both Greeks and barbarians, in order to plant 
a colony. Iolaüs, the nephew of Heracles, was in 
charge of the undertaking, and taking possession 
of the island he founded in it notable cities, and 
when he had divided the land into allotments he 


1 Strabo (8. 4. 17) ascribes this custom to the Basques, and 
Apollonius Rhodius (2. 101 ff.) to the Tibareni; it is still 
practised among several primitive peoples. 

2 Op. Book 4. 29. 2 ft. 


135 




























DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ovyTjaas TOUS  uév Aaoos zpooyópevaev aj 
cavrot ToAaets;" karaoxeaae 8é kai yvpváoua. 
kai Üedv vao)s kai TAA "mávra TÓ Tpós fiov 
dvÜpcmrav eoóOaipova, c ów Ómropviuara péxpt TÀvOe 
TÓv Katpdiv Oaptévev. Tà pev yàp káAMoTa. vre8ta. 
TV mpoonyopíav ám ékelvov AaBórra. "IoAáeta 
kaAetraa, TO Oé mAfjüos péxpt Tob vOv $vÀávr« 
TT|v üzrÓ oAáov zrpocyopíay. 

To6 9€ Trepi TÍS Gxrotklas xpnouo8 mépiéyovros 
OÓTL Toe Tfjs dzrOLKLAS LUE Kowcvijoao L,- 
pevet TÓ Tfjs éAevÜepias à Gsravra. TÓV alóva,, cvvépr 
TÓV Xpneauóv mapo&ótcos péxpv Tob vOv a)cvovo- 
pav Tots éyxcoptots dodAevrov $vA& Eat.  Kapxn- 
Sóvuot T€ yàp emi srÀéov ioxÜcavres «ai Tfjs vücov 
kparijaavres oük OóvwfÜncav  ToUs zy pokorra- 
cXóvras Tiv víjoov karadovAdcoaoÜat, dA ot 
pev ToAaeís karradvyóvres eig T7)V ópeurv «ai 
karravelous oik1j0eis Korrookevagavres &rpedov 
TroÀÀas dryéAas Boeknuárov, Qv mra pexojiévay 
Soa juAets 7po$às 1) Tjpkotvro dedu yáAa kai 


TUpOV «ai kpéa., . kai TÍS uev ve0viO0s yis éxxcpj- 


cavres Tv d TS épyaatas kakondÜetay égékAwav, 
T»v 9. ópeuv vegóp.evot Kai tov € éyovres dgpotpov 
kakomaÜeias um zrpoeipnuévaus Trpojals Owré- 
Àecav Xpdóp.evot. TÓV Óé Kapxyv8ovicov mroMáris 
G£toA ois Ovvápeot oTparevodvrov. ém ajrojs, 
Ouà ràg Óvoxcpías kat Tiv év coís Karayyetois 
Ovo'rpazréAetay Buépieway GBoUAcrot. TÓ O6 TeÀev- 
TGiov 'Popateov  émuparosvrcow | kal moAAákis 


1 Cf. Vol. It, p. 436, critical note. 


136 


i BOOK V. zs. 2-5 


called the folk of the colony lolaés after himself; 
and he also constructed gymnasia and temples to 
the gods and everything else which contributes to 
making happy the life of man, memorials of this 
remaining even to this day; since the fairest plains 
there derive their name from him and are called 
" Jolaeia," and the whole body of the people pre- 
serve to the present the name which they took from 
Iolaüs. | 

Now the oracle regarding the colony contained 
also the promise that the participants in this colony 
should maintain. their freedom for all time, and it 
has indeed. come to pass that. the oracle, contrary to 
what one would expect, has preserved. autonomy for 
the natives unshaken to this day. Thus the Cartha- 
ginians, though their power extended far and they 
subdued the island, were not able to enslave its '* 
former possessors, but the lolaés fled for safety to 
the mountainous part of the island and built under- 
ground dwellings, and here they raised many flocks 
and herds which supplied them with food in abund- 
ance, so that they were able to maintain themselves 
on à diet of milk and cheese and meat; and since 
they had retired from the plain country, they 
avoided the hardship which aecompanies labour, but 
ranged over the mountainous part of the island and 
led a life which had no share in hardship, in that they 
continued to use the foods mentioned above. And 
although the Carthaginians made war upon them 
many times with considerable armies, yet because 
of the rugged nature of the country and the diff 
culty of dealing with their dug-out dwellings the 
people remained unenslaved. Last of all, when the 
Romans conquered the island and oftentimes made 


137 





j 
, 
1 
i 
j 
| 
] 
1 
" 
1 
^ 
] 
i 
E 
Tum 
D 
? y 
h 
UR 
T 
du 
RN 
Ln 
Wu 
DM 
Dan 
dr 
b 
" 
j 
"a 
] 
Ae 
AN 
EM 
bal 
Er 
b 





eec 
SPSEERSME 








DIODORUS OF. SICILY 


em abroos oTparevoávrov, 8ià raras Tàs airías 
dxetpcirot mroAepig. Svvápet Oiépewav. o) pa 
GÀAà kar TOUS &pxatovs Xpóvovs IóAaos p.év 
cvykarackevácas TÓ kamà, T dmOUcLaw eravíj- 
ev eis mv "EAAdóa,, oL Oé GeozriáBas Ts vücov 
mpoeoTávres. eni sroAÀas yeves TÓ TeÀevrait tov 
égémreoov eis TJ "IraA(av, xai kaTqQkrQcoar év 
TOÍS KüTÓ Kóuqv Tómous, T0 O &AAo mAfos ek- 
BapBapaUev kal mpoarmaápevov ék TÓv eyxeplav 
TOUS Gpiorovs jyeuóvas. OwedíAaÉe Tiv éAevÜepiav 
péxpe àv ka" "ips Xpóvcov. 

16. 'Huets o dpkosvrcos elpqkóres epi cíjs 
ZiapBóvos Suéeuuev qrept TÓÀYy ees Keuiévay viec. 
perà yàp Tüs srpoetpnuévas víjoós i éoTu óvopa-- 
Lopévr pev Ivrvooca, TV óc mrpoamyoplay 
€yovoda dió ToO mri jQovs TÀv küT abTy)r $vopié- 
vav vurÜcw.  TeÀmyiía O. o0ca Duo Ty) Kev dmó 
pev "HpakAMéovs grnÀàv srÀó8v Tiepav Tpuv «ai 
TÓV toqv vukTÓyv, dro 8é  Aufóns Quépas Kai 
vukTÓs, àzó O. 'lB8ngpías pas Tépas: karà e 
TÓ néyeÜos , Tapomiiovós écri Kopicópa.. kaTà. 
06 Tv dperzv oco. perpía TÜv pev &preAódorov 
Xxopav oMynv € €xet, TÀS E. éAaas eumedvrevpévas 
€v Tos korivois. TÓv 8é $vopérov e a)Tfj kaÀ- 
Arreóew $aci Tv paAakóngra TÀY épicov.  OLetÀm- 
pé 9e veO0iots ü£toAóyow kal vyecAóQows. TróAw 
éxet Te óvopabopévmy "Epecov, dzrowov Kapxyv8o- 
viov. exe 96 kai Aukévas dEwoAyovs kai Tex dv 
KüTQOOKeUds eopeyéDeis KaL oUciy míos có 
Aagekeodopéuap: karowotior 9' aóriv BápBapot 


1j doc Wenelog yijaovs. 
138 











BOOK V. xs. 5-16. 3 


war on them, they remained unsubdued by the 
troops of an enemy for the reasons we have men- 
tioned. 1n the early period, however, Iolaüs, after 
helping to establish the affairs of the colony, returned 
to Greece, but the Thespiadae were the chief men 
of the island for many generations, until finally they 
were driven out into Italy, where they settled in the 
region of Cymé ;! the mass of the colonists who were 
left behind became barbarized, and choosing the best 
among the natives to be their chieftains, they have 
maintained their freedom down to our own day. 

16. But now that we have spoken about Sardinia 
at sufficient length we shall discuss the islands in 
the order in which they lie. After those we have 
mentioned there comes first an island called Pity- 
ussa,? the name being due to the multitude of pine- 
trees (pilyes) which grow throughout it. It lies out 
in the open sea and is distant from the Pillars of 
Heracles a voyage of three days and as many nights, 
from Libya a day and a night, and from Iberia one 
day; and in size it is about as large as Corcyra. 
The island is only moderately fertile, possessing little 
land that is suitable for the vine, but it has olive 
trees which are engrafted upon the wild olive. And 
of all the products of the island, they say that the 
softness of its wool stands first in excellence. "The 
island is broken up at intervals by notable plains and 
highlands and has a city named Eresus, a colony of 
the Cartbaginians. nd it also possesses excellent 
harbours, huge walls, and aà multitude of well-con- 
structed houses. lts inhabitants consist of bar- 


i1 Oumae. ERG ERN 
3 It is in fact, the two islands, Ibiza and Formentera. 


139 


x c d 

































iOS, 


d 


spinge peace 


Seseesqusores csi pareie siigoimqsiebeqredgni etie bdo iueseo cer mme ames rag 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


vravroBamot, mrÀetoroL 8e Dotvuces. óó0 Garou 
pós abrfjs yéyovev DoT€pov éreaw éxaTO» éÉo- 
Kovra. Tfjs kavrà Tv Kapyn8óva. kriaecs. 

r6 AMA 9. Ümdpyovot vijcou Koc" àvrucpo TÍjs 
IBnpías, jTÓ pev Tv "EAMrjveov óvop.a.ópevas 
lujo Ói TO .roUs évotkotvras yvpvoos Tíjs 
coU fjros Biotv corrà vir ToU Üépovs «pav, jo 6c 
TÀV éyycpicv xai TÓV "Popatov erpocayopei- 
ovra. * BaAuapióes dàmó Tob áAÀew raís o ev- 
Oóvaws  Ai&ovs peydAovs káAora, TÓV Gmrávreo 
dvÜpdomaxv. ToUra ES ) petLoov peytam) saaóív éoTt 
perà rás émrà wíjcovs, ZukeAMav, Zapód, Kórrpov, 
Kprrnv, Evotav, Kópvov, Aéafov, Gmréxet 9€ 
TÍjs JBnpías mrÀo8v zjpepovov 5j O0. éAárrow 
KékAvra, pev mpós Tv ét, Tpédet E krf0 ToÀÀÓ 
kai mavroOazá, pora ó Tipaóvovs, ueydYovs 
uev TOS , &vaorrjpiacw, Ümepdyovras óé e  raís 


peius. dpjórepau. 9^ ai víjoo xcpav éyovouw 


dyaDiyy kapmodópov KaL «rAfjBos TÓV karowoUvray 
jwép ToUs Tpuouvpiovs, rÓv O6 TpÓs Tv rpodiv 
yevenuácov olvov pev OÀoaxepós o2 $épovat: 
O10 kal rávres etoty bmepBoAf, mrpós TÓV olvov 
eükarádopot, Ou& TO orraviGew sap! aDTots- cAaíov 
óc TravreAÓs gmavitovres. Koragkevdbovow eK 
«fs extvov, kai puyvóvres Dcí« oTéoT. TÓ, Gcóa.ra, 
a)TÓv àAecidovat ToDTQ. 

MáAora 8e TÀv Garávreov Óvres dUoyóvas ? 2 
TpoTuuOcw abràs émi rooobrov, cuoTE ÓTQy Tivég 

i For mpocayopedovrou Vogel would read pocayopevleicas 
or delete the word. 

* duAoysva, Vogel: diAoysvoiot. - 


140 


quse 


rl 


ce. T ERU 


SSROSU Pues o rReeeto s 3 


ERES "Y - 
CESRAEIMUUINEN dee e 


DUCREE. 


Ende 


Ic 


E 
AE SS 


Eus 


nd 


LOT TUE, TUTU egedenb siege autres ai Rr Gum s Sl esi tie 


n ——€—(OEQ 


AUREIS EDi E uf 


T 


BOOK V. 16. 3-17. 3 


barians of every nationality, but Phoenicians pre- 
ponderate. "The date of the founding of the colony 
falls one hundred and sixty years after the settle- 
ment of Carthage.! 

17. There are other islands lying opposite Iberia, 
which the Greeks call Gymnesiae because the in- 
habitants go naked (gymnot) of clothing in the summer 
time, but which the inhabitants of the islands and 
the Romans call Baliarides because in the hurling 
(ballein) of large stones with slings the natives are 
the most skilful of all men. The larger of these is 
the largest of all islands after the seven, Sicily, 
Sardinia, Cyprus, Crete, Euboea, Cyrnus, and 
Lesbos;? and it is a day's voyage distant from Iberia; 
the smaller lies more to the east and maintains 
great droves and flocks of every kind of animal, 
especially of mules, which stand very high and are 
exceptionally strong. Doth islands have good land 
which produces fruits, and a multitude of inhabitants 
numbering more than thirty thousand, but as for their 
food products they raise no wine whatsoever; con- 
sequently the inhabitants are one and all exceedingly 
addicted to indulgenee in wine because of the 
scarcity of it among them; and they are altogether 
lacking in olive-oil and therefore prepare an oil from 
the mastich-tree, which they mix with the fat from 
pigs, and with this they anoint their bodies. 

The Baliares are of all men the most fond of 
women and value them so highly above everything 
else that, when any of their women are seized by 


1 'The date of the founding of Carthage given by Timaeus, 
whom Diodorus is probably following here, was 814. ».c. 

? Strabo (14. 2. 10) makes the same assertion, on the 
authority of Timaeus, but adds that Timaeus was in error. 


141 


t 


v À—— 


Ec Heg m eite ape see snet ede es 


—————EÉE 











DIODORUS OF SICILY 


yvvaikes. ónó rv mrpoomrAeóvra Aperóv aXAóotw, 
dvri pu4Gs yvvaucós vpets 7 Térrapas &vOpas 
BiBóvres AvrpoSvraa. oikobiot o $mo TOÍs Koi|dot 
vérpais, KaL Trap. TOUS kpyvoDs ópóypLora kara- 
akeváLovres KaL kaUóAov TroÀÀOUS TóOUS ÓTovÓ- 
povs mowÜvres év To)row Pioüow, dua TT)v éÉ 
4 abTÓv oxémy kai &o$dAeuy £upoóyevo:. áp- 
yvupQ 8é kai ypvad vopiaq.or To mapázrav oU 
XpGvraw, xat kaÜóAov Taba ciad;yetw eis TTJV 
vijcov KcDovotv: airiav 5€ Ta ry éuóépovau, 
ÓTt TÓ TaAÀauóv "Hpa«AMjs € corpárevaev éri I'npvó- 
vi», ovra. Xpvodopos uev vióv, mAetorov óé Kekrq- 
jiévov &pyvpóv T€ kai Xpvaóv. LA obv àvemi- 
BosAevrov € éycct Tv «ríjow, venipukroy éavToÍs 
émoboay Tóv éf dpyópov T€ KüGL Xpuco0 mAobrov. 
OlÓTep GKoAoUDcos Tar Tj kpiaet kaà ! màs 
yeyevupévas záÀa4 TOTéÉ erparreias vzapà Kapxn- 
Ooviots -oUs piaOods oUK darekópu ov eis Tàs 
TrorpiBas, à evosijuevot yvvaikags KaL otvov 
dmavra róv uta0óv els raóra kavrexopnyouy 
18. IIapdGo£ov 'Oé 7L Kai KaTá. TOUS yápovs 
vopajov Tap. abrois eoru év yàp TOS kará. 
TOUS yápovs eoarylaus oikelcov Té kai düwv karà 
TV fucia ó arpóyros áel KaL Ó Deórepos kai oí 
Aovrroi karrá TÓ ees. péoyovrat rais vip. dats àvà. 
pépos, éaxárov ToÜ vupdiov rvyxdvovros TaÓTüS 
. 2 Ts TUuwjs. iBuov 9é Ti TOt0ÜcL kal savreAdOs 
é£&nAAaypuévov epi Tüs TÓV rereAevrrykóray TG dás? 
ovykójavres yàp £Àos Tà né ToÓ odjaros 
* xarà Dindorf: &du. 


; So Madvig : xareydpilov. 
*? 7às . . . raóás Dindorf: rfjs . .". radijs. 


142 





ke 
En ? 


ES 


Ee 
RO 





. order, and the last one to enjoy this privilege is the 


























BOOK V. rj. 3-18. 2 


visiting pirates and carried off, they will give as 
ransom for a single woman three and even four 
men. Their dwellings they make under hollow 
rocks, or they dig out holes along the faces of sharp 
crags, in general putting many parts of them under- 
ground, and in these they pass their time, having 
an eye both to the shelter and to the safety which 
such homes afford. Silver and gold money is not 
used by them at all, and as a general practice its 
importation into the island is prevented, the reason 
they offer being that of old Heracles made an expedi- 
tion against Geryones, who was the son of Chrysaor 
and possessed both silver and gold in abundance! 
Consequently, in order that their possessions should 
consist in that against which no one would have EV 
designs, they have made wealth in gold and silver EN. 
alien from themselves. And so, in keeping with this i0 
decision of theirs, when in early times they served E 
onee in the campeigns of the Carthaginians, they — 8 
did not bring back their pay to their native land . | B 
but spent it all upon the purchase of women and DM 
wine. | 
18. The Baliares have also an amazing custom EN 
which they observe in connection with their mar- —.  ., | ! 
riages; for during their wedding festivities the rela- E. 
tives and friends lie with the bride in turn, the. | .. 
oldest first and then the next oldest and the rest in —. ^. 


M ORE 
- - unes es GRE ut ek 


npe 


——— —— 


bridegroom.? Peculiar also and altogether strange 
is their practice regarding the burial of the dead; .. 
for they dismember the body with wooden knives, . 
! Op. Book 4. 17. "OR EMAMS QN 
? A similar custom is ascribed by Herodotus (4.172) to the ... ; 
Nassmones of Libya. | M d Ms 
143 








; DIODORUS OF SICILY 


eis  üyyetov | éuBáAAovot kai Aflous BasiAets 
égriÜéaouw. ómuopuós LA ccriv arots Tpets 
coevoóvaa, kai rOUTOV píav pév mepi TV kedaAnv 
&xovaw, Gy óé zepi TÜV. yaoTépa, Trpirqv à 
€v Tails yepoí. Karà Oé vàs TroAepkás Xpetas 
BáXovat Aifious TroÀD uelLovs Tv dA OUTOS 
eróvcos, cre 8okelv TÓ BAnév dmó TOS küTQ- 
7réArov $épeoÜau O0 kai KaTà TÓS Teuxopaxtas 
év Taie mpoofoAats Ümrovres ToUs émi TÓv 
énáA eov é$eorávras kararpavpuaribovat, év àé 
rais "raporráeot ToUs T€ Üvpcoós kai và Kpdn) 
kal my gkemaoijpuov ómÀov cvrrpiBovot. kara. 
óc Tijv eóoroxtav. obrcos GkpiBets eiow, «ore kara 
TÓ mÀetorov quo) ápaprávew Tob TpokeuLévov 
okoToÜ0. atria óc TOUTGV at cvvexe(s ék Trat&cov 
peAérau, kaU' &s jwOó TOv UNE &vaykdbovra 
vraies OvTes gUvexós : o evo ovy mpokeuiévou 
yàp ckomoD kard Ti ÉÍÜÀov TpTQuévov &prov, o2 
mpórepov StBorau. TÓ peAeróvri doyely, Écos dv 
TUXOV TOÜ ÓpTOoU gu yxcpoUp.evov Aáfm mapa Tíjs 
pnTpos kora.dayety ToDrOv. 

SCEmé or epi TÓV évTOS "HpakAeov oTt)- 
Adv Keutévayy viae Oel AUOauev,. "epi TÓYy Ka rà 
TÓV 4 Kcavov Qoo» Své£uuev. KO. T, yàp Tv 
AufUgv. keira? sreAoryía. víjcos GEuGAoyos pév TÓ 
p.eyeoen, keutevr) àé kar TÓV (qkeavóv dméyet 
7Ào8v daró Tfjs AuBóns. Tiepav gÀesvov, KeKÀu- 
pévg pos ri OUcw.  &wei 06 xepav kaprodópov, 


: guvexós omitted by D, Vogel. 
? u&v after «etras deleted by Bekker. 


144 


NUUAM al 


Su eec ES o 


Sie n 


SEA siete eunt Sacs 


ENS 


VOleSRge i petuic uto IR TU NU SES ASS ES 


re ER s 


dicks ierius 


ic osuere 


E 
Suc 


Andre 


E cL M 


TEE 


Sem 


ede 


inem SMEs 
fen 


Vased ceca 


E 


BOOK V. z8. 2-19. 1 


and then they place the pieces in a jar and pile 
upon it a heap ofstones. Their equipment for fight- 
ing consists of three slings, and of these they keep 
one around the head, another around the belly, and 
the third in the hands. In the business of war they 
hurl much larger stones than do any other slingers, 
and with such force that the missile seems to have 
been shot, as it were, from a catapult; consequently, 
in their assaults upon walled «cities, they strike 
the defenders on the battlements and disable 
them, and in pitched battles they crush both shields 
and helmets and every kind of protective armour. 
And they are so accurate in their aim that in the 
majority of cases they never miss the target before 
them. The reason for this is the continual practice 
which they get from childhood, in that their mothers 
compel them, while still young boys, to use the 
shing continually; for there is set up before them 
as a target a piece of bread fastened to a stake, and 
the novice is not permitted to eat until he has hit 
the bread, whereupon he takes it from his mother 
with her permission and devours it. 

19. But now that we have discussed what relates 
to the islands which lie within the Pillars of Hercules, 
we shall give an account of those which are in the 
ocean. For there lies out in the deep off Libya an 
island ! of considerable size, and. situated as it is in 
the ocean it is distant from Libya a voyage of a 
number of days to the west. 1ts land is fruitful, 


i "The idyllic eolours in which the picture of this island in 
the Atlantic is painted relieve the historian of any concern 
over its identification, although by some writers it is identified 


-meemossbe eae oe 


rice ii ei eut p era m eg 


Er nes s s Ime qr HR iS rep SA 


n 
E 
£z 
| 
i 
1 
E 
] 
sl 
QT 






with the largest island of the Madeira group, which, however, Ts : 
has no navigable rivers. | s 2 | 


us 











DIODORUS OF SICILY 


voAMv uév ópeunjv, oUK Myr 9& vreOudón. kdAAet 
Suadépovoav. O.appeop.évm yàp TroTQuo VS. TÀa- 
vois ék voUrwv ápOeseraa, Kai zoÀÀo)s puév Éxye 
sapaóeliaous karadirous vavroiots Oévopeow, qaq- 
vÀmÜets 8é kwmelas Seu pupiévas $0act yAvkéour 
éraàews T€ zroAvreAets ralis karragkevats DTápxov- 
gu év a)7j kai Kara, TS kiymetas karegkevaa- 
péva Ra Écovworpua, TTV DuáBeou vOnpày € exovra, 
év ois oi karoukoÜvres KküTO. Tiv Üepuwrv day 
évGuarpiBovot, Gas] Acos Tís Xdpas Xopyyovons 
T. mpós TA daróAavow ka vpudijv. 7 Té Oper) 
Spupods &yer mukvoUs kal pe yd ovs Kai &évópa 
zravroDomró. kaprodópa kal TIpÓS rüs ev TOÍs Ópeot 
O.aéras exovra. * cvvayketas. kai myyàs TroÀAs. 
kaBóAov o 7 víjoos avr) Ka/ráppurós eor vapa- 
TLOLOLS kai yAvkéow $O6act|, OV dv o) póvoy &nó- 
Aavots émvrepmis yiverat Tots épBuobiow év a)Tf, 
GÀÀà «ai mpós Dytetay OtopL4TC)V KG ppm ovp 
BáMerat. kvvipyud T€ Sox) mravroitoy bay 
xal 8npicov Dmdpxew kai roUTOv €v Tas eoo íaus 
erropobvres oU8ev cAAvrés € éxovot àv TIpOs rpudqv 
kai mrolwréMeuw &vrKÓvrav* kal yàp ixOUcv & exet 
vAfj9os 7 zrpookAUtovaa Tf ví. 0&Aarra Ou 
TO $jVoei TÓv Qkeavóv mavraXi, nAjgew vavroOa- 
qv ixBov. kaBóAov 9 m víjeos. as) TÓV 
mrepuketjeyoy dépa. TavreAds eÜkparrov exovca. 
TO TÀéov pépos ToU éwwaUroD óépet vAfjÜos &Kpo- 
Bpscv Kai, TÓv GAÀÀcv TÓv Gpaiav, dare Dokety 
abri» doei Üedv Twv, ok dvÜpdmrev ÜTdpyew 
i Md Ou& Tiv bwepfoX)jv Tfs e)0ouuovias. 


* éyovra deleted by Madvig. 


146 








Gu tesis ea DUNS SMRUUANMERUMRUUA D ER MNMNNDOIT 



































BOOK V. 19. I—-5 i3 ^s ; 


much of it being mountainous and not a little being 
a level plain of surpassing beauty. "Through it flow ( 
navigable rivers which are used for irrigation, and 
the island contains many parks planted with trees 
of every variety and gardens in great multitudes n 
which are traversed by streams of sweet water; on EE 
it also are private villas of costly construction, and 1 
throughout the gardens banqueting houses have been E 
constructed in a setting of flowers, and in them the 4j 
inhabitants pass their time during the summer 
season, since the land supplies in abundance every- 
thing which contributes to enjoyment and luxury. : 
The mountainous part of the island is eovered with cae] 
dense thickets of great extent and with fruit-trees I. 
of every variety, and, inviting men to life among the MU 
mountains, it has cozy glens and springs in great v LE 
number. In a word, this island is well supplied —— Em 
with springs of sweet water which not only makes PEL 
the use of it enjoyable for those who pass their 
life there but also contribute to the health and 
vigour of their bodies. There is also excellent hunt- — E, 
ing of every manner of beast and wild animal, and pr. 
the inhabitants, being well supplied with this game UM 
at their feasts, lack of nothing which pertains to. ut 
luxury and extravagance; for in fact the sea which — 
washes the shore of the island contains à multitude — ^ ^. 
of fish, since the character of the ocean is such that ^. | 
it abounds throughout its extent with fish of every — 
variety. And, speaking generally, the climate of ... 
this island is so altogether mild that it produces in . 
abundance the fruits of the trees and the other : 
seasonal fruits. for the larger part of tht year, so 
that it would appear that the island, because of its. 
exceptional felicity, were a dwelling-place of a race ^. 
ofgods and notof men. . ^ o0 75 S DAMES EM 











to 


DIODORUS. OF SICILY 


20. Korà. uev ov ToUs sra AouoUs Xpóvovs 
dveóperos. v 8:4 TÓv ámÓ Tfj OAqs oikovp.évis 
ékromapóv, vorepov O eópé0n 0.& roa ras airias. 
Dotvuces ék qaÀOAv Xpóvov cvvexós TrÀéovres 
Kar épmopiav. ToÀÀAas uev KOGTrà TV Aióny 
&zrouktas émovicavro, o9k OÀtyas 96 kai fs 
Eopoimus év TOÍS "rpós ebat Kex Aupévots pépeat. 
TÀv 9' émloAdv ajbrois xarà voüv Trpoxepovaóyv, 
vzÀovrovs geyáAovs 7Üpowav, kat To ékrós 

paKAetcv oTnAóv émeBdAovro mAetv, jv c)Keavov 
dvopálovo. Kai arpóvrov pév em aot TOD 
KQTà TÓS orjAas TÓpoU aou éKTLOOV eni TÍS 
E9poxrgs, E obcav xeppórmoov mpooTyyópeucav 
"T'doetpa, év T) TÓ T€ dAÀAa kareokeDacav olkeleos 
TOls TÓTOis kai vaóv 'HpakAéovs more, Kat 
Üvoias karéBe£av peyoAonperrets Trois TÀv Gowt- 
KG &Üect Oto.kovpévas. (TO O' Lepóv ovvéfm 
TOÜUTO kai TÓT€ kai Kará. ToUs vecvrépous xpóvous 
Tu4GoÜa.  mepvrrórepov | uéxpu  Tífs  kaÜ — Tus 
ZÀwias. —«oÀAoi 0é kai TÓV "Popa£ov émudavets 
&vOpes kai peydAas vrpd£ eus Kareuyao evo. émovj- 
cavro uev. TOUT TO Üedj eoxds, ovveréAecav à 
abrós perà TV cvvréAetay TÓV karopÜcop&roxv. 
ot 9 otv GDotvuces Su. Tüs Tpoeumnpuévas aras 
épevvávres TV ékrOs TÓV ornAàv mapaAíav Ka 
vapa T)v AujUgv mÀéovres, óm^ àvéuow ueyáAov 





! Cadiz. The Greek name is derived from the Phoenician 
** Gadir "* OE * Agadir," which the ancient writers understood 
to mean *' citadel " or ** fortress." 

* TThe tenfple'of the Tyrian god Melkart, whom the Greeks 
identified with Heracles. . 
, * Among the *' distinguished " Romans Diodorus may well 
have had in mind his contemporary, Julius Caesar, who 


u^ 


wd 


. BOOK V. zo. 1-3 


Ippecugheckc eins 


20. In ancient times this island remained undiscov- 
ered because ofits distance from the entire inhabited 
world, but it was discovered at a later period for the 
following reason. The Phoenicians, who from ancient 
times on made voyages continually for purposes of 
trade, planted many colonies throughout Libya and 
not a few as well in the western parts of Europe. 
And since their ventures turned out accoiding to 
their expectations, they amassed great wealth and 
essayed to voyage beyond the Pillars of Heracles 
into the sea which men call the ocean. And, first of 
all, upon the Strait itself by the Pillars they founded 
a city on the shores of Europe, and since the land 
formed a peninsula they called the city Gadeira;! 
in the city they built many works appropriate to the 
nature of the region, and among them a costly 
temple of Heracles;? and they instituted magnificent 
sacrifices which were conducted after the manner of 
the Phoenicians. And it has come to pass that this 
shrine has been held in an honour beyond the 
| ordinary, both at the time of its building and in com- 
| paratively recent days down even to our own life-* 
| time. Also many Romans, distinguished men who 
have performed great deeds, have offered vows to 


BOSE cestSEeRC ciae 


E Au 





this god, and these vows they have performed after 
the completion of theirsuecesses. The Phoenicians, 
then, while exploring the coast outside the Pillars. 
| for the reasons we have stated and while sailing 
? along the shore of Libya, were driven by strong 
Ü visited this temple early in his political career and upon 
1 seeing a statue of Alexander the Great, so Suetonius (Julius, 
qi 7. 1) recounts, heaved a sigh because at his àge he had done 
P nothing noteworthy, whereas Alexander in the same years 
- had subdued the world. At & later time Caesar conferred 
Roman citizenship on the city. . — ED Ae 
a 49 


NR 
E: 


Ruebieancur dod neudteecetSet 





"C: 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


áàmqvéyÜoav éri moÀv mÀo)v BV ceavoO.  xe- 
pacÜévres 8' émi moAMàs T)juépas mpoonvéyO0ncav 
Tf wpoewnpévg váow, kat Tv e)0nuioviav a)Tíjs 
kai dicw xaromrevcavres üzaoi yvópwiov émoum- 


4 cav. O0 kal lvppavov ÜaAarrTokporoUvrcw kai 


véumew elg adrrjv Gzrouciav émfaMopuévov, 9wio- 
Àvcav ajro0s Kapyn80ówwt, dpa pév e0AaBodpevot 
p!) 9ià cv áperjv Ts voov moAÀoi vÀv ék cíjs 
Kapy8óvos eis ékeivqv peraovó ow, àpa, 0é mpos 
Tà vapdAoya * rífjs rÓy"s koracokevalóuevo, kora- 
$vy5jv, ci «v mepi cT)v Kapynóóva OAooyepés 
zratopo. ovp Batvov SvyrjoeoDas yàp a.SroOs ÜaÀnr- 
ToKparoÜüvras ümüpau mavowtovs eis Ayvoovpévmv 
b7Ó TÓYV Ümepeyóvrov vijoov. 

21. "Emet 86 erepi 00. karà 7j» AvBonv ceavob 
kai TOv év aürQ víjocv ówjADopev, uerafuBdcopuev 
TOv Aóyov émi Tcv E)powrQv.  korà yàp Tw 
l'alaríav T?» mapokeavirw  kar' üvrwkpo TÓv 
"Epkvvicov óvouatouévov Opvpv (ueytorovs yàp 


,UTüpxyew mape$éauev rv karü rhv Ep) 


vjoou. soAÀÀai xarà -TÓv ckeavóv Omápyovow, 
Gv éor peyior] *) Bperravuc)? ^ kaXovpérn. 


! gapdAoya Vogel: smapáfoAa. 
? In this Book (cc. 21f.,, 32, 38) D preserves the older 
spelling IIperravuci, which is retained by Vogel. 





i There seems no reason to doubt the statement that 
Phoenieian sailors were actually driven out at some time to 
islands in the Atlantic, such as Madeira or the Canaries. Op. 
R. Hennig, Historische Zeitschrift, 139 (1928), 9. 

* But just above we are told that the Phoenicians had made 
the island '' known to all men." | 


15o 


^ 


SERNE 
E 


es 
x: 


BOOK V. 20. 3-21. 1 




























vom MoR pe meu 


winds a great distance out into the ocean. And 
after being storm-tossed for many days they were 
carried ashore on the island we mentioned above, | 
and when they had observed its felicity and nature akt 
they caused it to be known to all men. Con- 2 ed 
sequently the Tyrrhenians, at the time when they TOR EQ 
were masters of the sea, purposed to dispatch a Xu E 
colony to it; but the Carthaginians prevented their * 
doing so, partly out of concern lest many inhabitants m. 
of Carthage should remove there because of the DE. 
excellence of the island, and partly in order to have uo 
ready in it à place in which to seek refuge against mU 
an incaleulable turn of fortune, in case some total EOUUS 
disaster should overtake Carthage. For it was their . 
thought that, since they were masters of the sea, 
they would thus be able to move, households and . 
all, to an island which was unknown to their con- 
querors.? : 
21. But since we have set forth the facts concern- 
ing the ocean lying off Libya and its islands, we - 
shall now turn our díscussion to Europe. Opposite 
that part of Gaul which lies on the ocean and directly — . 
across from the Herceynian Forest,? as it is "called; | 
which is the largest of any in Europe of which 
tradition tells us, there are many islands out in the 
ocean of which the largest is that known as Britain.* 


—— 


ME 


nz 


COSE ustende ieu ier Ctatediecsuen dit cuemerieuii ect eeteeet 


] 
j 
j 


3 Since this forest lay deep in Germany, the mention of i$ 
is no aid in orienting the islands to be described. The classic 
n a of the Hercynian Forest is in Caesar, Gallic War, 
6.25-8.  . j - [ | 

* It appears that the name of the tribe which Caesar met 
on the island was originally Preteni;. but that Caesar knew. 
Brittani in Gaul &nd changed the P to B and the form of the 
Spelling as well. Cp. R..G. Collingwood, J. N. L. Myres, 
Roman Britain and the English Settlement (1936), p. 31 4 





DIODORUS OF SICILY " 


e X * & i ? , 9 f b 
9 ad 9€ TO tv qoÀoudv ávewipukTos  €yévero ? 

^ X / "1 
£evuka ts Bvvdpueatv: oüre yàp  AuovvcOv ovO* 


» ^ y 
*HpakAéa. sapewwjójapev oUTe TO dXMov Tjpcóov i 
: ^ 5 5 Pd n 
? Swaoróv! éorporevpévov €m abv/v: — Kko0" / 
£ e^ X I4 ^ € X * 7 $, he 
T) s $8 Táws Katcap 9 $ià vràs mpátets émovo- 1 
l 


pao0els 0cós mpáros TÓV prpovevopévoov éyetpc- 
coro TV vfjcov, Ka.  To)s Bperravois karoroAe- 
wíjcas Tváykaae TeAciv dpa pévovs dópovs. AM 
mepi pv roórav Tàs Karà, [epos mpátes &v Toís ; 
olkelows xpóvows, ávaypáalopiev, rep Bé fs vücov —— | 
xai ToÜ dvopévov K9T abT)v KüTTVTÉQOU vOv j 








o» 
c- 
f. 
UY 
e 
od 
t 
- 


aus 
o Qe 


cod Ah s 
cA nez 


3  Aürg yàp TÓ oyrjpme pbycvos obca. vrapamrr- 
cis T[j XuceMg TÀS qÀevpás OoUK lcokcAovs 
éyet. grapekrewoUas 98 adríjs vrapà v2)V Eiparqv 
Aoffjs, TÓ p.v &Auorov à Tfjs jyrelpov OueoTOkós 
àkpcorüpuov, Ó koAotc. Kávrtov, óaolv GTéxew l 
ámó Tfs yfjs araBlovus de ékaróv, xa" óv cTÓwvov 1 
3j ÜdAorra, rocetrot zàv Ékpowv, rÓ O' érepov àkpco- 1 
TYjptov T6 kaGAoUjLevov BeAéptov &méyew | Aéyerai ; 
Tíjs Tjmeipov qÀov Tjpepev cerrápoyv, vÓ 8' omo- | 
Aevrróp.evov &yijkew uév. laoropotow elg TÓ mé- i 

4 Aayos, dvopátec0ac 9' "Opkav.  TÓV 66 mÀevpüv : 
Tiv pev éAa tov etva«. oralio érrTauuo y ALoV | 


L4 


acvrakoolcov, moprkovaav sapà riy Eopomr, Tv 





$e $8 , 4 3 7 85 ^ 0 ^ ^ * 
€ €vuTEepav TYV Q7rO TOU Top poU 7Trpos TT" KOopv- 


1 4 Bvvao rv omitted by E G, Vogel. 


1 Caesar invaded Britain in 55 and 54 5.0. but the history 
of Diodorus did not come down to that date (cp. Vol. I, p. 
152 





e 


"| 
] 
53 
"ps 
(m 
po 
Un 


Sim merum HSEEGRANe Meme vow XA Ro 
I e z LN RT S cem 
ims pU Füciecccuécs d cue cl 


EE uem etras 
Rede 


EEG esegue om. 


SEE 


Br 


ilg t ru a esu pELIEE 








BOOK V. 2x. 2-4 


In ancient times this island remained unvisited by 
foreign armies; for neither Dionysus, tradition tells 
us, nor Heracles, nor any other hero or leader made 
a campaign against it; in our day, however, Gaius 
Caesar, who has been called a god because of his 
deeds, was the first man of whom we have record to 
have conquered the island, and after subduing the 
Britains he compelled them to pay fixed tributes. 
But we shall give a detailed account of the events 
of this conquest in connection with the appropriate 
period of time,! and at present we shall discuss the 
island and the tin which is found in it. 

Britain is triangular in shape, very much as is 
Sicily, but its sides are not equal This island 
stretches obliquely along the coast of Europe, and 
the point where it is least distant from the main- 
land, we are told, is the promontory which men call 
Cantium,? and this is about one hundred stades 
from the land? at the place where the sea has its 
outlet,* whereas the second promontory, known as 
Belerium, is said to be a voyage of four days from 
the mainland, and the last, writers tell us, extends 
out into the open sea and is named Orea.$ Of the 
sides of Britain the shortest," which extends along 
Europe, is seven thousand five hundred stades, the 
second, from the Strait to the (northern) tip, is 


? the Forelands and Kent. 

$ £e. from the mainland. One hundred stades is about 
eleven miles. | i 

5 ie. where the North Sea empties into the ocean. 

5 Land's End. NO 

$ Duneansbay Head with Dunnet Head, the northern tip 
of Seotland; modern writers also iransliterate the name as 
** Orcas " and ** Orcan." | : | 

" From the Forelands in Kent to Land's End. ^ 


153 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


/ 
dà ávüjkovaav gTa Uv popicov qrevTOKLO XUÀ GV, 
. Li LÀ N 
Tjv Bé Aourüv oraBiev Owpvpiov, core Tv 


^ ^ M / 
aücav elva. vfjs víjoov Trepudopav oTaOLov TéTpQ- 
. / 


d ^ 
kwpuplev BugyiMaov arevTOKOC OP karowucetv € 


dac. TTV Bperravucyv abróyÜova yév kai TÓV 
zaAÀai!v Blov rais dy«»yats Suvrgpobvra.  dppact 
uiv yàp Kar T080g moÀéuovs xpÓvTOL, ka darep 
oi saÀmiol rv 'EXwjvow Tjpaxes év TQ Tpcuo 


/ ^^ / X ? "i 
soup kexpfjo0ou mapa8éBovrau, KQL TàS OUKT- 


3 »^ » ? ^ / E! / 

Ges eüreAeis éyovaw, €K TOW kaÀdquov 7j £UÀcv 
^ / 

xarà vÓ vÀetorov dvykeuiévas: TÜV T€ OUMQyPu 


^ 


yl» rÀv ovrucdv kapmé)v mrotoUvrQL TOUS OTÓXUS 


ajroUs dzoTéuvovres kal Oqcavpilovres eis TÓS 
koraavéyous oucfjoets dk 88 covrov roUs craÀatobs 
oráyvs kaÜ" Tjuépav cDAew, kal korepyalop.évous 


iyew Tv pov. Tos 8^ düecw dmAo0s etvou 
kal moÀo keycopwcpévous Tfjs TÓV vOv dvÜpdrrevw 
ádyyiwolas Kai movmpías.  Tás T€ Suairas evreAeis 
éyew, kai Tíjs €x ToO qAosrov yevvopuérgs rpvéfjs 


a0À9 SwÀAdrrovras.. — etvau $2 kal sroAvávÜpcorrov 


"^ 


cy víjoov, kai Tijv ToO dépos éxeiw OudBeow mravre- : 


As korelbvwypévqv, os àv óz' aUri» T]w ÓpkTOV 
kewuévnv. | BaouAets 82 Kal Svvdoras TroAoUs 
£yew, kal «pos àAXAovs karà TÓ wAeloTOV eipr]- 
vuc&s OuuketoÜaa. 

99. *AAAA «epi p&v TÀv ka abr)» vopipcov kai 
cQv Xov iBuopárcv rà karà pépos ávarypdab- 
opev órav émi Tij Kaícapos yevopévmv oTpareLav 
els. Bperravíav maporyeviüóypev, vüv Oé cepi To 


^ 


xaT! abr]v dvopévov korrwrépov Owéfuuev.  'rfjs 


1i For $&tÀAárTovTas Dindorf reads Sua rrotoas. 


354 


BOOK V. 21. 4-22. 1 


Cow meo ame E Am 1 




































fifteen thousand stades, and the last is twenty 
thousand stades, so that the entire circuit of the 
island amounts to forty-two thousand five hundred 
stades.| And Britain, we are told, is inhabited by 
ü tribes which are autochthonous and preserve in their — 
j ways of living the ancient manner of life. They use 
lc chariots, for instance, in their wars, even as tradition 
D tells us the old Greek heroes did in the Trojan War, 
4 and their dwellings are humble, being built for the 
D most part out of reeds or logs. 'The method they 
employ of harvesting their grain crops is to cut off 
24 no more than tbe heads and store them away in 
roofed granges, and then each day they pick out the 
ripened heads and grind them, getting in this way | 
their food. As for their habits, they are simple and ^d 
| far removed from the shrewdness and vice which CE 
i characterize the men of our day. "Their way of Tu 
living is modest, since they are well clear of the — 
r luxury which is begotten of wealth. The island is coe 
also thickly populated, and its climate is extremely. N 
cold, as one would expect, since it actually lies under - ^ - 
the Great Bear. It is held by xany kings and E 
potentates, who for the most part live at peace EN 
among themselves. | | 
22. But we.shall give a detailed account of the 
customs of Britain and of the other features which 
are peculiar to the island when we come to the 
campaign which Caesar undertook against it, and 
at this time we shall discuss the tin which the island 
1 In miles about 861, 1723, and 2258 respectively, & total  ; 
of 4842, which is more than double the actual cireumferenee. — 
'T'hese figures áre from Pytheas, a sea captain of Massilia, who 
cireumnavigated Britain around 300 a.c. and their inaccuraey 
is excusable in consideration of the fact that the ancients had 
no instruments for reckoning distance by se8. i43 
| 155 


VOL. III. 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


yàp Bperravufjs Karà, TÓ &Kpayrijpuov TO KGAoU- 
p.evov BeAéptov oL karrouovres duAóEevot T€ 
OLadepóvrcs «iot kai Ou Tiv TÀV £evov ejmópov 
émpa£tay é£npepeiuévou às &ycxyás. obrot TÓV 
karrirepov karagkevátovat diAoréxvcs épya- 


Lópievo TTV $épovcay a)TÓY yv. abr 8é mrerpa- : 


0s odca 9taóvàs € exet yec9ets, év ats 7Óv "pov i 
karepyaLópievot Kat Tü&avres KaÜaípovoiw.  d&mo- 
rumobvres O' eis &GorpayáAav puÜpioos Kop éLovatv 
eis Twa vijoov mpokeuiévi uev Tfs Bperravufis, 
óvoualouévgv 86 "ler: karà yàp Tüg Qj Tels 
áva£npawop.évov Tob pera£o TóTOU rats apá£ous 
eis TaUT1V kopibovot Sou TÓV karrírepov. LOLOV 
OÉ 7L cvuBatve mepi Tàs otov vijcovg Tàs Lera£o 
keuLévas Tfs Te , Edpdymus Kai Tíjs Bperravucíjs: 
KüTà Hév yàp Tàs mÀypvpiSas ToO peraso mópov 
mXnpovpévov vfjoo. $aivovraa, Kü/rà, 8€ TÓS &pmá- 
Tews dmoppeotans Ts ÜaÀdrTaS kal goÀbv Tómov 
ava£mpawovans Üecopotvra. Xeppóvnao.. évreb- 
Üev Ó' oL Eumopot mapà, TÓV eyxapiav c:vobvrat 
kal Orakopibovotv. eis riv laAwriav: TO 06 TeÀev- 
va 'ov vel Ou Tfjs l'aAarías mropevÜévres. Tjuépas 
es piikovra karáyovaty ét Tív Vm Tà, dopría, 
7zpós rjv ékfloXrjv o8 'PoOavoó corago9. 


! qópoy D, «ópov other MSS. and all editors. 





* 'The area of modern Cornwall, | 

? Literally, "marble? or 'limestone." All the MSS. but 
one read *'the source of their revenue (?)"; but compare 
Book 3. 12. 1, where gnerburodk. in the gold mines of Nubia 
js called * marble." — 


156 





BOOK V. 22. 1-4 


produces. The inhabitants of Britain who dwell 
about the promontory known as Belerium! are 
especially hospitable to strangers and have adopted 
a civilized manner of life because of their intercourse 
with merchants of other peoples. "They it is who 
work the tin, treating the bed which bears it in an 
ingenious manner. This bed, being like rock, con- 
tains earthy seams and in them the workers quarry 
the ore,? which they then melt down and cleanse of 
its impurities. Then they work the tin into pieces 
the size of knuckle-bones and convey it to an island 
which lies off Britain and is called Ictis;? for at the 
time of ebb-tide the space between this island and 
the mainland becomes dry and they can take the 
tin in large quantities over to the island on their 
wagons. (And a peculiar thing happens in the case 
of the neighbouring islands which lie between Europe 
and Britain, for at flood-tide the passages between 
them and the mainland run full and they have the 
appearance of islands, but at ebb-tide the sea 
recedes and leaves dry a large space, and at that 
time they look like peninsulas.) On the island of 
Ictis the merchants purchase the tin of the natives 
and carry it from there across the Strait to Galatia 
or Gaul; and finally, making tbeir way on foot 
through Gaul for some thirty days, they bring their 
wares on horseback to the mouth of the river Rhone. 


3 Almost certainly the present St. Michael's Mount, an 
island in Mount/'s Bay of Cornwall; this is connected with 
the mainland by a causeway which is passable only at low 
tide. Cp. T. R. Holmes, Ancient Britain and the Invasions of 
Julius VEM 499-514; R, Hennig, Eheinisches Museum, 
83 (1934), 169. E 

* ''he reference is probably to some islands off the north- 
west headland of France.  — 


157 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


23. Ilepi pév oiv ToO karrvrépov rots pnÜetaw 
ápkeoÜnoóp.eÜa., cepi 06 ToO kaAovpgévov 1)Àékrpou 
vüv Oufwuev.  Tfjs Ykvülas rfs )mép rjv YoaAa- 
cla» kar! ávrukpo víjaós éoT aeAÀoyla koTà TÓV 
eiceawóv 1] rpocayopevopiév) Baoíiea. eis raórqv 
& kXiBav. ékBáAAes SasfuAés 7Ó kaAoUpevov TJÀek- 
vpov, ob0ago0 82 cífje olkovpévüs dauvópuevov. 
mepi 06 ToíToU aoÀNol vGv waAoiv àvéyposjav 
uiÜovs vravreAOs ámorovpévovs kal 8i rv ávo- 
veAeopiareyv. EAeyyouévovs. zoÀÀoi yàp TÓV T€ 
covyrüv koi TÀV cvyypadéov $aci QaéDovra. TOv 


.'HA(ov pév vióv, aaíiBa 86 m]v Tjwkiav vro, 


meiou. TÓv marépa pav "jpépav capaxcopfjcat 
ToU TeÜpimmov: gvyycprÜévros 9' asTQ TODTOU, 
vóv pév OaéÜovra éAasvovra Tó céÜpursov uj) 
SUvacÜa. kparetv vÀv Tuv, ToUg O' UmrmOUS 
karadpor5jcavras TOO qai8ós  éfevexyÜWjva. Tov 
cvvíÜovs Opópov, kai có uév wpóvov Kor TOV 
o)pavóv «Aavcopévovs émvpóca. Tobrov kaL Torfj- 
cou Tóv vOv yaÀatiav KkaAoUpevov KókÀov, perà 
$2 caóra mwoAMjv Tíje oikovuévüs émAé£avras 
oàk dA(yg» Karakdáew ydpav. 8:0 xai ToO Auós 
áyavaxrijoavros erri Tots yeyevy) pévows, kepavvá ca. 
iy 7óv QaéÜovra, áwokaraoTíjca, 8€ TÓv tTjÀwov 
émi Tiv cuvüün opeiav. — ToU 6à GQaéÜovros 
ecóvros mpós Tàg ékBoAàs ToO vbv caAovp.évov 


- Ylá8ov sorapot, 1ó 9€ caAaióv 'H piSavoO srpocoyo- 


pevopévov, Üprvíjoat uiv rds dBeAóàs abrob TV 


Televri]v d$uioruiórara, Ou. 88 T)» bmeppoAyv 


e- 


Tís Avwns! peraoynporiuaf 
1 $zó rijs óUaecs after Arms deleted by Dindorf. 


A / 
va. riv $Uow, yevo- 


158 





piemmeee Tal 


c 


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Mie e c cd 


MORIR mec Ecl 
EUROS is 


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€ ÀÀ 


mocccueq c 


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mete 


widest mde eR 


BOOK V. 23. 1-3 


23. But as regards the tin of Britain we shall rest 
content with what has been said, and we shall now 
discuss the electron, as it is called (amber). Directly 
opposite the part of Scythia which lies above Galatia 
there is an island out in the open sea which is called 
Basileia.! On this island the waves of the sea cast 
up great quantities of what is known as amber, 
which is to be seen nowhere else in the inhabited 
world; and about it many of the ancient writers 
have composed fanciful tales, such as are altogether 
difficult to credit and have been refuted by later 
events. For many poets and historians give the 
story that Phaéthon, the son of Helius, while yet a 
youth, persuaded his father to retire in his favour 
from his four-horse chariot for a single day; and 
when Helius yielded to the request Phaéthon, as 
he drove the chariot, was unable to keep control of 
the reins, and the horses, making light of the youth, 
left their accustomed course; and first they turned 
aside to traverse the heavens, setting it afire and 
creating what is now called the Milky Way, and 
after that they brought the scorching rays to many 
parts of the inhabited earth and burned up not a 
little land. Consequently Zeus, being indignant 
because of what had happened, smote Phaéthon 
with a thunderbolt and brought back the sun to its 
accustomed course. And Pha&thon fell to the earth 
at the mouths of the river which is now known as 


the Padus (Po), but in ancient times was called the 
Eridanus, and his sisters vied with each other in 


bewailing his death and by reason of their exceeding 
grief underwent a metamorphosis of their nature, 


: Identified as Heligoland by Cary in Cary and Warrington, 


'The Ancient Explorers, 38. 
159 


































DIODORUS OF SICILY 


vc M RE" RR UIT 


4 uévas aiye(povs.  raÓras Bé kar éwwrÓv karà : 
vjv abr?v cpav 8ákpvov ádiévaw kai robro mmy- | 
vój.evov dzoTeÀeltv 7Ó kaAo)pevov TfAÀekrpov, Aag i 
mpórgr. uév vrÀv Ópojvudv Üwdépov, émcpiuilov | 
9' dv vais cüv vécv reAÀevrafs karà ! 7Ó robrow 
vzévÜos. Owmpuaprqkórcv  Oé mávrov  vÀv TOv 
I üÜ ov roÜcov sremAa«órcov kai uà «Xv árroreAcopá- 

TcV €v Tots Docepov xypóvows éAeyyopévov, qpooer- 

véov Ta(s dÀwÜiwais ioTopicus: TÓ yàp T|Àekmpov i 
cvvdyerau pév év Tf "poewmuévg vüoo, kopi- : 
£erau 9. Ómó Tv éyywapiov wpós T)v àvrwrépas | 
Tmewoy, Ov djs $épera. mpoós To?s kaÜ' duüs 
TÓTrOUS, KAÜÓL rpoetpryras. 

24. AwAqAvÜóTes O6 «epi TÓV vüocv Tív 
Keusévov év rois mpós Ovopás pépeow, oÀ« àvot- 
keiov elvat vopitopev repu rv sÀqgotov rfjg Edpo- | 
vs éUvóv Bpayéa OwAÜetv, & mapaAeAotmajuev év r 
TGis mpórepov üAow.  Tfs KeNrucje  Toívvv 
TO qraÀauóv, cos Qactv, éOvváorevoev émijavys àvijp, | 
Q Üvydárqp éyévero T ueyéÜew ToÜ ocparos j 
bmepovüs, rfj 9  e)mpemeig moÀ) Owéyovoa TÓv 
GÀXov.  aUr:Q 06 Ouh Te Tv ToÜ o«djaros pow 
ka, Tr)v Üavpualouévqv e)mpémewav medpovnuamio- 
pévn savrós rob uvroreUovros róv yápov daropvetro, j 
vouiLovcao pwjóéva -ToUrwv div éavrfs ctvat. 

2 xarà, 0é zv 'HpakAéovs ézi T'qpvóvqv ovpareíav, i 
kararrcavros eis Tr?]v KeNruc)v aDroÜ xai móÀw E 

 'AXgoíiav év -Taóvy krícavros, ÜcacapévQ TÓv | 
"HpaxAMéa xai Üavpácaca Tv Te àperrv abroü , 
Kai ryv ToU ocparos Ümwepoy"v, mpoceOé£aTo Tv 4j 


i 5 kar Stephanus : kal: 
160 





— 


MER. 


I Bag 


ox t 


BOOK V. 23. 3-24. 2 


becoming poplar trees. And these poplars, at the 
same season each year, drip tears! and these, when 
they harden, form what men call amber, which in 
brilliance excells all else of the same nature and is 
commonly used in connection with the mourning 
attending the death of the young. But since the 
creators of this fictitious tale have one and all erred, 
and have been refuted by what has transpired at 
later times, we must give ear to the accounts which 
are truthful; for the fact is that amber is gathered 
on the island we have mentioned and is brought by 
the natives to the opposite continent, and that it is 
conveyed through the continent to the regions 
known to us, as we have stated. 

24. Since we have set forth the facts concerning 
the islands which lie in the western regions, we con- 
sider that it will not be foreign to our purpose to 
discuss briefly the tribes of Europe which lie near 
them and which we failed to mention in our former 
Books. Now Celtica was ruled in ancient times, so 
we are told, by a renowned man who had a daughter 
who was of unusual stature and far excelled in 
beauty all the other maidens. But she, because of 
her strength of body and marvellous comeliness, was 
so haughty that she kept refusing every man who 
wooed her in marriage, since she believed that no 
one of her wooers was worthy of her. Now in the 
course of his campaign against Geryones, Heracles 
visited Celtica and founded there the city of Alesia;? 
and the maiden, on seeing Heracles, wondered at 
his prowess and his bodily superiority and accepted 


es 


1'The Greek word in the singular, as here, also means 


6 . Book 4. 17, 19. 
à 6 
OI 











DIODORUS OF SICILY 


émumdokiy per Tráas mpoBupias, gvykaravevaáy- 
TOV KaL Tv yovécv. puyetca, 86 v 'H pakAet 
éyévvqocv viov óvóparr DaMrqy, ToÀ) mpoéxov- 
d TÓÀv OpnocÜváv dperfj Te Wvyüs kal pou 
copaTos. dyÓpcÜcis óé Te gÀuctav Kai 9vaDe£á- 
pevos TV "or páav Bacietav, TOoÀMv pév Tíjs 
vpocopiloUons xdópas karekmy|aoTo, peyáAas 5é 
«rpás eus moÀepukàs cvveréAeoe. mepiBónros é 
yevóptevos ém dvàpeto. ToUs 09 a)rOv ^ Téra/ypévous 
cvópaoev à) éavroó laA&ras: àd ^ &v 1) oUpraca 
l'aAaría mpoonyopedón. 

25. "Emet 8é mepi Tfjs Tí l'aMaráv mpoonyo- 
pías ovjADopev, kai ,mepi Ts opas aUrOv Oov 
éoviv e&mrety, 7 Toivuv l'aÀAaría karoucetrau uév 
$rró ZoAMÓv üvàv Ota dópcov To(s peyéOüecc 
TÓ uéywra yàp GUTÓV aXeóóv €tKo0t pupuáBas 
ávBpdw € exe, Trà 8 cA&xuora vévre pvpidOas, cv 


éy eer ympós. "Popatovs € €yov ovyyéveiav vGÀO4y ^ 


koi diMav Tov Héxpt TÓV Kü "us Xpóveov 9ua.- 
pévovoay. keuiévr 8e korr TO TÀeioTOv Dr Tàs 
GpKTOUS xeusépiós éoT. Kai Vuxpà Siaóepóvross. 
Kkavrà, yàp Tv Xeusepun cpav é ev rats avvvedéow 
Tj epaus avri pev TÓv ! óufpov xuóvi moAM vi$erat, 
Kaürà Oé -Tàs aiÜpas. kpvorá Q Kai Tráyyots 
é£aiolois 78e, 8' dv oi moragol myyvóuevot 
9c Tíjs (ias $oecos yedvpotvraa: oU póvoy 
yàp oí Tvxóvres oot (ra& KO óAtyovs Ka/rà roD 


 KpvoTáAAov mropevóp.evot Suaflatvovow . AA KO 


eTparoméócv pvpidóes perà akevodópov kai ápa- 
1 ry omitted by Dindorf, 


E 


162 


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-— 





BOOK V. a4. 2-25. 2 


his embraces with all eagerness, her parents having 
given their consent. From this union she bore to 
Heracles à son named Galates, who far surpassed 
all the youths of the tribe in quality of spirit and 
strength of body. And when he had attained to 
man's estate and had succeeded to the throne of his 
fathers, he subdued a large part of the neighbouring 
territory and accomplished great feats in war. 
Becoming renowned for his bravery, he called his 
subjects Galatae or Gauls ! after himself, and these 
in turn gave their name to all of Galatia or Gaul. 
25. Since we have explained the name by which 
the Gauls are.known, we must go on to speak 
about their land. Gaul is inhabited by many tribes 
of different size; for the largest number some two 
hundred thousand men, and the smallest fifty 
thousand, one of the latter? standing on terms of 
kinship and friendship with the Romans, a relation- 
ship which has endured from ancient times down to 
our own day. And the land, lying as it does for the 
most part under the Bears, has a wintry climate 
and is exceedingly cold. For during the winter 
season on cloudy days snow falls deep in place of 
rain, and on clear days ice and heavy frost are 
everywhere and in such abundance that the rivers 
are frozen over and are bridged by their own waters ; 
for not only can chance travellers, proceeding a few 
at a time, make their way across them on the ice, 
but even armies with their tens of thousands, together 
with their beasts of burden and heavily laden 


1 It may be observed that the ancient writers in general 


regarded the Germans as Gauls (Celts), and this fact explains 


discussing western Europe. | 
2 'The Aedui. 


why Diodorus makes no mention of the Germans while he is 


163 





ues 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


3 éQv yeuovoóv do$aMOs epawoüvrat. — oA 


8é kai peydÀov morajiÀv peóvrov Óu Tfs loAa- 
Tias kai Tots pelüpous srouciAcus 7T)v TeOuÁOa, yfiv 
reuvóvr«v, ot uév ék Auuwóv àvoowv péovaow, 
oí 9' ék r&v ópáv £yovot rás qyyàs kai vàs émip- 
poías: v 9. ékBoXjv ot uév eis TÓv ceavóv 
Totovrau, oL O. eig Tr)v kaÜ' Tus ÜdAarrav. 


. néyworos 9' dari TÓv eis TO xaÜ' fuüs éAayos 


£6 7 e € /, i X 3 Ld » ^ 
peóvr«av o 'Po9avós, ràs uév wyàs éycv €v rots 
" AXretots. ópeat, zrévre 06 orópaow é£epevyópevos 
eic Tiv ÜdAarrav.  TÓv O' «eis cÓv «Okeavóv 
peóvrow péywro: 8okoboiw Omápyew 0 Te. Aavos- 
fuos kai ó 'Píjvos, óv év vois ka0' "us xpóvois 
Kotcap ó kAÀnÜcis Oeós éLevéíe mapaOó£ws, kai 
wepauboas meGfj Tv OUvapuv éxyewoouro -ToUs 
cépav karowoüvras aDroó l'aAdras.  voAAoi Oé 
M 

KaL dAÀÀo, mAcTOL soTapoi koaTríà Tv KeXrucjv 
elici, epi Gv pakpóv àv etm ypáóew.  vávres 
06 aye80v Dm ToU mráyov vryyvipevot yedupotot à 
petÓpa, kai ToU kKpvordAÀov Ouà cv dvoucv 
Aetórqra. sototvros voUg Owaivovras óMcÜávew, 
ày)pov émfaMopuévov ém a)ro)s. ào$aAM Tiv 
Oud Daatw éxovaw. 

26. "I8tov 9é vc kal sapáOo£ov ovufaivew xarà 
Tiv TÀetovgv Tfs l'aAÀarías, «epi o0 srapaAwmrety 
oUK fiov TyoUpeÜa.  àwó yàp Üepwits O)cecs 
xai üdpkrov mvelv eiÜaow vepou cqÀucadmqv 
&yovres adoópórzra kal BUvapav, cnTe Gvapmrálew 
&zO Tíjs yíjs AÜovs xewosrAnÜiatovs rots ueyéDeot 





i In the time of Diodorus the Romans gave the name 
'* Danube "' to the upper waters of the modern Danube, which 
Diodorus elsewhere (4. 56. 7) calla the Ister, knowing that it 


164 


Essi ESL. 


E 


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EAE 


pad 


ujeeeeue 


AEDPEER E 


XCAES 


ful coe 
Ouen RAUS 


BOOK V. es. 2-26. 1 


































wagons, cross upon it in safety to the other side. 
ÁÀnd many large rivers flow through Gaul, and their 
" streams eut this way and that through the level 
plain, some of them flowing from bottomless lakes 
! and others having their sources and affluents in the 
mountains, and some of them empty into the ocean 
and others into our sea. "The largest one of those 
j which flow into our waters is the Rhone, which has 
| its sources in the Alps and empties into the sea by 
| five mouths. But of the rivers which flow into the 


—O——————— 


ocean the largest are thought to be the Danube! 
and the Rhine, the latter of which the Caesar who 
has been called a god spanned with a bridge in our 
| own day with astonishing skill, and leading his army 
( across on foot he subdued the Gauls who lived 
: beyond it. There are also many other navigable 
" rivers in Celtica, but it would be a long task to 
i write about them. And almost all of them become 
frozen over by the cold and thus bridge their own 
streams, and since the natural smoothness of the 
ice makes the crossing slippery for those who pass 
over, they sprinkle chaff on it and thus have a 
crossing which is safe. 

26. A peculiar thing and unexpected takes place 
over the larger part of Gaul which we think we 
should not omit to mention. For from the direction 
of the sun's summer setting * and from the north 
winds are wont to blow with such violence and 
force that they piek up from the ground rocks as . 
large as can be held in the hand together with a : 


flows into the Black Sea. It was probably this practice of 
the Romans which led Diodorus, who knew our Danube as 
the Ister, to think ib was a distinob river ; and it is not likely 
that the entire course of the Danube was known at this time. 

3 1.e. the north-west. 





n 
E 
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165 


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t2 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


kai cÀv imgéiBuv dOpopepf] komwopróv: KaÜóAov 
A p^ 

$2 xoravylLovres Adfpos ápmáLovow ürró pév vàv 
El ^ * e A] * ? 05 * A oé m 
ávBpQv và ÓmÀa kat vàs €0 fas, &mó Dé TOv 
e M 5 / 8 * 8é M € AT 
*temuoy ToUs Gvapéras. Ow. 0€ T" bneppoAnv 
ToU wóxovs S.adÜewopuévas  Tfjs karà TÓv dépa 
/ y 5 x» 5» / / z^ 
kpácews oír olvov oUT ZAaiov dépev Owmep TOv 
laAeráv oí rojrow vÓw kaprÓv OTepiaKópLevot 
aópa karackevdbouctw à Tfs kpiUfjs TÓ mpoca- 
^ ? ^ 

yopevópevov Ló0os, kal Tà kwxpía mÀ)vovres TO 
rovrov G&mromrA)part ypóvron. károwo, 9" Óvres 
«af omepBoXiv TOv eicayójievov om vÓv éparópov 
ofvov &kparov épdopobvras, kal 89i& civ émv- 


^ 


píav Aáppe ypdpevou TQ ToTÓ xal peÜvoÜévres. 


elg Ümvov 7) pawvwboews S.aBécews vpémovrou. Ou) 
kal aoAAol r&v "IroAucdv éparópox 8.6. «Tjv cvi]on 
duAapyvpíav éppuauov fyobvra. Tiv TÓY l'aAaróv 
dulowlay.  oÓro, yàp Su uév rv mMorÓv moTa- 
pv mÀotots, $i& 8& vfjs meDidBos xdpas ápd£ous 
kopiLovres vóv olvov, ávriAaulávovot rudfjs vÀfjüos 
dmworov- 8iBóvres yàp otvov kepájuov &vriAauiáv- 
ovot grato. roÀ cróporros Quikovov ájeuBópuevot. 

97. Karà yoüv Tiv loAaríav &pyupos pév o) 
ylvera, có avoAov, xpucós 8é moMs, óv ToÍs 
éyycoplows j $íows &vev LeroAAelas Kai kakoma- 
Oelas movpyct. *j yàp TOv morajuOv pots 
ckoMode o0s dykGvas éyovca, Kol! Toís TÓYV 
srapoueuuéva ópáv OxÜows apocapárrovoa kai 

1 kal omitted by D, Vogel, retained by Bekker, Dindorf, 
Jacoby. ; : 
166 » 


uem 


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d BOOK V. 26. x-27. 1 





























"n dust composed of coarse gravel; and, generally 
H speaking, when these winds rage violently they tear 
ti the weapons out of men's hands and the clothing off 
their backs and dismount riders from their horses. 
4 Furthermore, since temperateness of climate is 
J destroyed by the excessive cold, the land produces 
í neither wine nor oil, and as a consequence those Gauls 
1 who are deprived of these fruits make a drink out of 
, barley which they call zythos or beer, and they also 
. drink the water with which they cleanse their honey- 
) combs. The Gauls are exceedingly addicted to the 
| use of wine and fill themselves with the wine which 
" is brought into their country by merchants, drinking 
it unmixed, and since they partake of this drink 
j without moderation by reason of their craving for 
it, when they are drunken they fall into à stupor 
Or à state of madness. Consequently many of the 
Italian traders, induced by the love of money which 
characterizes them, believe that the love of wine of 
these Gauls is their own godsend.! For these trans- 
port the wine on the navigable rivers by means of — . 
boats and through the level plain on wagons,: and 
receive for it an incredible price; for in exchange 
for a jar of wine they receive a slave, getting a 
servant in return for the drink. | 

27. Throughout Gaul there is found practically no 
silver, but there is gold in great quantities, which 
Nature provides for the inhabitants without their 
having to mine for it or to undergo any hardship. 
For the rivers, as they course throügh the country, 
having as they do sharp bends which turn this way 
and that and dashing against the mountains which 


(000 vu Berlly "gifs of Hermes," as the god of gain and good 
; Uck, 
1 | SUN | 167 





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| 28. Oc 896 laAÀéroas Tots gév cópaaty eiatv 
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BOOK V. 27. 128. 2 


line their banks and bearing off great pieces of them, 
are full of gold-dust. This is collected by those who 
occupy themselves in this business, and these men 
grind or crush the lumps which hold the dust, and 
after washing out with water the earthy elements in 
it they give the gold-dust over to be melted in the 
furnaces. Ínthis manner they axnass a great amount 
of gold, which is used for ornament not only by the 
women but also by the men. For around their 
wrists and arms they wear bracelets, around their 
necks heavy necklaces of solid gold! and huge rings 
they wear as well, and even corselets of gold. Anda 
peculiar and striking practice is found among the 
upper Celts, in connection with the sacred precincts 
of the gods; for in the temples and precinets made 
consecrate in their land, a great amount of gold has 
been deposited as a dedication to the gods, and 
not a native of the country ever touches it because 
of religious scruple, although the Celts are an 
exceedingly covetous people. : 

98. The Gauls are tall of body, with rippling 
muscles, and white of skin, and their hair is blond, 
and not only naturally so, but they also make it their 
practice by artificial means to increase the dis- 
tinguishing colour which nature has given it. For 
they are always washing their hair in lime-water, and 
they pull it back from the forehead to the top of the 
head and back to the nape of the neck, with the 
result that their appearance is like that of Satyrs and 
Pans, since the treatment of their hair makes it so 
heavy and coarse that it differs in no respect from 


1 "The familiar. Gallic torque. 


2 sql after ovyeyós deleted by Dindorf. : 
169 





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1 Iliad, 7. 821. 








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-JBOOK V. s8. 2-6 


the mane of horses. Some of them shave the beard, 
but others let it grow a little; and the nobles shave 
their cheeks, but they let the moustache grow until 
it covers the mouth. Consequently, when they are 
eating, their moustaches become entangled in the 
food, and when they are drinking, the beverage 
passes, as it were, through a kind of a strainer. 
When they dine they all sit, not upon chairs, but 
upon the ground, using for cushions the skins of 
wolves or of dogs. The service at the meals is per- 
formed by the youngest children, both male and 
female, who are of suitable age; and near at hand 
are their fireplaces heaped with coals, and on them 
are caldrons and spits holding whole pieces of meat. 
Brave warriors they reward with the choicest portions 
of the meat, in the same manner asthe poet introduces 
Ajax as honoured by the chiefs after he returned 
victorious from his single combat with Hector :! 


To Ajax then were given of the chine 
Slices, full-length, unto his honour. 


They invite strangers to their feasts, and do not 
inquire until after the meal who they are and of what 
things they stand in need. And it is their custom, 
even during the course of the meal, to seize upon any 
trivial matter as an occasion for keen disputation and 
then to challenge one another to single combat, 
without any regard for their lives; for the belief of 
Pythagoras prevails among them, that the souls of 
men are immortal and that after a prescribed number 
of years they commence upon a new life, the soul 
entering into another body. Consequently, we 

? Metempsychosis was one of the cardinal tenets of the 


Druids (cp. Caesar, Gallic War, 6. 14; Strabo, 4. 444. 
! 171 






































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$10 kal karà Tàs Trajàs TÓV TereAecvTT)KOÓTOV 
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TereAevrr)KÓTOYV ávayyvt)nopéveyv Tasras. 

99. "Ev 86 vois ó8owmopícs koi rais pos 
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xal vapaflírgv. dravrvres 86 roig éjurmevovow 
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korafávres viv àmó ToO £ljovs ovvioravra. páymv. 
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nuevo, To)g évavriovs. &árav 8é mu w«akovog 
mpós T]jv px, rás ve TV mpoyóvcv áv8paya0tas 
éfvuvoüc: kal vüs éavrüv dperàüs Tpodépovrat, 
kal vàv àvrvrarránevov é£oveiB(Lovot kai azrewoUGt 
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kedaAds àdatpotvres qepiáarrovat TOlS aDxéou TOV 
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jpaypéva Aadvpoyoryobow, émvraiavilovres kai 
dOovres ,UJLVov émwíiktov, kai rà dpoÜiua cabra. 
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BOOK V. 28. 6-29. 4 


are told, at the funerals of their dead some cast 
letters upon the pyre which they have written 
to their deceased kinsmen, as if the dead would be 
able to read these letters. 

29. In their journeyings and when they go into 
battle the Gauls use chariots drawn by two horses, 
which carry the charioteer and the warrior; and 
when they encounter cavalry in the fighting they first 
hurl their javelins at the enemy and then step down 
from their chariots and join battle with their swords. 
Certain of them despise death to such a degree that 
they enter the perils of battle without protective 
armour and with no more than a girdle about their 
loins. They bring along to war also their free men to 
serve them, choosing them out from among the poor, 
and these attendants they use in battle as charioteers 
and as shield-bearers. [t is also their custom, when 
they are formed for battle, to step out in front of the 
line and to challenge the most valiant men from 
among their opponents to single combat, brandishing 
their weapons in front of them to terrify their ad- 
versaries. And when any man accepts the challenge 
to battle, they then break forth into a song in praise 
of the valiant deeds of their ancestors and in boast of 
their own high achievements, reviling all the while 
and belittling their opponent, and trying, in a word, 
by such talk to strip him of his bold spirit before the 
combat. When their enemies fall they cut off their 
heads and fasten them about the necks of their 
horses; and turning over to their attendants the 
arms of their opponents, all covered with blood, 
they carry them off as booty, singing à paean over 
them and striking up a song of victory, and these 
first-fruits of battle they fasten by nails upon their 


173 











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eiyevés, GÀÀà, 0 soAeuety 7ó ópódvÀov TereAeumT- 
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1 cà deleted by Bekker, Dindorf. - | 
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BOOK V. 29. 4-30. 2 


houses, just as men do, in certain kinds of hunting, 
with the heads of wild beasts they have mastered. 
The heads of their most distinguished enemies they 
embalm in cedar-oil and carefully preserve in a chest, 
and these they exhibit to strangers, gravely main- 
taining that in exchange for this bead some one of 
their aneestors, or their father, or the man himself, 
refused the offer of à great sum of money. And 
some men among them, we are told, boast that they 
have not accepted an equal weight of gold for the 
head they show, displaying a barbarous sort of great- 
ness of soul; for not to sell that which constitutes a 
witness and proof of one's valour is a. noble thing, 
but to continue to fight against one of our own race, 
after he is dead, is to descend to the level of beasts. 
30. The clothing they wear is striking—shirts 
which have been dyed and embroidered in varied 
' colours, and breeches, which they call in their tongue 
bracae; and they wear striped coats, fastened by a 
buckle on the shoulder, heavy for winter wear and 
light for summer, in which are set checks, close 
together and of varied hues.! For armour they use 
long shields, as high as a man, which are wrought in à 
manner peculiar to them, some of them even having 
the figures of animals embossed on them in bronze, 
and these are skilfully worked with an eye not only 
to beauty but also to protection. Ontheir heads they 
put bronze helmets which have large embossed figures 
standing out from them and give an appearance of 
great size to those who wear them; for in some 
cases horns are attached to the helmet so as to 
form a single piece, in other cases images of the 


1 Diodorus appears to be trying to describe a kind of 
Scotch tartan. M 
175 











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o eXovcw oí uev oi97poÜs GAvotocrojs, oi 0€ rots 
jT ,Tfis $aecs OeÓop.évots ápkobvraa, yvpoi 
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yàp £íjg TÓv Tap érépois gavyicov eigiv ok 
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pettovs. roUrav 0é rà uév ém' eUÜeías KexdA- 
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exe mpós TÓ kai KO/rà. T my Ho póvov 
Tépyew, dAAà kai Üpasetv Tüs Odpkas Kal korà 
Tj» ávakop4]v  ToÜ Oóparos comapárrew có 
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KG TOUS Sovats Bapuyxets Kai mavTeAds TpaxU$o- 
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* So Reiske: z9xvaías . . . A«urovoas. 


176 


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BOOK V. 3o. 2-31. x 
































fore-parts of birds or four-footed animals. Their 
trumpets are of peculiar nature and such as bar- 
barians use, for when they are blown upon they give 
r forth a harsh sound, appropriate to the tumult of war, 
Í Some of them have iron cuirasses, chain-wrought, 
but others are satisfied with the armour which 
; Nature has given them and go into battle naked. 
In place of the short sword they carry long broad- 
swords which are hung on chains of iron or bronze 
and are worn along the right flank. And some of 
them gather up their shirts with belts plated with 
gold orsilver. "The spears they brandish, which they 
call lanciae, have iron heads a eubit in length and even 
more, and a little under two palms in breadth; for 
their swords are not shorter than the javelins of 
other peoples, and the heads of their javelins are 
larger than the swords of others. Some of these 
javelins come from the forge straight, others twist 
in and out in spiral shapes for their entire length, the 
purpose being that the thrust may not only cut the 
flesh, but mangle it as well, and that the withdrawal 
of the spear may lacerate the wound. 

31. The Gauls are terrifying in aspect and their 
voices are deep and altogether harsh; when they 
meet together they converse with few words and in 
riddles, hinting darkly at things for the most part 
and using one word when they mean another; and 
they like to talk in superlatives, to the end that they 
may extol themselves and depreciate all other men. 
'They are also boasters and threateners and are fond 
of pompous language, and yet they bave sharp wits 
and are not without cleverness at learning. Among 





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DIODORUS OF SICILY 


2 eigi 06 map" abrots kai ToU]rat pev, o9s  Bdp8ovs 
óvouLovaw. obroL óé uer Spyávcv TOÍs ÀUpaus 
ópotcov &Oovres os pe Üpvobow, o)Us 9€ BAacn- 
poat. duMoodot Té Twés eiat kai ÜcoAóyot mepur- 

3 TÓs Tui puevot, oüsc ApoviGas! óvouátovow.  xpávrat 
8e kai | pávreaw, dzroBoxf)s peyáXs óevobvres 
a.DTOUS* obroL àé Oud T€ TÍjs oicovocKomias KQ. 
Ou Tis TÀv tepetcov Üvaias TÀ, péAAovra ,Tpo- 
Aéyovat, «ai qáy TÓ a Afjbos &xovau bm jkoov. 
pàAora 9. órav mept TV peydAov é émiokémraov- 
TQ, vapábobov Kai Gm Tov &xovot vópapuov 
&vÜparmrov yàp karagmreloavres TÜmTOvO: pa yxaipa. 
KaTà TOv Ümép TÓ Oui parypa. Tómov, Kai sreoóvros 
TOÜ eryyévros ék Tfjs TTÓG€cS Kai ToÜ omapay- 
po8 TÀv peA&v, er, O6 Tfjs To0 QU TOS BÜcens TÓ 

| péAAov vootot, 7aÀa& TUVV. KG ,ToÀwxpovico Tapa- 

4 T)p'joet Tepi TOUTCOV memorevkóres. €Bos 9' adroís 
eon. um8éva Qvatay TOL€(v üyev $iAonóQov 9d 
yàp TÓv épmretpcv Ts Ücías $cecs corepet 
TU/GV óproddvoyv TÓ xapuorjpua. TOÍS Ücot ts $act 
9etv apooóépew, kai 91. ToÓrQV otovrat Seiy 

6 Tó;ya0à. airetoÓas. o) póvov 9 év TaÍs elpn- 
vua s xpeíaus, àAÀÀ& KaL karà TOUS TroÀéuous 
TOÜTOLS páAuora ell ovroa Kai TOÍs IueAq8o8os 
zovyra(s, oÓ  puóvov oí jio, dAÀÀÀ kai oi 
voÀépuow  ToÀÀdku yàp? év/ rats mapaorá£eot 

; So Ortel: capoviüas. 


snm Jacoby, 9' A, other editors, 9' omitted by the other 








.. 1 Strabo (4. 4. 9 Diis 4 says that they plunge the dagger 
** jn the back." 


178 








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pEUIpGCE Ue ec uo o PS 


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TEES 
E SUEm 
lores 


ES 
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| 
" 
» 
: | 
er 

hi 
i: 2 
D 

» 


BOOK V. 3r. 2-5 


them are also to be found lyric poets whom they call 
Bards. These men sing to the accompaniment of 
instruments which are like lyres, and their songs may 
be either of praise or of obloquy.  Philosophers, as 
we may call them, and men learned in religious 
affairs are unusually bonoured among them and are 
called by them Druids. "The Gauls likewise make use 
of diviners, accounting them worthy of high approba- 
tion, and these men foretell the future by means of 
the flight or cries of birds and of the slaughter of 
sacred animals, and they have all the multitude sub- 
servient to them. They also observe a custom which 
is especially astonishing and incredible, in ease they 
are taking thought with respect to matters of great 
concern; for in such cases they devote to death a 
human being and plunge a dagger into him in the 
region above the diaphragm,! and when the stricken 
victim has fallen they read the future from the 
manner of his fall and from the twitching of his limbs, 
as well as from the gushing of the blood, having 
learned to place confidence in an ancient and long- 
continued practice of observing such matters. And 
it is a custom of theirs that no one should perform a 
sacrifice without a "'philosopher"; for thank- 
offerings should be rendered to the gods, they say, 
by the hands of men who are experienced in the 
nature of the divine, and who speak, as it were, the 
language ofthe gods, and it is also through the media- 
tion of such men, they think, that blessings likewise 
should be sought. Nor is it only in the exigeneies 
of peace, but in their wars as well, that they obey, 
before all others, these men and their chanting poets, 
and such obedience is observed not only by their 
friends but also by their enemies; many times, for 


179 


Rie esc ee in i snae RA  Cre e me ace 


 ————MÁ——— 


c 


EeMSe eue S RU Reuse I 


— ——— ——À 
CUR urn x: CIVEREESUNSPMM E EOUTMUMUUNSUNWIUNNU NI nemus merus ge ct ue ceeeces apes tcNcee eue teer cc mens cse 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


motaLóvrov GAMjAots TÀy orparomréóay Kai TOS 
: £ibeow ávareraj.evois kal rais Aóyyaus mrpoBeBXn- 
pévass, eis TÓ uécov obToL mrpoeAóvres mradovatw 
abrobs, domep Tw npa karendoavres. oDTcO 
kai Tapa. TOÍS d'ypucorá Tous BapBápows O0 Üvyuós 
euet Tj] codía kai ó Apris aioetrat Tàs Movoas. 

32. Xpjowiov à. éoci. Sropíaa. TO T&pGà. TroÀÀois 
Gryvootpuevov. TOUS yap Ómép MacocaAas KO TOU- 
kotvras ev TÓ peaoyeto KaL TOUS Tap, Tàs "AXrreiws, 
ért € roUs émt TáBe TÓy IIvpqvatcw à ópóv KeAroós 
óvop.dGovot, TOUS o Ünép raÓT)S TÍs KeArucfis 
eis TÓ ,"pós Gpkrov l vejovra puépy sapá ce TÓV 
ckeavav kai TÓ "Epiiveov ópos xaÜ.Gpvpuévovs kai 
"ávras TOUS e£fjs péxp. Tfjs 3vÜias l'aAáras "rpog- 
avopeiovguy oí € "Popatot máAw vávra TOÜ)TG 
T& €Üvn ovAMjBOsv pu mpooyopta. vrepuAa qu Báv- 
ovOW, óvopLovres l'aAdras d Gmravras. 

Ai 86 yvvatkes TÓÀv l'aÀarÓOv o) póvov ToÍs 
peyéüeat mapa avo TOS dy8pácw eiciv, AA 
kai rats da ts éváguMot. TÀ Oé no4&ta Tap" 
aUOTOlS €K yeverfjs Ümdpyet. Tro, KaTó. TÓ mrÀetarov, 
mpoBatvovra óé Tas QÀuctais eig TÓ TÓV m'OTépcov 
Xxp&àpa. raís Xpóaus. perao yn iariGeraa. drypuo- 
TÓrcV Ó' Ovrqyv Tv Dr TÓs dpkrovs karoucoUvrcv 
Kai TOv cfj ZXKkvÜig myotoxdpev, $aci Twwas 
avÜpómrovs coBiew, donep K«aií TÓÀv Bperravdv 
TOUS küroiotvras Tv óvop.aLop.éymv "Ipw. 9u.- 
BeBonuévns 9c Ts. ToUrov dAcfs kal &ypiórros, 
$ací Ttves €v Tois maÀaLots xpóvois TOUS TV 
"Áoiav dracav karaüpapóvras, óvouaopévovs óé 
POMicpus Trovrous «eivai pax) -ToÜ xpóvov 


1 dpkrov Wurm, Vogel, Jacoby, vóroy MSS., Bekker, Dindorf. 
190 | 


duh xe EAE 
rd 


e 
sen 


ccs RES eMM- 


BOOK V. ax. 5-32. 4 


es 
esse ecu RE RC 


MF 


instance, when two armies approach each other in 
battle with swords drawn and spears thrust forward, 
these men step forth between them and cause them 
to cease, as though having east a spell over certain 
kinds of wild beasts. In this way, even among the 
wildest barbarians, does passion give place before 
wisdom, and Ares stands in awe of the Muses. 

32. And now it will be useful to draw a distinction 
which is unknown to many: 'The peoples who dwell 
in the interior above Massalia, those on the slopes 
of the Alps, and those on this side the Pyrenees 
mountains are called Celts, whereas the peoples who 
are established above this land of Celtica in the 
parts which stretch to the north, both along the 
ocean and along the Hercynian Mountain, and all the | 
peoples who come after these, as far as Scythia, are 
known as Gauls; the Romans, however, include al] 
these nations together under a single name, calling 
them one and all Gauls. 

The women of the Gauls axe not only like the men 
in their great stature but they are à match for them 
in courage as well Their children are usually born 
with grayish hair, but as they grow older the colour of 
their hair changes to that of their parents. The most 
savage peoples among them are those who dwell 
beneath the Bears and on the borders of Scythia, and 
some of these, we are told, eat human beings, even 
as the Britains do who dwell on Iris,! as it is calleg. 
| And sinee the valour of these peoples and their 
1 savage ways have been famed abroad, some men 
W say that it was they who in ancient times overran 
all Asia and were called Cimmerians, time having 


cmsctente eee 


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cm 
m 


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PESFUUUMES 


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i i1 Ireland; cp. the old name Erin and the name Eire now 
chosen by the Irish Free State. : 
IOI 





REDETSSLSANTUMENGNMGS URNSAUNRRUNNUE NA NISTNRUUSDROSeN eso rentem MEE 


—— 











DIODORUS OF SICILY 


? ^ ^ 
Tijv Aéfw dÜcipavros év vij TÓv kaAouuévov Kün- 
: ^ A 3 p^ 
Bpcv  mwpocqyopig.  LrAo0cw yàp ek za ato 
/ ? 
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^ c / 
kal koradpoveiv ámávrcov.  obrow yáp cicw oi 
b! ^ Li / £s 7 1 à & € X M ? A 
civ uiv "Pépmv éAóvres, vÓ 8é iepóv vO 6v A«A- 


^ 2 X A 3 ^ * Á/ 
doís cvXjcavres, koi moÀM]v pev Tíjs Eoporrys, 


od óALyqv 86 xoi ríjs ' Acías dopoloyrjcavres, kai 
qÀv koramoÀeunÜévrow Tv  xópav  karoun- 
cavres, oí Gà Tijv «rpós roos. "EAXgvas. érumAokayv 
*EAjvoyaAdrat kyfévres, 1 8& reAevratov oM 
kal ueydAa orparóme0a "Popaiw avvrpübavres. 
ákoAoíÜws Sé và kar! ajroUs dypiórwrt kal cepi 
ràás Üvolas éxrómceg dcefobow obs yàp kakojp- 
yous karà mevraerjpión d$vAd£avres àvacKoàÀo- 
zlLovat To(s Üeots kal per üAaw sov árrap- 
xGv kaÜayilovat, wvpàs cappeyéÜew  karagkeu- 
áLovres. xpóvra. Bé xai rois aiypaÀdvows cs 
(epelois mpós ràs r&v ÜeDv ruids. — rwés 9 aóróv 
kal rà karà móAeuov Àq$0évra La perà Tóv 
dvÜpdomow dxrokreivovow 3j karakáovow *j vuw 
dAAaus Tuioptous. i javibovat. 

D vuvatkas 8" éyovres «ejet0e(s Tjkwora TaVTO4s 
mpocéxovoiw, dAÀÀà mpós Tàs TÓW Gppévov émt- 
cÀokás ékrómcs Avrrüow. «iac. ' éri Gopals 
Onpíov xapal kaÜeó8ovres é& dujorépav  rÓv 
pepóv capaKoírows avykvAieo0a,. TO Óé mávrcv 
E. d UE Daciae NUR iiem eee igiene eruere sie seem nter mei qeneoeeseiseuet 


1 Much has been written to show that the Germanio. tribe 
of the Cimbrians who threatened Italy shortly before 100 5.o. 
were belated Cimmerians who first entered Asis Minor in the 
seventh century B.C. 

? In 387-86 5.0. aecording to the chronology of Polybius 
and Diodorus ; in 390 s.c. by Roman chronology. 


192 








BOOK V. 32. 4-7 


slightly corrupted the word into the name of Cim- 
brians, as they are now called! Forit has been their 
ambition from old to plunder, invading for this 
purpose the lands of others, and to regard all men 
with contempt. For they are the people who cap- 
tured Rome? who plundered the sanctuary at 
Delphi? who levied tribute upon a large part of 
Europe and no small part of Ásia, and settled them- 
selves upon the lands of the peoples they had subdued 
in war, being called in time Greco-Gauls, because they 
became mixed with the Greeks, and who, as their 
last accomplishment, bave destroyed many large 
Roman armies. And in pursuance of their savage 
ways they manifest an outlandish impiety also with 
respect to their sacrifices; for their criminals they 
. keep prisoner for five years and then impale in honour 
of the gods, dedicating them together with many 
other offerings of first-fruits and constructing pyres 
of great size. Captives also are used by them as 
vietims for their sacrifiees in honour of the gods. 
Certain of them likewise slay, together with the 
human beings, such animals as are taken in war, or 
burn them or do away with them in some other 
vengeful fashion. : 

Although their wives are eomely, they have very 


little to do with them, but rage with lust, in out- . 


landish fashion, for the embraces of males. 1t is 
their practice to sleep upon the ground on the skins 
of wild beasts and to tumble with a catamite on each 
side. And the most astonishing thing of all is that 


3 In 279 n.c. " 

4 The Greek may possibly mean, " with concubines of both 
sexes"; but Athenaeus (13. 603 A) states that the Celts were 
accustomed to sleep with two boys. 


183 





Ae e e caa 


e aes F pex mecnm 


E x s crc 


E 


un com M. aleam m cipe 


— 2-4 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


mra. paSo£órarov, Tíjs iOias eQoyuoavns àópov- 
rur ToDvres TT)v TOD odparos dpay érépois €OKÓAcS 
arpotevrau, KaL roro aloxpóv OUX 3yovroa, GAÀá 
p&AÀÀov óray TS abráv xap. ojLévaov Hi Tpoc- 
Bera TIV &iBopévry xápw, &rwLov 7yotvrat 

33. 'Haets 9' &pkobvrcs Trepi KeArüv eipn- 
KÓTES perapiBáoopey T)v  toTopíav  émi TOUS 
matoxdipovs ToÓTOLS KeAriBugpas.  oorow yàp 
TÓ TraÀoAóv mepi Tíjs Xdpas GAMjAots. OtoroAepuij- 
cavres, ot T€ 1n Q)pes kai oL KeArot, Kai perá, Trabra 
O.aAvÜévres kai TV xópav Koi, karoucjoavres, 
ét Ó  émwyapas mpós , GAjAovs  guvOépevot, 9d 
TV émyu£ta TaUr)S érvyov ! fs mrpoayyopías. 
Ovety à' éÜvàwv GAküucv paxÜévrrcov kai Xcópa.s 


Ürrokeuiévis. &yaÜfs, ocuvégm TOUS KeArignpas ' 


érri Tr0À 7f 9ó£n mrpocAety, KO "Popatows TroÀ- 
Aoós  xpóvovs &vrvra&apévovs póyw | koramo- 
AepaiOfvas. Sokofat O' obrou kar ToUs Tr0Àé- 
povs o) póvov Urmets &yatos, AA KQL TeLoUs 
mapéxeotat Sua dópous. TOS dAkaís kai rais Kapre- 
péaus. $opobat 9. obro, cáyovs p.Àavas Tpaxets 
KaL gapamXijavov €xyovras TO &ptov TOÍS aiyelous 
Üpi£iv. | OmAtLovras  Oé  mwves Tv KeAriBrjpoov 
I'aAarukots | Üvpeois KoU$ors, Twés 0€ Kupriaus 
kvKAorepéaw. àomibcv éxoUcais TÓà eyéO0m, kai 
Trepi. vrüs kvüuas rprxivas eiÀolow kvnuiOoas, mepi 
8e TÓS keQaAás Kpdvn XaA«a mepvriBevra $owwot is 
joknuéva Àódow. | £j 9 pdioropa. Kai cioT pq 
Suidópq keya Aicevéva, $opotiw, € &Xovres omDapa- 
aíag capa£iiBas, &ts ypóvrou karà Tràs év Tas 

' For raérjs frvxoy Jacoby ifollows the reading of C, 
Aéyovrot raUTQs Tvxely. 


184 


s ND 


eia 
pA C 














GELS i odSocuE 


em 


PER ME M MUN and 








BOOK V. 32. 7-33. 3 


they feel no concern for their proper dignity, but 
prostitute to others without a qualm the flower of 
their bodies; nor do they consider this a disgraceful 
thing to do, but rather when anyone of them is thus 
approached and refuses the favour offered him, this 
they consider an act of dishonour. 

33. Now that we have spoken at sufficient length 
about the Celts we shall turn our history to the 
Celtiberians who are their neighbours. In ancient 
times these two peoples, namely, the Tberians and 
the Celts, kept warring among themselves over the 
land, but when later they arranged their differences 
and settled upon the land altogether, and when they 
went further and agreed to intermarriage with each 
other, because of such intermixture the two peoples 
received the appellation given above. And since 
it was two powerful nations that united and. the land 
of theirs was fertile, it came to pass that the Celt- 
iberians advanced far in fame and were subdued by 
the Romans with difficulty and only after they had 
faced them in battle over a long period. And this 
people, it would appear, provide for warfare not only 
excellent cavalry but also foot-soldiers who excel in 
prowess and endurance. They wear rough black 
cloaks, the wool of which resembles the hair of goats. 
Ás for their arms, certain of the. Celtiberians carry 
light shields like those of the Gauls, and certain 
carry circular wicker shields as large as an aspis,! and 
about their shins and calves they wind greaves made 
of hair and on their heads they wear bronze helmets 
adorned with purple erests. The swords they wear 
are two-edged and wrought of excellent iron, and 
they also have dirks a span in length which they use 


1 "The ghield of & heavy-armed Greek soldier. , 
Io5 





Ep. eere 








DIODORUS OF SICILY j 


4 páyous GujmTAokás.  iOwv OÉé T( map  a)roíis 
éoT. epi Tv TOv ÓmÀov! dápuvvrgpiov xara- | 
ckevjr cAáopora. yàp  eibpov Karakpmrovau | 
eis mv yfjv, koi raSra, éàot péxpt ày Orov Oud TÓV 
xpóvov ToU io mepijayóvros vÓ oÜevés o0 
oi0Wpou  karaAeujÜá  vÓ  orepecTrarov, éL ob 
karaekeváLovou Gukdopa Éi$x) kai TdÀAa và mpós — ^ 
vÓÀeuov üvükovra.  TÓ O' ovr koraokevaocÜév — . 
ÓvÀov arüv TÓ DmomeoÓv Ouupet, d$! oUmep ore 
Üvpeós obre. kpávos oüre óorobv Dwopuévei qv 

| aÀnyij» 9i r1» vrepBoXjv Tfjs áperfjs To9 oió)jpov. 

: 6 Ouidyat 8^ üvres, émei&üy dx Tv Urmov àyowoá- 

p.evo, vucijac)ot, kamazmbOvres kai rv Tv meLóv 

TáÉw uera AauBdvovres Üavpacrás srovotvrat uáyas. 

tO.ov Oé vt kal sapácofov vópuov sap! a)rotg | 

éoTriv: émwieAeis yàp Ovres kai kaÜdpewwi Tais — | 

Ouairaus €v épyov émvrqoevovow Bávavoov kai moÀ- — 

Afjs dkaÜapcías kexotvown]kós* Tap ékacTa yàp ^| 

TÓ cópa, Aotigw oUpQ, KaL TOUS óO0óvras vapovpiB- — | 

ovres raórqv T)yo0vrat Üepomreiav eva, o0 oc)oros. — | 






I 5: 


Eugene. m ceci m, 


Ce SITE 


- 
De AREIS 


Xu 
Saneedpae 


M SEE PeXE Eu S 
I ———M— e rios arie com 


—— MÀ: 





P^ »y A E 

34. Tots 9' 45Üeow mpós pév To)s kakoUpyovus — | 
Kai moOoÀepious vmápxyovow «poi, vpós O6 ToU — . 
^ M b 

Éévovus émiewcets kai duAdvÜpomo:. — rovs yàp ém- j 
Onuicavras Éévovs &ravres ? üfiobot wap! a)rots — | 
i kai after ózAcv deleted by Oldfather (cf. 3. 28. 6, 54. 3), d 
1 


— 


óTAcv kai deleted by Eichstádt, Bekker, Dindorf, Vogel; 
Jacoby reads r&v for kac. 
? So Dindorf: &ravras. 


es 


ES 


ERE 


Rcruce erecti 





& 


1 But the word may also.mean ' offensive" (cep. Book ; 
3. 54. 3) contrary to Liddell and Soeott. Indeed ówAev 4 
&pvvrgpíov probably means here no more than '' arms," as : 
contrasted with ''implements " for the uses of peace, as 
seems clear from what follows. ! i 


H 
| 
186 E 

| 
] T 


m CS EET 


cq fpes 


AER 


Mj eROM. 


iireesdiediratn senescere 


DEM 


bo 
A 


Lo TUetar or 


ula utet apet 


D SES 


cm 


— 





xDEORocrc e 





EUN EUN 


BOOK V. 33. 3-34. 1 


in fighting at close quarters. And a peculiar practice 
is followed by them in the fashioning of their 
defensive ! weapons; for they bury plates of iron in 
the ground and leave them there until in the course 
of time the rust has eaten out what is weak in the iron 
and what is left is only the most unyielding, and of 
this they then fashion exeellent swords and such 
other objects as pertain to war. "The weapon which 
has been fashioned in the manner described cuts 
through anything which gets in its way, for no shield 
or helmet or bone ean withstand a blow from it, 
because of the exceptional quality of the iron. 
Able as they are to fight in two styles, they first 
carry on the contest on horseback, and when they 
have defeated the cavalry they dismount, and assum- 
ing the róle of foot-soldiers they put up marvellous 
battles. And a peculiar and strange custom obtains 
among them : Careful and cleanly as they are in their 


ways of living, they nevertheless observe one practice: 


which is low and partakes of great uncleanness; 
for they consistently use urine to bathe the body and 
wash their teeth with it, thinking that in this 
gs is constituted the care and healing of the 
body.? 

3L Ás for the customs they follow toward male- 
factors and enemies the Celtiberians are cruel, but 
toward strangers they are honourable and humane. 
Strangers, for instance, who come among them they 


*? À naive explanation. Cp. O. Davies, Roman Mines in 
Europe, p. 59: *'Owiug to the uncertainty of its (steel) 
quality, the Celtiberians buried their iron in the ground, 
because soft iron rusts more quickly than steel, and so by 
reforging a superior product can be obtained." 

3 Strabo (3. 4. 16) corroborates this fact; cp. also Catullus, 
39. 17 f£. : | 

187 


VOL, III. - Ga 


eesrmeemcemesueremeeeu teens mue tte 


V nione mega go e p 





pO cepere t 


monere tn e reae 


men aue s ee 




















DIODORUS OF SICILY 


vowetoÜa, às koraAiaets kai mpós dAAjAous 
Gj4AAQvrau «epi TÍS dulogevías: ots 9" dv ol 
£évot cvvakoAovÜ'jocot, TOUTOUS éÉmauvoOot Jcal 
ÜcodiAets jyyobvraa. poat O6 ypóvrat Kpéaot 
vravrobazots kal SofnAéot kai olvopéAvros "món, 


Xop]yovovs TÍjs Xópas TÓ Lév uéÀ zraqumrn6 és, 
TÓv 9' olvov vapà TÓVv émwrÀeóvrowv | éprrópeov 
GvoUnevot. xwapiéorarov O6 Ov mÀqotoycipcvw 
éÜvüv abrois! éart vÓ ÓÀv Odaicalow óvo- 
pacopévov x avoryya obrot y&p ka0' ékaorov 
éToS Buaupospuevot Tiv xcpav yecpyobot, kal ToUs 
kaprroUs KotvosrotoUpLevot perabibóaw ékdarq 
TO gpépos, Kai Tofs voa$uaévous TL TIE 
Üdvarov TO TpÓOTULOV reÜeikaan. TOv O. 'l8«- 
Dd duicoramot év eiciv oi Usar pue Avovra- 

dopoóücu. 8' év mois zoÀépois méras puKpàs 
muvreMs, SuasremAeypévas vepots kat Svvaqiévas 
okérrei TÓ có Tepurrórepov 0i TÜv orepeórya: 
TaÓTQv 8' év vais páxous peradépovres eQA rcs 
&AAore dAÀÀcs &mó  ToÜ ado póros Buucposovrau 
$uoréyvos Tüv TÓ $epóp.evov ém o SroOs Bélos. 
xpóvra. 8é kai cavvious óAocibijpots dyKLOTpO- 
Ocat, dopobot 96 Kpáyr kai etn rrapariijaua 
KeAriBnpow. dkovribovou 9 cüoTóxcos Kai pa- 
Kpáv, Kai KaÜóAov Kaprepomuyets brápxovaw. 
eoktvnrot Ó. OvTes kai KoÜdo: fgBicos KaL $ebyovat 
Kai Duókovat, karà Oé Tàs €v TaÍs cvoráocot 
TÓv Oewdóv Ü7opovás T0AÀU Actmrovrau TÀv KeArifr- 
pov. , nvriBesova € Kará, pev Tv  eipYvmv 


Opynciv wa kobóqv kai epiéyovocav soAmv 


* ajrois omitted by D, Vogel. 
2 So Stephanus: dvopaléjevoy. 
188 


E 
4 
p. ! 
" 
i 4 


" 
f 
IN 
j 
n ki 
, 
! 


e 
D 
di 
i 
à 





BOOK V. 34. 1-5 


one and all entreat to stop at their homes and they 
are rivals one of another in their hospitality, and any 
among them who are attended by strangers are spoken 
of with approval and regarded as beloved of the 
gods. Fortheirfood they use meats of every deserip- 
tion, of which they enjoy an abundance, and a drink 
of honey mixed with wine, since the country supplies 
them with a great quantity of honey, although the 
wine they purchase from merchants who sail over the 
seas to them. Of the tribes neighbouring upon the 
Celtiberians the most advanced is the people of the 
Vaccaei, as they are called ; for this people each year 
divides among its members the land which it tills 
and making the fruits the property of all they measure 
out his portion to each man, and for any cultivators 
who have appropriated some part for themselves 
they have set the penalty as death. The most 
valiant among the Iberians are those who are known 
as Lusitanians, who carry in war very small shields 
which are interwoven with cords of sinew and are 
able to protect the body unusually well, because they 
are so tough; and shifting this shield easily as they 
do intheir fighting, now here, now there, they cleverly 
ward off from their person every blow which comes at 
them. They also use barbed javelins made entirely of 
iron, and wear helmets and swords very much like 
those of the Celtiberians. They hurlthe javelin with 
good effect, even over a long distance, and, in fine, 
are doughty in dealing their blows. Since they are 
nimble and wear light arms, they are swift both in 
flight and in pursuit, but when it comes to enduring 
the hardships of a stiff fight they are far inferior to the 
Celtiberians. In time of peace they practise a kind 
of elfin dance which requires great nimbleness of 


189 





—————— 







eT cg 
IT 


z - 

SES et s: z cap oe ecl elec 

——————————— * 
m t 


eine 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


eórovíav OKEÀÓv, ev Oé Tos zroAépLouS mpós pv6- 
pov eufaivovot kal maui&vas áGovow, Óray emot 
TOÍS &vrvrerarypévous. BBuov 8é TL «ap Tots 
"TBnpot kal páAwra zOGpà Tols Avovravois eni- 
TQóeUerau — 0v , Yàp ákpaLóvrcv ras fjAuktaus ot 
páAtora Gzropcyroot TOüÍs  oDoQnis, peu Oé 
aciparos kai Opa Ouadépovres, édobiscarres 
aro); dGÀKfj kai Toís ómrÀows eig Tàs ópewàs 
Svoxcopias &Üpotbovraa, gvoTi porro. Oe movijoavres 
a£ióÀoya karaTpéyouct TT)V IBnpiav kai AÀnjoreó- 
ovres TÀovrovs dOpotLovot. kai TobTO BiareAobot 
mprrovres perà sáons karadpovijoecos Koódois 


yàp xpcpevo. kaÜowAwpois kai vavreAQs Óvres 


eóktvy ro Kai O£ets OvoXeipórarrot Tols dAÀoiws 
eiot. kaÜóAov 8é Tàs év Tolg Ópeot Svoxcopías 
kal rpaxóryras Qyojnevot vürpióas eivai, eis 
Ta/Tas Karadebyovan, OvoOve£óSovs oUcas peyá- 
Aows kai Dapéot arparoéboi. Su kal "Popatot 
voÀÀdkug  ém'  aDToUs orpareUaavres Tíjs pev 


voÀMjs karadpovijaeds üméor)cav ajro/s, «cis 


TÉÀos 0€ 7à Agoripuo. karaAbcat moÀÀákus diAoTL- 
pxÜévres odi zv(ijünaav. 

35. Ene 0€ 7à vepi TÓÀv 'lBopev SvijABoprev, 
oÀk &voLKeLov etyas Saa. ávopuev 7ept TÀy ey 
aorij peráAÀow dpyvupetv SueMety- ary yàp i 
Xopa. oXebóv TL mÀetorov kai kdAMorov éyet uer 
Aevópevov &pyvpov kai oM ás rots dyalopévos 
zapéxerat mpooóBovs. elpyra uev obv QHiv kal 
€v Tas mpó Tas BiBXois € €v raís Trepi "HpakAéovs 
"páfeou và karà Tiv imd ópy rà kaÀo/peva 


190 


n 
pae 





BOOK V. 44. g-35. 2 


limb, and in their wars they march into battle with 
even step and raise a battle-song as they charge upon 
the foe. And a peculiar practise obtains among the 
Iberians and particularly among the Lusitanians; 
for when their young men come to the bloom of their 
physieal strength, those who are the very poorest 
among them in worldly goods and yet excel in vigour 
of body and daring equip themselves with no more 
than valour and arms and gather in the mountain 
fastnesses, where they form into bands of considerable 
size and then descend upon Iberia and collect wealth 
from their pillaging. And this brigandage they 
continually practise in a spirit of complete disdain; 
for using as they do light arms and being altogether 
nimble and swift, they are a most difficult people for 
other men tosubdue. And,speaking generally,they 
consider the fastnesses and crags of the mountains to 
be their native land and to these places, which large 
and heavily equipped armies find hard to traverse, 
they flee for refuge. Consequently, although the 
Romans in their frequent campaigns against the 
Lusitanians rid them of their great spirit of disdain, 
they were nevertheless unable, often as they eagerly 
set about it, to put a complete end to their 
plundering. 2 
35. Since we have set forth the facts concerning 
the Iberians, we think that it will not be foreign to 
our purpose to discuss the silver mines of the land; 
for this land possesses, we may venture to say, the 


most abundant and most excellent known sources of 


silver, and to the workers of this silver it returns great 
revenues. Now in the preceding Books which told 
of the achievements of Heracles we have mentioned 
the mountains in Iberia which are known as the 

391 


DUET EMUPM p pe sun Rc ersteccm 
TARPNIUNUSUOMUIMEEIU I S UNED EUN pmetettstUSIU Spe ED TS t aDEO Te eccentric 





WURST SR oe emerit teneo c 












cxGpo sees os ge eret 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Lap s 


IIvpgvata: vara é xal karà TÓ Dos kai ard 
: m^ y 
70 péycÜos Umápyet Ouddopa, và dAÀcw- «apnjket 
e^ , 
yàp dmó Tfj xarà Tijv peowufpíav ÜaMirTwS 
E 
cyeBóv dypi wpós TÓv ózó Tàs dpkrovs Okeavóv, 
b J 8 bi 1i b TaA ? 3 M zr f » 8 4 
telpyovra, 96! rjv l'aAatav Kat ov Pptav, erc ó€ 
/ 
T)» Kerifgptav, qaperretveu oraótovs ds TpLOXt- 
Movs. moAÀQv 8' Óvrow év abrois Opupóv Ka 
aukvGv Toi; Oévüpeo:, daoiv év mois va Àauots 
xpóvois qró rwav voptécv á&dévrcow mÜp karakofvat 
ZapreÀÓs dmacav Tv ÓpewTjv xópav: 8&0 koi 
cuxvós T]uépas avvexós mopós émwAéyovros «adva, 
^ ^^ y 
Tjv émdávewav Tí] yis, kal Trà pgév ópy Ou cO 
^ ^ ? ? 
cvufeBokós  kAy0fjvas YMvpmvaita, Trjv 89 ' émdá- 
: ^ 3 Pd € ^ 
veunv Tíjs KarmakekavjLevrs xópas &py/pq putjvai 
^ ^ ? " 
moÀÀQ, kal xcvevÜetows Tíjs jécens, é£ fis 9 
/ ' 
dpyvpos korackeváberau, póokas vyevéoUa, «roÀ- 
Aoss ápyjpov kaÜapob.  Tíjs 88 vovrov xpeías 
^ / 
dyvoovpévgs wapà, rois éyycpiois, ro0s (Doivias 
épmopious xpaypiévovs kai TÓ *yeyovós uaóvras 
é&yopálew cÓv Gpyupov puKpás Twos üvrióócecs 
&XXov. doprüov. Gió 9») ToUs (Doivukas perauco- 
J » M € , M A 3 7 4 
iLovras eis ve Tijv '"EAAdóa KaL mv Acíiav kai 
LA Pil xn 7 P4 / 
7dÀÀa, srávra, &Üvrj ueysAovs mrepurrovijoa.o0a« qrÀos- 
rovs. émi vocoüro O6 vois éjmópovs OwvTeivaL 
Tfs duokepülas, Gore émeiBày komayópuov. Ovrov 
éw mwAolov wepvrreUg 7oÀ0s pyupos, ékkómTelv 
róv éy rais dykópais uóABov, kai éc o0 &pyipov 
RN. ^ yu / , » / ? 
b rjv ék ToU. uoAiBOov xpeiav áAAdTTeoÜaa.. | Óiómep 


3 


|» A / € / N ^ Pi 
enl moAAoUs xpóvovs oi Qotvuces Ou Tis TOLOUTI)S 


Md 


"——— 


e 


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- - 


Mia rr 


- WM - 


— 


















densum 







qr ce dl 


EET 


IN 


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open 


npemdRcgsmua ifie eer 


: 1 8i added by Eichstüdt. 


RS 
ei m 


192 


Smeg 


C 


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M LU MEE LEE 


i 


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CONSECT 


utres 


Gels. xar 





BOOK V. 35. 2-5 


Pyrenees. Both in height and in size these moun- 
tains are found to excel all others; for they stretch 
from the southern sea practically as far as the northern 
ocean ? and extend for some three thousand stades, 
dividing Gaul from Iberia and Celtiberia. And since 
they contain many thick and deep forests, in ancient 
times, we are told, certain herdsmen left a fire and 
the whole area of the mountains was entirely con- 
sumed; and due to this fire, since it raged com- 
tinuously day after day, the surface of the earth was 
also burned and the mountains, because of what had 
taken place, were called the Pyrenees;? further- 
more, the surface of the burned land ran with much 
silver and, since the elementary substance out of 
which the silver is worked was melted down, there 
were formed many streams of pure silver, Now the 
natives were ignorant of the use of the silver, and the 
Phoenicians, as they pursued their commercial enter- 
prises and learned of what had taken place, purchased 
the silver in exchange for other wares of little if 
any worth. And this was the reason why the 
Phoenicians, as they transported this silver to Greece 
and Asia and to allother peoples, acquired great 
wealth. So far indeed did the merchants go in their 
greed that, in case their boats were fully laden and 
there still remained a great amount of silver, they 
would hammer the lead off the anchors and have the 
silver perform the service of the lead. And the - 
result was that the Phoenicians, as in the course of 


1 The mountains are not mentioned in the preceding two 
Books, which treat of Heracles. 

2 The Mediterranean sea and the Atlantic ocean respee- 
tively. WD | vL 
M 3 as if from the Greek word for fire, s0p (pyr); but the 
Celtie word for ^ mountain " is Byrin or Bryn. | 

193 








»eptqup rice pe cepumiepdeq Eecpeun xum I 


 sxmsxuumupeesqaeeqe Epp un Es ee 


ES 
peas 


p eid lere ccu M 


E 


A€— 


RDMRCRRCA 


mur xescsorn & 


Boxes Eran cand 
xgeedm 


D cum wm LE 


gusocengpapu. 


Odo. eU Ka 





Rosse 


ET eso cemere y 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


éjuroplas émi wo? Aa dvres * al£gouv dmouas 
goÀÀás áméoTe)Uav, rTàs uév elg XukeMav kai ràs 
cóveyyus rabrqs vijcovs, Tàs 8 eis vv Aun 
kal Xap8óva, kai jj» "Igopiav. 

36. "Yorepov 8e zoAAots xpóvots oí pev "lgmpes 
pa óvres và. repli TÓv dpyvpov iQvopoTa. kareakeia- 
cav d£idAoya péraMa- Siómep dpyvpov KdAALOTOV 
kal oxye8óv vt wAetoTov kacackeváLovres peyáAas 
eAáufavov wpocódovs. 8€ «pórmos íjs ueraAAetas 
kal rv dpycv rowfrós Tis éact rapà rots "Igmpow. 
dvrow xaÀko8 kal ypvcoD ai ápyUpov peráAÀcv 
Ünvpaoróv, oí uév épyalópevot Trà xaAkoupyeta 
ró réraprov pépos xaAxo0 kaÜapoUü é« rfjs ópuT- 
rouévgs 'yfjs AampBávovow, TY 8' dpyvpevóvrav 
cwés iBuor&v év piv vjuépaus EXfoikov écaípovot 
rdAavrov- «áco yàp 7j B&Mós éer. dnjynemos 
cvpmemQyóros kai ámoAápmovros peor. OU 
kai Üavpáca, mus dv Tv Te TÍjs yópas $óow kai 
Tijv diAomoviav vóv épyalopévow adr?» àvÜpcrav. 
7ó uev ofv arp&àrov ot Tvxóvres TOV QOuDTÓ Tpoac- 
ekaprépovv rots ueráAois, kal ueyáAovs ámeóépovro 


mÀoórovus 8tà Ti» érowórqra kai Gaj(Aewav. Tfjs 


ápyvpiriBos yfje* Üorepov 86 Óv "Popaitov kpory- 
oávrov Tíjs lBw«pías, vAffos 'LIraAGv ésrezróAace 

^ / A / 2 / /, 
rois peráAMow, koi peyáAous &medépovro mÀoU- 


? 


Tovg &à mv duAokepOtav. óvoUuevou yàp vAfj- 


Üog dv8pamóbwv. wapaDibónoi ois édeornkóot 


rais  uerülkais  épyaatous- oórou Oé kará 
zàelovae «ómovs dávoifavres orópuu Koi Kam 
fáÜovs ópírrovres Tijv yfjv épevr&nt rüs voÀvap- 

1 So Vogel Jacoby, ézi «aoXÓv A. xpóvov MSS., «qoM» 
Aafóvres Bekker, Dindorf. 


194 








BOOK V. ss. 5-36. 4 


many years they prospered greatly, thanks to com- 
merce of this kind, sent forth many colonies, some to 
Sicily and its neighbouring islands, and others to 
Libya, Sardinia, and Iberia. | 
36. But at a muoch later time the Iberians, having 
come to know the peculiar qualities possessed by 
silver, sunk notable mines, and as a consequence, 
by working the most excellent and, we may say, the 
most abundant silver to be found, they received great 
revenues. The manner, then, in which the Iberians 
mine and work the silver is in part as follows. The 
mines being marvellous in their deposits of copper and 
gold and silver, the workers of the copper mines 
recover from the earth they dig out a fourth part of 
pure copper, and among the unskilled workers in 
silver there are some who will take out a Euboie 
talent! in three days; for all the ore is full of solid 
silver-dust which gleams forth from it. QConse- 
quently à man may well be filled with wonder both 
at the nature of the region and at the diligence dis- 
played by the men who labour there. Now at first 
unskilled labourers, whoever might come, carried ón 
the working of the mines, and these men took great 
wealth away with them, since the silver-bearing earth 
was convenient at hand and abundant; but at a 
later time, after the Romans had made themselves 
masters of Iberia, a multitude of Italians have 
sivarmed to the mines and taken great wealth away 
with them, such was their greed. For they purchase 
a multitude of slaves whom they turn over to the 
overseers of the working ofthe mines ; and these men, 
opening shafts in a number of places and digging deep 


into the ground, seek out the seams of earth which are 


1 About 57 pounds avoirdupois. 
| X95 


i OA 








E n ALT 













UeEpRe E ee tege xem oM Tete re s 


*- 
mecsmesqeemeeuapeeritars 


Log UR e 


ceeperpencussum 
——Á—— 


Sca 


Dsecne hue 


vM 
CÓ 


x3 rs 
A CE 


a M—À 


ums 
nde e 







u— 
EXE 


Riga dge 
UM 





pude 


TET 


kie eem. 
RC MET 


dee 


Emekam 


s 
To pes SRL S 


r—-— 


BEDCNNE 


1 
j. 
P ! 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


yópovs kai mowypicous mas TfS vyüs KQTa- 
Batvovrés Te od uóvov. eis pos, àÀAà «ai eis 
Báfos TapekTeivovres émi zroAAoUs oTraO0lovs TàÀ 
ópóyuara., kal TÀayías aL ckoAtás Slabíceis 
mro tAcos peraAMovpyoSvres, Gvdryovaty éx BvOGv 
Tijv TÓ KépBos adrots Trapexopévm B&Xov. 

3T. MeyáAnv. O Eye zapaAAÀayryv. Tà péraMa 
ca$ra GUyKpwópuevo, TOUS KaTÓ Tiv "Arrucjv. 
éketva pev yap oi pera AAeDovres kat Trpós rais épya- 
aas peyáAas mrpoiepievot Sazmávas à E pev Tmwoav 
évíore Aafetv o)x £Aapov, & 9 eixov dméBaAov, 
dore Ooketv aros domep aiviyp.res TpÓTOv 
GruXetv- oí O6 kaTà T7)v Zaraviay peraMovpyol 
rais éXrriot Y peyáXovs ccopejovat mro rous ék 
ToÓrG TÓV epyaaióyv. TÓV yàp. TpcTOV Spyav 
émvrv'yyovopévav Ol cT)v Tfjs yfjs eis ToUro TÓ 
yévos àperTv dei p&Aov eópiakovat Aaimrporépas 
$AéBas, yeposoas  dpyópov T€ kai wpucoó: arca 
yàp 7 QUveyyus yfj SuvrénAekra moAvpepás TOS 
€ vypots rv pápücv.  éviore Bé kai KG TÀ BáBovs 
éprérrovau vOTOJOÍS péovaw D Tiv Yi, Qv TÍjs 
Bias «repuytvovras Dtaucórrrovres Tüs p)ceus aDTÓV 
Tás éumUmTTOUGQGs TOS ópóypat qÀayiow. TOS 
yàp dOwuje/orow ToU xépOovs «pocOoktaus Tue- 


...1 mats Ano: deleted by Bekker, Dindorf, retained by Vogel, 
3 acoby ; dioAoUOcs added by Wurm. 





1 'The silver-mines of Laurium. 

*? (The riddle is that propounded to Homer (Homeri Vita 
Herodotea, 35) by some fishermen who had had no luck and 
had become covered with lice while sitting on the beach : 
dao" €Aopgev Avróueo0a, & 8. obxy &Aouev d« dpeota (* What we 
eaught we left behind, but what we failed to catch we brought 


196 


nuupan-Dac eo nde Ririyel SRM ere 


Hr ei^ 


r————— 3 


mm eg 


— 


p 





BOOK V. 36. 4-37. 3 


rich in silver and gold; and not only do they go into 
the ground a great distance, but they also push 
their diggings many stades in depth and run galleries 
off at every angle, turning this way and that, in this 
manner bringing up from the depths the ore which 
gives them the profit they are seeking. 

37. Great also is the contrast these mines show 
when they are compared with those of Attica.! 
The men, that is, who work the Attic mines, although 
they have expended large sums on the undertakings, 
yet "Now and then, what they hoped to get, 
they did not get, and what they had, they lost," so 
that it would appear that they met with misfortune 
in a kind of riddle;? but the exploiters of the mines 
of Spain, in their hopes,? amass great wealth from 
their undertakings. For their fist labours are 
remunerative, thanks to the excellent quality of the 
earth for this sort of thing, and they are ever coming 
upon more splendid veins, rich in both silver and gold ; 
for all the ground in that region is a tangled network 
of veins which wind in many ways. And now and 
then, as they go down deep, they come upon flowing 
subterranean rivers, but they overcome Hs might of 
these rivers by diverting the streams which flow in 
on them by means of channels leading off at an angle. 
For being urged on as they are by expectations of 


with us"). Demetrius of Phalerum had applied the riddle 
to the capitalists of Attica, who did not receive the returns 
they expected from their investments in the Attic silver- 
mines. 'The observation of Demetrius was preserved in 
Poseidonius, who is the source of the different forms in which 
it appears in Strabo (3.2.9) Athenaeus (6. 2336), and 
Diodorus. . JS | 

5 Or perhaps what Diodorus meant was, " wealth . ., 
commensurate with their hopes." E | i 


197 




































bm 


uer 


menge 


c'gixeeesiest i ens 
FED. e 


fuse 


PINE D OLI COOL Ue UL quueioc ones Eoi 


eure 
deu 


pm 
erem uS 


us 
ES 
SS 


igi omae ett 


s: 


m 


ST 


uus 
SE 


| 198 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Lóuevot vrpós 7Ó TéÀos dyovoi às iOías émifloMs, 
kal TÓ mvávrov wapagofórarov, dmap)rovo, Ts 
póces rÀv ÜDOdTcw Toís Alyvmrukotis Aeyop.évows 
KoyAtmus, ots '"Apxusjógs O0 Ipakóctos ecópev, 
óre wapéaAev eis Alyvmrov Ow Oé -obrwv 
cuveyüs éx DuBoyíjs mapaüibóvres péypi mo 
cTropiov, TÓv TOv peráAAowv Tówov àva£npaivovot 
kal karackevátovow eÜÜerov mpós T? Tíje dpya- 
cias payparetav. diAoTéxyvov 9' Ovros Tob 
ópyávov kaÜ' mepfoMjv, 9u& Tfj  rvyodons 
épyacias  &mÀarov UÓcp  àvappuwrTetrat  mapa- 
8décws, kai vüv TÓ worápuov peÜua poObos éx 
BvÜo8 mpós civ émijáveay ékye?rav. — Üavgdcat 
8' dv Tis eikóTcs TOÜ Teyvirov Tiv Émivouav o) 
, E , 3445 35 SAL AS t 
póvov €v coros, GAÀà ,Kaí év GAots mroAots 
xai geiLoot, OwDepomuévow  karà mücav Tw 
oikovuévov, sept dv Tà karà uépos Órav émi vj» 
" Apxujoous TjÀuctay éAÓcopev &kpiBás Oté£usev. 
38. Ot. 8" oiv mais épyaotaus TÓV uerdAMov 
évOLampiBovres cols pv xvpiow dmioTovs ois 
mÀ/Üeat mpocóOovs sepvrowoDow, aoroi Oé xarà 
yfjs év rois ópóypact kal ka0" zjuépav kal vXkra 
kora£awópevou Tà odpara, moÀÀol uév dmoDví- 
aovat 9u, rjv orepBoAjv ríjs kakoraÜeías* dveots 
yàp 7) va$Àa TrÓÀv épycv o)k écrw abrois, GAM ! 
! zais after àÀAà omitted by D, Vogel, Jacoby. 





! 'This screw is mentioned before (1. 34. 2) as used by the 
Egyptians to irrigate the land of the Delta; on the evidence 
for its use in the mines of Spain and illustrations of such a 
screw and the manner of its operation see T. A. Rickard, 


* 


*'The Mining of the Romans in Spain," Journ. of Roman 


Btudies, 18 (1928), 120-149... 








1 
| 
[ 
| 
| 
5 
i 
mi 
E 
t 
! 1 
] T 
ru 
x 
9A 
/ 
1 
1 











BOOK V. 37. 3-38. x 


gain, which indeed do not deceive them, they push 
each separate undertaking to its conclusion, and what 
is the most surprising thing of all, they draw out 
the waters of the streams they encounter by means of 
what is called by men the Egyptian screw, which was 
invented by Archimedes of Syracuse at the time of his 
visit to Egypt;! and by the use of such serews they 
carry the water in successive lifts? as far as the 
entrance, drying up in this way the spot where they 
are digging and making it well suited to the further- 
ance of their operations. Since this machine is an 
exceptionally ingenious device, an enormous amount 
of water is thrown out, to one's astonishment, by 
means of a trifling amount of labour, and all the water 
from such rivers is brought up easily from the depths 
and poured out on the surface.  Ánd a man may well 
marvel at the inventiveness of the craftsman? 
in connection not only with this invention but with 
many other greater ones as well, the fame of which 
has encompassed the entire inhabited world and of 
which we shall give a detailed and precise account 
when we come to the period of Archimedes.* 

38. But to continue with the mines, the slaves 
who are engaged in the working of them produce for 
their masters revenues in sums defying belief, but 
they themselves wear out their bodies both by day 
and by night in the diggings under the earth, dying 


in large numbers because of the exceptional hardships . 


they endure. For no respite or pause is granted thera 
in their labours, but compelled beneath blows of 


* $,e. the water was lifted by a series of such screws. 

* Archimedes. | LL | 

* "This period was the third century 5.0., which was covered 
by some of the lost Books. | T 


199 











E Gu 








dpnic hoec ceder cupugen use quulse E 
Ium qeu € t Dubium s ee e : 
m WXESUMSESUNURIUE. vidue n E 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


TÓV émioTOTÓV srÀxyyo ts avaykaLóvrov bmrop.évew 
TÜV Dewórnra rÀv kakdv ürvÓs Trpotevrat TÓ 
bf, Twég O6 cvaís Svvápeot TÓv Ocopureov kai 
Toís TÓ Jvxóv Kaprepíoaus UT pévovres mroXv- 
Xpóviov £xovot TV raÀawmcoptay atpercepos yàp 
abrots ó Üávoarós éovw ToU Lv Sus TÓ péyeÜos 
TÍjs raÀareopías. zoÀÀQv 9  Ovrov mepi Tàs 
mpoeipruévas peraAAe(as | vapaóótov, oOx Tiu 
Qv TiS Üavpdcete Siri TÓy peraMovpyetcov oo8€y 
spócóarov éyew TTV pyj, 7ávra O nó Tfis 
Kapyn8ovicov diÀAapyvptas Avedyx0n ko LA Kaupóv 
«ai Ts. j !npías émekpárovv.  ék ToDTOYv yàp 
&oxov Tiv éÉmi mÀéov ab£nov, pao oópievot TOUS 
Kpariarovs aTpamuóras kal Ou ToUTcv soÀAoUs 
Kai peyáovs ToÀéuovs BuamroAepujoavres. kaBó- 
Aov yàp dei Kapxynóvtot BverroAcpiovv oUTe ToÀLTU- 
Kolg oTpaTicTO4s OUT€ TOÍS dO Tv cvjuycov 
aÉpotLopévous mremoóres, dAAQ «ai "Popacovs 
kai PukeAuoras kai ToUs karü Ty)v Auonv 
oiKoüvras eis ToUs! . Heytarous fiyov kwOUvovs 
karazÀovrop.axoüvres dzavras uà T ek TÓYy 
peráANov ywop.évqv eomroptay. . Oeiwot Yáp,. cog 
&oucev, orfjp£av oL GDotvuces ék «aav Xpóvow 
eis TÓ &épOos eópetv, oí O. àxo Tis lraAas eis vÓ 
pxaev? pnoevi TÀv dAXov karaAumet ty. 

l'iveras Bé KQL kamrrepos év TroAMot ts TÓmOwS Tí 
IBnpíos, ok éé émuroAfjs €0pu.OKÓJLevos, cs év 
TOS toropíaus Twés reUpvATkaaw, dA ópurTó- 
pevos. kai Xa»evópevos  Óprotcos &py)pq Te kal 
xpo. omepdvc yàp Tífs rÀv Avavravóv xdpas 


! ro)s omitted by D, Vogel, retained by other editors | 
* uwnóév added by Reiske. 








BOOK V. 38. 1-4 


the overseers to endure the severity of their plight, 
they throw away their lives in this wretched manner, 
although certain of them who can endure it, by virtue 
of their bodily strength and their persevering souls, 
suffer such hardships over a long period; indeed 
death in their eyes is more to be desired than life, 
because of the magnitude of the hardships they 
must bear. And although many are the astounding 
features connected with the mining just described, a 
man may wonder not the least at the fact that not 
one of the mines has a recent beginning, but all of 
them were opened by the covetousness of the 
Carthaginians at the time when Iberia was among 
their possessions. lt was from these mines, that is, 
that they drew their continued growth, hiring the 
ablest mercenaries to be found and winning with 
their aid many and great wars. For itis in general 
true that in their wars the Carthaginians never 
rested their confidence in soldiers from among their 
own citizens or gathered from their allies, but that 
when they subjected the Romans and the Sicilians 
and the inhabitants of Libya to the greatest perils it 
was by money, thanks to the abundance of it which 
they derived from their mines, that they conquered 
them in every instance. For the Phoenicians, it 
appears, were from ancient times clever men in 
making discoveries to their gain, and the Italians 
are equally clever in leaving no gain to anyone 
else. 

Tin also occurs in many regions of Iberia, not 
found, however, on the surface of the earth, as certain 
writers continually repeat in their histories, but dug 
out of the ground and smelted in the same manner 
as silver and gold. For there are many. mines of tin 


201 






























DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Dec 


32m 


rS c pore 
WXEASNSLMOR uw 


cds 


l &orL péraMa. 70ÀÀÀ ToD Karrvrépov, kaLi orà 
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Tós dTO TOU cvpBeBnkóros KarrirepiBas. cvopao- 

b uévag.  moÀUs óé kal ék Tfjs Bperravuctfjs vijoov 
Oraucoput eras qrpós Tiv KaT. GvriKpÜ Keuiévn 
l'aAaríav, Kai Bi Tfjs peaoyetov KeArucfs ed 
UmmQV vT7O TÓV épmópcov &yerau sapd Te TOUS 
MaacaAuóras. kai eis TY óvop.abop.évqv TóAtw 
NapBóva: air) O' éoriv dzowos pev "Popatv, 
eu óc T eokaupíay ? péywrov éumópwov éyovca 
d éy ekelyoig rois TÓcOLs 

'"Hyets 8' enel Tà kurà Tro9se laAáras kai 
TOUS » KetcBnpas, ér, 8 "Ignpas Buy oper, eri ;' 
To)s Atyvas perafnoópue0a. obToi yàp vépovrau | 
pev ydpov vpaxetay kai mavreAas Avmpáv, Tofs 4 
O6 vróvowg kai rats karà Tiv Aevrovpytas OUveyéot " 
ka.orra eias émésrovóv TUwa Btov KG &rvxf) bóot. i 

2 karaBévOpov yàp TÜS xe)pas otons, oL pv a)TÓV | 
oAoTop.obat Ov óÀqs Tíjs "uépas ciónpodopoOvres 
evepyojs aeAékeis | kal Bapeis, oi 8é Tv viv 
épyatópevot TÓ TÀÉov mérpas AoropuoU0t 5 

P! TTV bmepBoATyv TÍS TpaxÜr1)ros" oX8epay yàp 

ER BóAov rois épy'aAetots àvaonáouw dvev Aifov. 

ET Ka Tour £Xovres €v Tots epyous karcorráDeuy 

13 Tf cvvexela meprytvovra. Tfjs $ócecs, Kai ToÀÀA 

á poxOjoavres : dMyovs KapmoUs. kai nóyus  Aapfáv- li 

ovo. Bu Bé civ cwvéxeuty rv yupvacióv kai TÓ 1 

Tfjs 1podfjs eAAurés Tos oadocw Ümdpxovou toXvol 

Kai eDrOvot. -mpós. 8é 7v kakomáÜeuv raórqv 


Sena 
meten 


EL Nau sean eie. GRE e em ie e e C 


cuAst ERPEdeets 





al added by Jacoby (cf. Str&bo 8.2.9). —— r 
* Kol rij» eàmopíay often ediccupíay deleted by Wurm. m 


"a$ Ca PRU CE. 
ras , : 
; ; 

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"A d (UN 202 

2d or UNES "e uw 

omo 
3 1 ^ "$a v 
era da 


VESSESATAR T see qe eepte coh. 


BOOK V. 38. 4-39. 2 


moÁAveenees s Reg, 


in the country above Lusitania and on the islets which 
lie off Iberia out in the ocean and are called because 
of that fact the Cassiterides) And tin is brought in 
large quantities also from the island of Britain to the 
opposite Gaul,?? where it is taken by merchants on 
horses through the interior of Celtica both to the 
Massalians and to the city of Narbo, as it is called. 
This city is à colony of the Romans, and because of 
its convenient situation it possesses the finest market 
to be found in those regions. 

39. Since we have discussed the Gauls, the Celt- 
iberians, and the Iberians, we shall pass on to the 
Ligurians. The Ligurians inhabit a land which is 
stony and altogether wretched, and the life they live 
is, by reason of the toils and the continuous hardships 
they endure in their labour, a grievous one and 
unfortunate. For the land being thickly wooded, 
some of them fell the wood the whole day long, 
equipped with efficient and heavy axes, and others, 
whose task it is to prepare the ground, do in fact for 
the larger part quarry out rocks by reason of the 
exceeding stoniness of the land; for their tools never 
dig up à clod without a stone. Since their labour 
entails such hardship as this, it is only by persever- 
ance that they surmount Nature and that after many 

. distresses they gather scanty harvests, and no more. 
By reason of their continued. physical activity and ! 
minimum of nourishment the Taberints are slender TW" 
and vigorous of body. To aid them in their bard- ^. - 


agit om el 


——— 


n EE 








1 From Eaasiteros ("tin"). "These are the Scilly Isles, lying ^ 7. 
just off the tip of Cornwall; the ancients considered them as ^^ ^. 
off Spain because of the easy. access to them by way of the ^ 
coast of Spain and the Bay of Biscay. jg ME 

* Cp. ch. 22 above. : & iu bro) 





* 


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cereum tm Es memes ems — i ———————— 





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DIODORUS OF SICILY 


cwvepyo)e éyovou Tàs 'yvvoikas, eiDwpévas émw' 
toys ois davOpáow  épyáteo0ai. ^ kvvmyias é 
voioüvra. oGuveyets, év aís svoAÀÀà vÀv Üwnpiov 
xeipoUpevo, Tv ék v kapmáv omáww ÓOtop- 
Üoüvrai.  Oiómep  éufiotvres Opeow xwovoBoAov- 
pévows kai rpayUrQgras ámicrovs OpeiaTelv eic- 
Üóres, eUrovo, kal uvedDOets *yivovrat rois ccpaotw. 
évto, 86 Bià rrjv map! aDrots ovravokapsíav sríivovot 
uév D0op, capko$ayoücu. 86 às TrÓv Tf)uépwv Te 
kai dypitv Loov odpkas kai TOv dÓ Tfjs xopas 
Aaydvcv éumüumAavrat, TT) xcpav éyovres áBorov 
TOls qpoocQiÀeoTdrow TOv ÜeÀv Aüwgrpi kai 
Auovicq. ] 

Nukcepevovot 9^ émi vfjs xcópas omavícg pev. &y 
Ti0w eÜreAéow émajAeow 7) kaluais, rà O6 zo 
€v rats koiÀaus sérpous kai ommAÀaio:s aDroQvéot 
kai Ovvauévows okémmqv ixavrv vopéyeo8a,. — àko- 
AoUÓcs Oé rojrow xai TÀÀAa zoto90t, OuudvAdT- 
TOVT€S TÓv Gpyatov kat ükardokevov Bíov. | kaÜóAov 
9' év rots rómois roro * at uév yvvatkes dvópáv, 
oí O. dvOpes Ünpicw €xovow eDrovíav kal QW. 
vroÀÀdkis "yov $aotv év rats orparetous vÓv uéyi- 
oTov vOv laÀarGv $zó Avyvos ioxvoü «avreAÓs 
ek zpokArjeecs uovopaxnoavra. àyppfjaÜau. — ómÀ- 
cuóv O' éyovow oí Atyves é&Aajpórepov v 
"Ponateov Tj koraokevij: okemáLle( yàp ajroUe 
TapajKns Üvpeós «eis TOv l'aÀaruxóv  pvÜuóv 

eÓmuaovpynuévos kai xvrov cvvetpévos Co- 
oTfi, kal sepvriDevra, Ünpicwv Oopàs kal £ídos 
o)pperpov' mwés O0. aDrÓwv Oi cov émwuuf(av Tfs 


1 zoóroi added by Jacoby. 
204 "TT 





4 


| 
! 
| 
| 





BOOK V. 39. 2-7 


ships they have their women, who have become accus- 
tomed to labour on an equal basis with the men. 
They are continually hunting, whereby they get 
abundant game and compensate in this way for the 
lack of the fruits of the field. Consequently, spend- 
ing their lives as they do on snow-covered mountains, 
where they are used to traversing unbelievedly 
rugged places, they become vigorous and muscular 
of body. Some of the Ligurians, because of the lack 
among them of the fruits of the earth, drink nothing 
but water, and they eat the flesh of both domestic 
and wild animals and fill themselves with the green 


things which grow in the land, the land they possess. 
» being untrodden by the most kindly of the gods, 


namely, Demeter and Dionysus. 

The nights the Ligurians spend in the fields, 
rarely in a kind of crude shanty or hut, more often 
in the hollows of rocks and natural caves which may 
offer them sufficient protection. In pursuance of 
these habits they have also other practices wherein 
they preserve the manner of life which is primitive 
and lacking in implements. Speaking generally, in 
these regions the women possess the vigour and 
might of men, and the men those of wild beasts. 
Indeed, they say that oftentimes in campaigns the 
mightiest warrior among the Gauls has been chal- 
lenged to single combat by a quite slender Ligurian 
and slain. The weapons of the Ligurians are lighter 
in their structure than those of the Romans; for 


their protection is a long shield, worked in the - 


Gallic fashion, and a shirt gathered in with a belt, 
and about them they throw the skins of wild animals 
and carry a sword of moderate size; but some of 


1 ie. they have no wine. 
| 205 








—— 





| /4 
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"1 DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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auóv, éfopotoÜvres éavrois Tots Tyyovpévois. Üpa- | 
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dÀÀà xai wpós ràs év TQ Di wepioráoews Ts 
éyoócas Oewórgras.  éumopevópevow yàp «rÀéovot | 
vÓ Zap8óvuov kaà vÓ Auflkóv wéAayos, érotjs 
éavro)s urroÜvres «eis ófomÜnrovs  kwObvovs: 4 
oxddeot yàp xpcovevou T&v oxeüu)v. eÜreAcaTépois j 
Kal rois dÀÀo:s Tois karà vabv ypuoípoiw "jkwoco. 
ka.reokevaapévous Üropévovot ràs ék vv xeuuvov 
dofepcráras mepuorácew koramierucós. 

40. Aecrera,. 9' dptv eimet»v «epi TÀv luoppn- 
vÓv.  oOro. yàp TÓ puév saAauóv &vOpeig, Ovevey- 
KÓvres xyopav soAÀMjv karerrijcavro kai TÓÀ«s i 
&fwoÀóyovs kal voAÀág ékrwcav. | Opotos 96 kai / 
vavrukats  Ovvápeow  ioy/oavres Kai  «oAÀoUs E 
xpóvovs ÜaAarrokporíücavres TÓ puév «apà civ i 
"IraMav sréAvyos à$^ éavróv émoiqoav luppqvuóv —— 
zpocayopevÜQvau, rà Bé karà ràs meLàs Ovvápews . — 
ékmrovijoavres | Te T€ odmtyya. Aeyopiévmy. c£ eüpov, 
eüypyoTorármQv nv eig ToUs vroÀéuovus, àm ékeivov 
T óvouacÜetcav 'luppqwáv, cTÓ Te epi To)s 
ES jyovuévovs * dfiepa kareokeóacav, mepiÜévres 
In Tois Jjyovévous paflóoUyous xat Oijpov éAejáv- 
Twov KaL mepurópQupov -óDevvav, év ce -aís 
oiktais Tà TepioTqoa Tpós ràs TÓv Üeparevóvrov "s 
OyA«v rapayàs é£e0pov eüyproTiav: Gv rà vÀetora T 


ToidEN 


05 




























| bf ! orparqyoss after Jjyovpévovs questioned by Vogel, deleted 
2 MP CEDEP by Jaeoby. 








1 Tbe sella curulis of the Romans. epos 





s »o vá . 
y j ih À "Y 
phas n n 
RN 
h nd : 
Lond H m4 
» i 
1 ] 
? 


n 


BOOK V. 39. 7-40. 1 


UAR Regen mes eeteiem deer 


pa. — o ONT 


them, now that they have been incorporated in the 
Roman state, have changed the type of their 
weapons, adapting themselves to their rulers. And 
| they are venturesome and of noble spirit, not only in 
| war, but in those circumstances of life which offer 

terrifying hardships or perils. As traders, for instance, 
| they sail over the Sardinian and Libyan seas, readily 
" casting themselves into dangers from which there is 
l no succour; for although the vessels they use are 
| more cheaply fashioned than make-shift boats and 
| their equipment is the minimum of that usual on ships, 


Indy ente x 


AA RR PRRER 


et to one's astonishment and terror they will face 
the most fearful conditions which storms create. 
40. It remains for us now to speak of the Tyr- 
E rhenians. This people, excelling as they did in 
à manly vigour, in ancient times possessed great 
territory and founded many notable cities. Like- 
^ wise, because they also availed themselves of powerful 
| naval forces and were masters of the sea over a on 
period, they caused the sea along Italy to be name 
Tyrrhenian after them ; and because they also per- 
| fected the organization of land forces, they were the 
' inventors of the salpina, as it is called, a discovery of - 
the greatest usefulness for war and named after 
them the " Tyrrhenian trumpet." "They were also 
the authors of that dignity which surrounds rulers, E 
providing their rulers with lictors and an ivory stool! 
and a toga with a purple band; and in connection 
with their houses they invented the peristyle,? à 
) useful device for avoiding the confusion connected | 
with the attending throngs; and these things were ^; | 
à ? That part of the Roman house which lay back of the ^ | 
| large reception hall and.adjacent rooms, and consisted of &n | | 
open eourt with rooms opening upon it. " 








| —— 


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e ^ | P l| 3 1 / 
Popnatot pamoduevou kai pós TO  KdAÀAov 
aüf(ócavres perjveykav émi Tv iOíav woÀwreiav. 
ypápuara. O6 kai dvotoAoyíav kai ÜeoÀoyiav 
éfemóvQcav émi wAéov, kai Tà wepi Tv kepavvo- 
okomiav pdAora sávrov üvÜpomov é£ewyácavro: 
0.0 kai uéxypt cv vOv xpóvcw ot Tfj oikouuévms 
oye80v OÀgs wWyovnevot! ÜOavudLovoi € ToUs 
ávOpas kai karà ràs év rois kepavvois Otoonue(as 
ToUroig é£yyqrais xpávra. 

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é£epyaLÓpevot, kapráv à$Üoviav éyovoiw o) uóvov 
vpós Tv dpkofcav Owwrpodhv, àAÀAà ai pos 
dzróAavow OodaAMj kai rpvdmv àvükovcav.  mapa- 
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oTpucpuvàs guév dvÜewás korackeváLovres, ékmco- 
párcov 9' ápyvpdv savroOamóv wÀf$Üos xai TÓw 
O.uKovocvrcv oikeráv ok óAtyov àpiüuóv Tjrowuua- 
KÓTEes* kaL ToUTOV oL pév eUmpereiqg Ota épovrés 
eiow, oi O. éofjot mroÀvreAeoTépaus 1) kavrà GovAucv 


LE EA / 3-9 M » 
4 dfiav kekóoumvrot. oucfoeu Te vravroOoás iQu- 


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2 * hi Le ? , Lj , / 
dAÀà KaL TÓv éAevÜépuv oi «Aetovs.  xaÜóAov 
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/ 5 X » Á ? 7 b LI 
pévqgv GÀ«nv amoBeBAkaoiw, év «órow O6 kai 
paÜvpuiats ávdvüpows Puolvres oUk dAóycs Tiv rdv 
zaTépov Oótav év voís moAéuow dmofeBXkaot. 
; 1 


6 cwuvepdAero 9' aórots mpós Tv vpv$d o)k éAd- 


A Jacoby adds "Pojaio: Los es E 
&pyovres Sugges y Vogel and adopted by Jacoby for 
Üepásrovres of the MSS. | EX iet d j 














BOOK V. 4o. 1-5 


adopted for the most part by the Romans, who added 
to their embellishment and transferred them to their 
own political institutions. Letters, and the teaching 
about Nature and the gods they also brought to 
greater perfection, and they elaborated the art of 
divination by thunder and lightning more than all 
other men; and it is for this reason that the people ! 
who rule practieally the entire inhabited world show 
honour to these men even to this day and employ 
them as interpreters of the omens of Zeus as they 
appear in thunder and lightning. 

The land the Tyrrhenians inhabit bears every crop, 
and from the intensive cultivation of it they enjoy 
no lack of fruits, not only sufficient for their sus- 
tenance but contributing to abundant enjoyment and 
luxury. For example, twice each day they spread 
costly tables and upon them everything that is 
appropriate to excessive luxury, providing gay- 
coloured couches and having ready at hand a multi- 


tude of silver drinking-cups of every description and . 


servants-in-waiting in no small number; and these 
attendants are some of them of exceeding comeli- 
ness and others are arrayed in clothing more costly 
than befits the station of a slave. Their dwellings 
are of every description and of individuality, those 
not only of their magistrates but of the majority of 
the free men as well. And, speaking generally, they 
have now renounced the spirit wbich was emulated 
by their forebears from ancient times, and passing 
their lives as they do in drinking-bouts and unmanly 
amusements, it is easily understood how they have 


lost the glory in warfare which their fathers possessed. 


Not the least of the things which have contributed to 
| | e, the Romans. | jo 
209 


"n 








pne 
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GENUSS 
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DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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züvrTeAOs  eÜyetov  vepuópevov!  vavrós  kapsob 
aMjÜos áxoÜ«cavpilovow. | xaÜóAov yàp 7") lvp- 
puvia. sravreMos evyewos oboa. mreüiots voremrap.é- 
vow éykáÜnras kai Bovvoeióéow àvaorijpact Tóc ? 
Selma, yecpygotpots" Oypà 8é gerpíes éoriv 
o) póvov karà T»v xeuepumv ópav, àÀÀà, kai karà. 
TOv TOU Üépovs kaupóv. 

41. '"Exei 86 mepi rfjs wpós éomépav kexMgérgs 
xópas kai Tíjs vpós Tàs ÓpkTrovs vevevukvias, ém 
8é vOv karà TÓv ckeavóv vjocwv OwfQADouev, év 
uépe. Bufuuev epi vÀv xarà Tl» peonuptav 
vájccv TOv év dkcavQ Tis 'Apaf(as Tf tpós 
ávaroAiv kekMpévos xai vpocopiLovons Tf) kaAov- | 
pévp Ke8pwoía. — *j uév yàp xópa vroAAats kdpous i 
kai móÀeow dóftoÀóyois koeroweirat, kat roórcv 
aí né émi xycuárov dàfwAÓóyov ketvrat, oi 8. 
émi yecAóóov 1) weOXov kaÜibpuvvraw | éyovov 9 
a)TÓV ai uéywaras BaotAeu kareokevaagéva, TroÀv- 

TeÀOs, míos oikqrópcv éyovra kai xrüocews 
&kavds. Toca O abTÓv 7) xopa yéuev Üpeuudroov 
qavroOaTÓv, kapsmo$opoüca kai vouàs d$0óvovs 
mrapexopévr) Toís Bocroípacu moTapot T€ TOÀÀOl 
Ouappéovres év a)vfj woÀM]v dpOejovow xcpav, 
cvvepyolvres Tpós TeÀelav a)£«0ow TÓw kapmáw. 
0. xai Tis '"Apafías 1 mpwreVovoa Tfj áperi 
srpoaryopiav éAaBev oucetav, E60aiucv óvouaaÜetoa. 
—.'* yeuópevos xópav CEG, Jacoby. s 
* For rózo» Dindorf reads Aóóov. m 





! Chaps. 41-6 are generally considered to be drawn from 
Euhemerus of Messene, who composed about 300 s.c. his 


[Nn "m 
3 
i Pagos s 210 
1) m ' j 
d rA d 
nite ur 














BOOK V. 40. s-41. 3 


their luxury is the fertility of the land; for since it 
bears every product of the soil and is altogether 
fertile, the Tyrrhenians lay up great stores of every 
kind of fruit. In general, indeed, Tyrrhenia, being 
altogether fertile, lies in extended open fields and is 
traversed at intervals by areas which rise up like hills 
and yet are fit for tillage; and it enjoys moderate 
rainfall not only in the winter season but in the 
summer as well. 

41.1 But now that we have described the lands 
which lie to the west and those which extend toward 
the north, and also the islands in the ocean, we shall 
in turn discuss the islands in the ocean to the south 
which lie off that portion of Arabia which extends to 
the east and borders upon the country known as 
Cedrosia.? Arabia contains many vilages and 
notable cities, which in some cases are situated upon 
great mounds and in other instances are built upon 

ilocks or in plains; and the largest cities have 
royal residences of costly construction, possessing a 
multitude of inhabitants and ample estates. And 
the entire land of the Arabians abounds with domestic 


animals of every description, and it bears fruits as 


well and provides no lack of pasturage for the fatted 
animals; and many rivers flow through the land 
and irrigate a great portion of it, thus contributing to 
the full maturing of the fruits. Consequently that 
part of Arabia which holds the chief place for its 
fertility has received a name appropriate to it, being 
called Arabia the Blest.? E ^ | 
Sacred. History, which combined with the picture of a political 
utopis an account of the origin of the gods. 


? Also called Gedrosis (as.in Book 3. 15); the modern '' p 


Baluchistan. P d oe! | 
5 Yemen in southern Arabia, outside the Red Sea. 


21i 


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DIODORUS OF SICILY 


hi ^ , 
Taórgs 8é xarà às écyaris Tíjs mapoecavi- 
^ ^ / 
Tibos ydpas kar! àvrik«p) víjoow keivrau vÀetovs, 
^ es € ^ 5 ^^ 
dv vpeís eiotw dfi Ts Loropucís QOvaypadfs, 
a 
pía pév T) mpocayopevouévg 'lepá, ka0' fv o)k 
€ 
&feor. ToÜs TereÀevrQkÓóras Üdmrew, érépa 8€ 
, 
vÀgatov TaÓr$s, üméyovca ovaOtovs émrá, eis 
qv kopitovot rà o«para Tv droÜavóvrov radijs 
&fuoüvres. 7) 9. otv 'lepà rÀv uév dA kaprróv 
Ld /, , 7; 3 ^ ^ ^ 
&uotpós eat, dépeu 06 ABavovrot Tocobro sAíjOos, 
core Oupketv kaÜ" óAqv Trjv oikougévgv mpós vàs 
TOv Üed!v Tus: €yev O06 kai op)pvgs mAfÜos 
Ouidopov kal rv GAMwv Üvpiagdmeov sravroSaarás 
/, / A ^ / f X 
$ócei, mapeyouévas  moAÀXM)v  eDcO0íav. 7) O6 
dicu  éort ToU MavoroÜ kai T7  karaockeum, 
TOud0e:  OévOpov éovi T qév geyéÜe. puucpóv, 
- Sé 2 ^ 5, 7 Ü ^ Al / UP ^ 
Tfj 96 mpocópe, Tfj ákdvOn vj Aiyvmrig Tjj Aevi 
/ 3 X , ^^ / Uu "^ 
TGpeuóepés, rà Ge dWAAa ToU OévOpov Opow. Tj 
óvouabouévy vréq, kai ró àvÜos ém a)rQ vera 
/ e D 1 / ; * 
xpvcoeidés, ó 06 Aavwrós ywópnevos é£ abro0 
OmiLera. «s dv Odk«pvov. -TÓ 0é Ts op/prvns 
/ Uu y, ? m 7 Y A / » 
OcvÓpov OLnowv éoTw 7j oxivo, vro O06 diMov &ya 
Aemrórepov Kai suKvÓTepov. | ómiLera. Óé arepi- 
cküéeions Tfj yíjs dmo TOv pudv, kai óca uév 
aórÓv £v àyaÜ5 yf mé$vkev, é« mobrwv yiverac 
^ ^ 
Ois ToÜ éwavroÜ, Capos kal Üépovs: xal Ó gév 
qvppós éaptwós ÜD-ápye( Oià Tàs Opócovs, ó Bé 
A 7 5 ^^ 3 4 / 
Aeukós Üepwós éori. — roO 86 sra)uopov ovAMéyovat 
/ Li p^ : ^ ^ 
TOv kapzóv, kat ypüvra. Dporots kai vorots kal 
LH ^ , i246 / 
vpós ràs KoiMas às peojcas dappákq. 
212 "ode 








BOOK V. 41. 4-6 


On the farthest bounds of Arabia the Blest, where 
the ocean washes it, there lie opposite it a number 
of islands, of which there are three which merit a 
mention in history, one of them bearing the name 
Hiera or Sacred, on which it is not allowed to bury 
the dead, and another lying near it, seven stades 
distant, to which they take the bodies of the dead 
whom they see fit to inter. Now Hiera has no share 
in any other fruit, but it produces frankincense in 
such abundance as to suffice for the honours paid to 
the gods throughout the entire inhabited world; 
and it possesses also an exceptional quantity of myrrh 
and every variety of all the other kinds of incense of 
highly fragrant odour. The nature of frankincense 
and the preparing of it is like this: In size itis a small 
tree, and in appearance it resembles the white 
Egyptian Acacia? its leaves are like those of the 
willow, as it is called, the bloom it bears is in colour 
like gold, and the frankincense which comes from it 
oozes forth in drops like tears. But the myrrh-tree 
is like the mastich-tree, although its leaves are more 


slender and grow thicker. lt oozes myrrh when the. 


earth is dug away from the roots, and if it is planted 
in fertile soil this takes place twice a year, in spring 
and in summer; the myrrh of the spring is red, 
because of the dew, but that of the summer is white. 
They also gather the fruit of the Christ's thon? 
which they use both for meat and for drink and as a 
drug for the cure of dysentery. 


1 These islands are probably Abd el Kuri and Soocotra, 
however mythical may be the details. 
3 Acacia albida; cp. 'Theophrastus, Enquiry indo Plants, 


4. 2. 8. | 
3 A shrub of the buckthorn family. * 


213 








—À Ó 






EET 


Goes 


pum 
—-u 
cm E 


EI 


4 


e 





« 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


^ ? f t£ P4 X 

42. Awfjpqra,. 86 Toís éyycopiows Y) xcd. Ko» 

Á/ X , X 

casrgs ó facue)s Aauáve: vív kporwvrQv, Koi 

^ p^ t , ^ 2 , 
rÀw kapmüv TÓw 'ywopévov év Tj "joo OekdTqQv 
^ 7; M 7 
Aaufláve.. T0 86 mÀdros Tíjs voov $aciv elvat 
^ b H ^^ 

2 oraSiov ds Suwkoolv. —karowcoÜci 0€ T1» vijoov 

Li 2, Dal 3 / À " * 

oí kaAodpevo, ILayyatot, kat Tov T€ tBavorróv kai 

A "^ 

T)v opópyav koptGovat elg 7Ó vépav kai mrejofiot 
^ ^ 3 T x 

rois T&v 'Apáfwv épmópow, map cv dAAot T 

t^ J 

Town0ra * opría  G:vobpevot BiokopiGovotw — ei« 
b ? M ? / vy * Li 

rij» Qowücqv kai Kot Xupíav, érv Ó. AvyvmTOV, 
^^ ^^ » 

có 8e veAevratov ék vovrov vÓv TÓm«w épmopot 


s (uakopí(ovow els mácav Tv oikovupévQv.  éori 
$2 xai &Xw vífjeos peyóAw, TÍí|s Tipoewnévns 
àméyovca oraBíovus TpWikovra, elg TÓ Tpós éco 
pépos ToU dkeavoü keuiév, v wüke. ToAAv 
cwo ora8iow: dmó yàp voU mpOs ávoaroÀàs àvü- 
kovros ákpcwrnpiov $aci ÜccpetoÜa: civ 'lyouenv 
dépiov 8ià T uéyeÜos ToO Ono TUoTOS . 

4. "Exa 9 1$ llayxaía kar abr)» mToÀÀO TÍíjs 
foropucs dvaypadíjs d£. KarowoÜüc. O' qU- 
rjv ajróxÜoves uév oí Iloyxatot Aeyópevo,, émi- 
Av8es 8" "Qkeavéra, kai 'lv8ol kal Zuc/0us Kal 

5 Kpfres. mÓAs 9' éorw &£ióAoyos év abri), rpocoyo- 
pevouévg uv Tavdpa, eüóauuovig. 96 Ouaóépovoa. 
oí 8e raírqv olkoüvres kaAoÜvrai piv ikéra, ToU 
Aus 708 TpubvMov, póvot 8 elati rv T1v ILeyxaiav 
xdpav oikojvrav  a)róvopot xa,  àBaotAevrot. 
dpyovras 96 kafwrüci aT éviuuTOV — Tpeis" 
:o8ro. 8€ Üavárov uév ok clou kópwow, và 8€ Aovrrá 

1 cobre omitted by D and Vogel; retained by Bekker, 
Dindorf Jaceoby. 


1 This statement of course has no foundation in fact. 





214 











BOOK V. 42. z-5 


42. The land of Hiera is divided aniong its in- 
habitants, and the king takes for himself the best 
land and likewise a tithe of the fruits which the 
island produces. The width of the island is reputed 
to be about two hundredstades. Andtheinhabitants 
of the island are known as Panchaeans, and these 
men take the frankincense and myrrh across to the 
mainland and sell it to Arab merchants, from whom 
others in turn purchase wares of this kind and convey 
them to Phoenicia and Coele-Syria and Egypt, and 
in the end merchants convey them from these coun- 
tries throughout all the inhabited world. And there 
is yet another large island, thirty stades distant from 
the one we have mentioned, lying out in the ocean 
to the east and many stades in length; for men say 
that from its promontory which extends toward the 
east one can descry India, misty because of its great 
distance.1 | 

As for Panchaea itself? the island possesses many 
things which are deserving to be recorded by history. 
It is inhabited by men who were sprung from the 
soil itself, called Panchaeans, and the foreigners there 
are Oceanites and Indians and Seythians and Cretans. 
There is also a notable eity on the island, called 
Panara, which enjoys unusual felicity; its citizens 
are called "suppliants of Zeus Triphylius," ? and 
they are the only inhabitants of the land of Panchaea 
who live under laws of their own making and have 
no king over them. Each year they elect three 
chief magistrates; these men have no authority 
over eapital crimes, but render judgment in all other 

* 'T'he following details are mythical and imaginary. | 

? $e, '" Zeus of ihe three ben ieckino ds sua 


below in ch. 44. 6, the inhabitants were derived from three ^ ^| 


distinct peoples. 








lE 


meu Tere 







ee ee QUE, RME da 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


aávra Owkpivovov | kat abrot 06 oDTot 7&. néywora 
émi roUs lepets àvadépovow. 
6  'Amó 8é rajrgs Tíjs wóAecos dméyew oraOtovs 
"f cs é£/kovra Lepóv Aug TotdvAtov, | ketuevov 
uev év xcópq «eDwd0L, Üavpalónevov Oé uáAwra 
Oui 7e T)v dpyaiórgra kai Tv ToÀvréAeunv cíjs 
xarackeufjs kaL T]v TÓv TÓmcwv evQviavl 43. 
To év obv wepi «vÓ iepóv mreÓtov  cvvmpeóés 
éov, savrolotg; OévOpecw, o) puóvov xaptroóópois, 
GAAà koi rotg &AAo:s Tois Ovvajiévow Tépmew v 
Ópacw: kvszapirreow Te yàp éfaiwiov Toís ueyé- 
Ücot kai vAarávew kal Óájvqs kal uvpotrgs kara- 
yépuew mXÜovros roD Tómov vojuvriaiev Orc. 
2 gÀgciov yàp roD Tenévovs ék cíjs yfjs ékmümre 
vyAucadór TÓ péyeÜos my) yAvKéos óBorros, 
core sorauóv éf abrf? ylveoDau. mÀwrÓv: ék 
TOoUTOU O' eis aroÀÀQ, uépr) ToU v0aros Otaupovpévov, 
xal rovrov üpOevouévov, xarà sávra TÓv To0 
TeOlov TÓrvOv Ovvdáykeua, 8évüpcw jjmAÀOv aedi- 
Kagi gvvexets, év ats vÀfjÜos àvOpüv év Tots ToÜ 
Üdpovs kawpots évOuarrpife,, ópvécwv ce vAfjÜos srav- 
To8aÓ évveorTeUerau, rOÍs xpóaig O0tádopa xai 
TaÍs pueAq8taus ueydAqv sapexópeva Tépijuw, k- 
qe(aí Te mavroOazal kai Aeuuves ToAÀAol kai 
Oudopo. rais xyÀómus kai rois àvÜeow, core Tj 
Ücompemeiq Tfs Tpocówecs à£iov TÓv éyymapiwv 
3 ÜeQv $aiveoÜa.. jv 8é kai rv dowlkov oveAéyn 
peydÀa kai kaproQópa Ouóepóvros xai xapóat 
voÀÀai dapoOpiv GojueoTárQv Tols éyycpiow 
àmóÀavow zapexópevat. — xcpis 96 robrwv jrfp- 


M 
! 
1 
E 
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j 

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"TM 
D un 
Lo 


j fi P : i So Reiske * js ^ o* c* evóvías. 
MATES .216 
z fat 





BOOK V. 42. 5-43- 3 


matters; and the weightiest affairs they refer of j 
their own accord to the priests. 
Some sixty stades distant from the city of Panara | 
is the temple of Zeus Triphylius, which lies out on a | 
level plain and is especially admired for its antiquity, | 
the eostliness of its construction, and its favourable i 
situation. 43. Thus, the plain lying around the | 
temple is thickly covered with trees of every kind, | 
not only such as bear fruit, but those also which 
possess the power of pleasing the eye; for the plain | 
abounds with cypresses of enormous size and plane- | 
trees and sweet-bay and myrtle, since the region is | 
full of springs of water. Indeed, close to the saered | 
precinct there bursts forth from the earth a spring of 
sweet water of such size that it gives rise to a river 
on which boats may sail  Ánd since the water is 
led off from the river to many parts of the plain and 
irrigates them, throughout the entire area of the plain 
there grow continuous forests of lofty trees, wherein | 
& multitude of men pass their time in the summer | 
season and a multitude of birds make their nests, 
birds of every kind and of various hues, which greatly | 
delight the ear by their song; therein also is every 
kind of garden and many meadows with varied plants | 
and flowers, so that there is 2 divine majesty in the - 
prospect which makes the place appear worthy of | 








the gods of the country. And there were palm trees 
there with mighty trunks, conspicuous for the fruits 
they bore, and many varieties of nut-bearing trees, 
which provide the natives of the place with the most 
abundant subsistence. And in addition to what we 








HENURTDENUNSUNTUTUe TI T UEM ETU ETE ores 


(oc eQURge Digccemecsaueenssctcencequ lide Re 


* ojrjs AE, Bekker, Dindorf, Vogel, aéroó the other MSS., 
Jacoby. d s 


217 



























EIE p re c 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


iocos obe ec 


PE NN C E 


xov dpumeÀot T€ zoÀÀai Kal «avroOamat, ai! ! 
npós Ójos dvqypévas kai SuarerrAeypévas sowtlos | 
P viv «pócojuw TjÓeiav émolovr kai Tijv dmóÀavow 
" qíjs copas ? érouordmmv apeixovro. : 
44. 'O 88 vaóe $wüpyev d£ióloyos ék Aifov " 
Aevkoó, TO píjkos éxycw Bveitv mAéÜpov, TO. 6 M 
zAáros áváAoyov TQ jwjkev — ktocu 96 peyáots ; 
kal zaxéow vmüópecro kal yÀvéais duAoTéxvous i 
SuiAquuévos*  àyáAuará ve Tv Üe&v à£woAoyo- i 
rara, Tf Téxvg Owidopa kai rois Bápeo. Üavpa- — | 
2 Lópeva.  KÜkAp 0€ ToU vao Tüg oikias eLxov ! 
oí ÜepazreDovres TOUS Ücods iepets, Ov dv OTOVTO 
Tà wepi TÓ Téuevos Owpketro. ázó 8é ToU vaob 
Bpóuos koreokeóaoro, TÓ gv píjkos oTAGÓLoV C 
3 rerrápow, rÓ 06 mAros mÀéÜpov. cvapà 8é Tv ; 
zÀevpàv ékarépav o9 Bpópov xaA«eta peyáàa 
Keira, Tàs foes Eyovra erpoydwovs:  ém 
eoxyáro O6 Tob Opóov Tàs T]yàs &xet AdBpos 
ékyeopévas Ó wpoewrévos moTapos.  &OTt 8é | 
rÓ $epópevov peüua. Tfj AevkóTwTi kal yÀvKkÜTrqyT0 — | 
Sudépov, mpós ve vi]y ToU ac)uaros Dytewxv. sroÀÀà : 
cvuBaMópevov rois xpopévow: óvopdLera. 9 
| ó worojiós otros 'HAjov JOcp.  eptéxe 06 TT 
"Su Xv kpi]rris Air) qoXvreXis, Otaretvovoa 
vap' ékorépav wAÀevpàv araDiovs TérTapas* OXp. | 
8é rfjs éoyórs kpyrios Ó Tómos oUk &or. Báowos — ^| 
5 ávÜpdyro mMjv Gv iepéew.  TÓ 8' jómoxetpevov ——— 
meBlov émi oraBlous |Owakoctovs  kaDvepcopévov 
oTi rois Ücote, kal vüs é£ ajro0 «pooóOovs eis 
ràs Üvaias àvaMakovot. 


po c a 
ecl 


Ed 


TENEC 








T 


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NNUS 


v qué m de PE ae 6e MI e no Rl, mm — 


guion 


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1 gt added by Stephanus. i 
218 Bises EU 





BOOK V. 43- 3744- 5 : | 


| have mentioned, grape-vines were found there in 
| great number and of every variety, which were trained 
| to climb high and were variously intertwined so that 
they presented a pleasing sight and provided an 
enjoyment of the season without further ado. 

44. The temple was a striking strueture of white 
marble, two plethra in length and the width propor- 
| tionate to the length; it was supported by large and 
| thick columns and decorated at intervals with reliefs 
| ! : : 

; of ingenious design; andthere were also remarkable 
statues of the gods, exceptional in skill of execution 
and admired by men for their massiveness. Around 
: about the temple the priests who served the gods 
| had their dwellings, and the management of every- | 
: thing pertaining to the sacred precinet was in their | 
hands. Leading from the temple an avenue had | 
been constructed, four stades in length and a ple- | 
thrum in width. On each side of the avenue are | 
reat bronze vessels which rest upon square bases, rd 
and at the end of the avenue the river we mentioned | | 
| 

| 

i 

| 


AUT 


MUNCRU IUS SesUR UE Eee mvret uS See et m uA ta Ri ít 


A É—— 





C 


dad 


above has its sources, which pour forth in a turbulent 
stream. "The water of the stream is exceedingly 
clear and sweet and the use of it is most conducive 
to the health of the body ; and the river bears the 
name '' Water of the Sun." The entire spring is sur- 
rounded by an expensive stone quay, which extends 
along each side of it four stades, and no man except 
the priests may set foot upon the place up to the 
edge of the quay. The plain lying below the temple 
has been made sacred to the gods, for a distance of 
two hundred stades, and the revenues which are 
derived from it are used to support the saerifices. . 


LIEUX. adam 





qc RNMELAUEC. noter 





3 o Reiske : xdipas. 


VOL. XII. | et H 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Merà 8é vÓ mpoewwuévov weDtov ópos éoTiv 
ójmÀóv, kaÜiepcévov pv Ücois, OvopaLópevov 
8é  Odpavoü Oí$pos koi TpubóMos | "OÀvparos. 
uvÜoAoyobc. yàp TÓ zaÀaiv  Obpavóv  Bacues- 
ovra 7íjs oikovpévms cpooy)vs évO.ampiflew | év 
rá8e rQ Tóm, koi àmÓ To) Üüjovs édopüv TÓv Te 
oópavóv kai và kaT ajróv &orpa, ÜvoTepov Óé 
TpidsAuov "OXvpsrov. kAjgfirat 9.& vÓ ToUs kuTot- 
koüvrag Ómdpyew ék vpuXv cÜvOv: óvouát coUo. 
82 ToÓs piv llayxaiovs, roUs 8 "Qieaviras, ToUs 
8é Adovs, oUs Dorepov Óm "Apquovos écBÀnÜSvat. 
Tóv yàp "Aujová oat uj) póvov $vyaocóco: 
rogro 78 éÜvos, GÀA& kal vàs mÓÀew abrÓv dpOnr 
dveAetv, kal koraoxdiba, mív ve Adiav kai " Àore- 
povoia. Üvaiav Te KQüT évuuvróv év TroUrq TÓ 
Ope. wroie(p OUS Lepeis LeTo ToÀMjs dyvetas. 

45. Merà 82 7ó dpos roro kal korà Trjv GÀXmv 
Tayyautrw xdpav $nápxew $aci Loxwv mavroOarrüv 
qos: éyew yàp abriyv eMavrás re roMods ai 
Movras koi sap8áAew Kai Oopkábas kai àMa 
Ünpía. zAeito Ot opa, als 7e mpocóect kai rais 
dÀkais Üovpacrá. ye 96 7) víjeos abr: Kai 
móAes Tpeis d£ioAóyovs, "Ypakiav ka, AaÀi0a 
kal'Qxeaviba. jv 96 xdpav óXqv elvat kapmoóó- 
pov, kai uáAoTa, otvcov cavroBasóv éxyew qAfjÜos. 
clvau 86 «oUe dvOpas «oAepukoUs ai dppiact 
xpfjo8o. karà ràs páxas pyaikós. 

"Aw 8 8Àqv mroAMretav éyovat puepi), kai mpó- 
rov Omápye. pépos wap' abrois TO Ov iepéow, 
mpookewuévew aDrois TÓV TEYWTOY, Oevrépa 8é 
uepis Vmápxet rv yecpyóv, rpiri 86 rv orpamuo- 


e 


J 220 





Ev "libra 


Ile Idecugr SENSMSLERMDES ce eme atate mtt reu ai t RUN SITERCSARE - 


unm 


———áá (C! 


XUIWEExc congu ecieeEp 


discum 





guitare 


BOOK V. 44. 5-45. 3 


Beyond the above-mentioned plain there is a lofty 
mountain which has been made sacred to the gods 
and is called the " Throne of Uranus" and also 
" Triphylian Olympus." For the myth relates that 
in aneient times, when Uranus was king of the 
inhabited earth, he took pleasure in tarrying in that 
place and in surveying from its lofty top both the 
heavens and the stars therein, and that at a later 
time it came to be called Triphylian Olympus because 
the men who dwelt about it were composed of three 
peoples; these, namely, were known as Panchaeans, 
Oceanites, and Doians, who were expelled at a later 
time by Ammon. For Ámmon, men say, not only 
drove this nation into exile but also totally destroyed 
their cities, razing to the ground both Doia and 
Asterusia. And once a year, we are told, the priests 
hold a sacrifice in this mountain with great solemnity. 

45. Beyond this mountain and throughout the rest 
of the land of Panchaeitis, the aecount continues, 
there is found a multitude of beasts of every descrip- 
tion; for the land possesses many elephants and 
lions and leopards and gazelles and an unusual 
number of other wild animals which differ in their 
aspect znd are of marvellous ferocity. This island 
also contains three notable cities, Hyracia, Dalis, 
and Oceanis. The whole country, moreover, is fruit- 
ful and possesses in particular a xnultitude of vines 
of every variety. The men are warlike and use 
chariots in battle after the ancient manner. 

The entire body politic of the Pancehaeans is 
divided into three castes: 'The first caste among 


them is that of the priests, to whom are assigned . 
the artisans, the second consists of the farmers, and ' 


the third is that of the soldiers, to whom are added 
e p "221 





I ————— 


P csset meet 





US Um imumumissnme qe ms 


ue z. A 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


4 rÀv, mpoomÜeuévow  TÀv vopécw. oí jv ov 
[epeis TÀv darüvraw foav dyyeuóves, más Te TÓY 
ápduofhyrüoecv kpiaeus sowoU1.evo, Kai vÓv GÀMoV 
T&v Snuocig mparrop.éveov Küpio" oL Oé yyecop'yot 
Tiv yfjv épyatópevot Tode kapmoUs ávadépovow eis 
zó xowóv, kai Gom àv ajrÀv Doi) páAora. 
yeyecopynKévas, Aepfávew — yépas éfatperov év 
7fj 9uuipéce, TÓv. kapmróv, kpiüels ómó vÀv lepécv 
ó mpávros kai ó OcUrepos kai o£ Aowroi péxpv Oéka., 

5 wporpomíjs €veka TOY dAMov.  sapoarnQoios 9€ 
coórows kal of vois rá ve iepeta. kai rdAAa, mapa 
Si&dacw els TÓ 9guóotv, rà uév ápiópo, rà Oé 
craÜpip, perà qráons ákpietas. , kolóAov yàp 
o)Bév éomw ! iBlg ierjoacÜat mMv oltas Kai KTyTOV, 
mávro, B6 rà yevvíjpara. kai às mpocóOovs ot tepeis 
sapoAaufdvovres TÓ. émfláAAov éxáore Bucales 
áxrovéuovot, rots ^ tepeüot uóvois 8iBorat vrÀdcwov. 

6 — Xpüvra, 9" éo0fo: uév uaAckais 8i TÓ map 
aóroís mpóBora j$mápyew 9wijépovro TÓv dAAcov 
8ià T)v paAakórqra:  dopobot 66 xal kóojov 
xpuaoóv o2 póvoy at yvvatkes, $AAà kai oL &vOpes, 
7epl pév o)s pay/Aous  éxovres OTpeT'TOUS 
kükAovs, epi 86 ràs xetpas ieu, ék 0€ TÓYV (TOV 
mapamAoies Tots llépoous é£mprypévovs kptkovs. 
$aoBécem. Bé kowais? xp&vrou kal rois Xxpó- 

- paci memouaApévaus TrepvrTÓTepov. 

46. Ot 8e orpozira Aauflávovres vàs. jepepua- 
uévag ovrráfew $vAÁrTovot vj» xopav, Owig- 


! So Jacoby, oà3à» &ornv Vogel, o08éy €feorww Bekker, 









ceteris itu 





priedegurei 


e 
—————Á  Á —À — — 


Dindorf. j 
v e ptm MSS., Bekker, Jacoby, oiAas Wesseling, Dindorf, 


222 


xe mene — 0 


BOOK V. 45. 3-46. 1 


VER ap ie setas qeu 


the herdsmen. "The priests served as the leaders in 
all things, rendering the decisions in legal disputes 
and possessing the final authority in all other affairs . 
which concerned the community; and the farmers, 
who are engaged in the tilling of the soil, bring the 
fruits into the common store, and the man among 
them who is thought to have practised the best 
! farming receives à special reward when the fruits 
are portioned out, the priests deciding who has been 
first, who second, and so in order to the tenth, this 
being done in order to spur on the rest. In the same 
manner the herdsmen also turn both the sacerifical 
animals and all others into the treasury of the state 
with all precision, some by number and some by 
weight. For,speaking generally, there is not a thing 
except à home and a garden which & man may 
possess for his own, but all the products and the 
revenues are taken over by the priests, who portion 
j out with justice to each man his share, and to the 
d priests alone is given two-fold. P: 
| The clothing of the Panchaeans is soft, because 
| the wool of the sheep of the land is distinguished 
| above all other for its softness; and they wear 
| ornaments of gold, not only the women but the men 
| as well, with collars of twisted gold about their 
| necks, bracelets on their wrists, and rings hanging 
3 from their ears after the manner of the Persians. 
: The same kind of shoes are worn by. both sexes, 
! 


Win T aset D UL S tI ESTAS AA e URBI Yu use AT RA 


M 


—————— BÓ ICI E RR - 
—————— RR 





and they are worked in more varied colours than is 
usual. LUE "d E 

46. The soldiers receive a pay. which is apportioned. 
to them and in return protect the land by means of 


1 Or '''The boots they wear reach to mid-leg "P Be M E 
critical note. WP ds Kr Ud. , 





NU d 


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AISPEESCNS 





ins 
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Reuecsugeaccvepénc nscld uu tese i euesetuemel, 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


dóres óyvpdact kai mapepBoAa(s: éoTw. ydp Tt 
uépos Tís xópas éyov Agorüpw Üpacécov xai 
vapavójov. àvÜperrov, ot ros yecpyots évebpe- 
ovres sroÀegoUs,. oUrovs.  a)Toi O' oi iepels 
zoÀD vÀv dAÀAMov Drepéyovow rpuóij kai rats dAAous 
T&is £v TQ f» xaÜapewrQow kal moAvreAetaus 
coToÀÀs pév yàp éyovot Awás, Tj AemróryTw kai 
paAakórgr. Owjópous, woré O6 kai vàs ék TÓÀw 
paAakarrdrcov  épiov kareokevaopuévag | éo0fjras 
$opobow -pós 96 roíro:s pírpas éyovow xpvoo- 
Üjeis: 0» B' bnó0ecw £yovow cavOdAa souctÀa. 
diAoTéyvos eipyaopéva: xypvaojopotc. Ó' Opnotcos 
TGÍs yvvoifi vÀW?v TÓw évevritv.  wpooeópevovoi 
06 udAera Talis Tv ÜeOv Üepareías kai Tots 
cepi rovrov Üpvow Te kal éykcjuois, per. qOÍjs 
Tüs Tpáfeug aDrÀv kai vüs eis àvÜpomovs eUep- 
yeotas Oumopevouevot. — uÜoAoyoDo. O^ ot Lepets 
TO 'yévos abTois ék« Kpwüros jnápyew, $mnó As 
7ypévots eis Tv lleyxyatiav, óre xav! àvÜpovmovs 
&v éfaaciÀeve Tfs olkovuévgs: kai roUTcv onpueta 
$épovot -Tíjs OuÀékrov,| OBewuvivres TÀ «0A 
Ouuuévew ap  ajrotis Kpqrkós óvoualópneva: 
viv T€ "pós aDroUs oiketórqra kaí duAavÜparríav 
ék Tpoyóvov mapewnéévaw Tís duos Ta)r«9s 
rois ékyóvois .capaOiQopévgs dei. —éOcikvvov 8é 
kai üvaypadàs roírov, ás éDacav rv Ala mremovíj- 
aÜau kaÜ" Óv koipóv ér. kav' ávÜpcrmrovs àv (Bpi- 
3€ /, 
caro TÓ Lepóv. | 
! So the MSS., r2» 8uiAekroy or và 7fjs 9. Hertlein. 

224 | 


SERA rne PIRE SE Eie A 


HS tert sienne spp tease ue tescteccth queue eee 





Lo BM d 


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icxneies 


E E Te 


BOOK V. 46. 1-3 


forts and posts fixed at intervals; for there is one 
section of the country which is infested with robber 
bands, composed of bold and lawless men who lie in 
wait for the farmers and war upon them.  Ànd as for 
the priests, they far excel the rest in luxury and in 
every other refinement and elegance of their manner 
of life; so, for instance, their robes are of linen and 
exceptionally sheer and soft, and at times they wear 
garments woven of the softest wool; furthermore, 
their headdress is interwoven with gold, their foot- 
gear consists of sandals which are of varied colours 
and ingeniously worked, and they wear the same 
gold ornaments as do the women, with the exception 
of the earrings. The first duties of the priests are 
concerned with the services paid to the gods and with 
the hymns and praises which are accorded them, and 
in them they recite in song the achievements of the 
gods one after another and the benefactions they have 
bestowed upon mankind. According to the myth 
which the priests give, the gods had their origin in 


Crete, and were led by Zeus to Panchaea at the time 


when he sojourned among men and was king of the 
inhabited earth. In proof of this they cite their 
language, pointing out that most of the things 
they have about them still retain their Cretan names ; 
and they add that the kinship which they have with 
the Cretans and the kindly regard they feel toward 
them are traditions they received from their ances- 
tors, since this report is ever handed down from one 
generation to another. And it has been their prac- 
tice, in corroboration of these claims, to point to 
inscriptions which, they said, were made by Zeus 


during the time he still sojourned among men and - 


founded the temple. 


225 





















UATEUHUgUNSEQN EN M TUM iM EeerUMEMTEPINE pe eue ce m ees T 


cosegpiq 


curicssgaqussgedsdoo sente serm atu 


sf 


Ed 


ES utrdneSi 


Hesse: 


SS LL EE gmstecem 
Ecieputcenemsi tesetuueaccqpciutuetcediceeee desee 





enm 





6 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Exe à' 4 xcpa. péraMa Sox xpuco8 Te 
KaL dpytpov kai xoAkoó kai KüTTUTÉDOU kai, gurj- 
pov: Kai robruav oUbév égTiw e£ eveyreliv ék ,Tfs 
vijoov, TOls O' Lepebow o00 e£eA6ety TÓ qpámav 
ek TÍjs kaBvepcop.évns xópas: TOv O' éfeABóvra 
é£ovatav € exe ó mrepvruxav dmoxretvat. &vab para 
5 xpvoá kai àpyvp& voÀAà. kai peyáa ro(s Ücots 
&vdkevrat, cecmpeukóros ToD xpóvov TO míos 
TÓV kaBvepcoiévmv dvaDnpudrcn. TÓ T€ Üvpoipara 
Tof vaob ,ÜCavuaovás. €yet TOS kaTaoKevas é£ dp- 
yüpov kai ,XpucoG Kai cAédavros, € éTL àé Üsas 5c57- 
provpynpévas. 1j 96 Atv TOÜ Ücob TÓ pev ufikos 
Um pyet TQX&v é£, Tó Óé ,Àáros rerrápcov, xpvo1 

OÀQ kai Tj KOTà pépos epyacta Suloréxvos 
kareakevagpévn. zrapomijauos l1 8é kai 7) rpdareua. 
TOD Üeo Kai TQ peyéüe, KaL 7j Aovrij mroXwreAela 
mra. pákevrau matov TS K (vns. KO TÓ péeny 
Óé Tv KAivgv € coryke or) xpvotf ueydAn, ypáp- 
para £Xovca. 7 vap AliyvmTiois Lepü KaAoópeva, 
Ov dv jjcav at "rpᣠeus Ovpavo0 T€ Kai Aog àva- 
yeypap4iévat, kai perü Taóras ai "AprépuSos Kol 
"ArróMovos 5$ "Eppo$ mpocavayeypapquevoa. 

IIeoi pev ov TÓV Kür' QvTLKpU Tfjs "Apaf(as év 
ckeavéa vijoav dpkeaÜnaópueDa. Tois pnÜeton. 

47. lepi 88 c&v karà Tjv 'EAd9a kai TÓ 
Alyaioy gréaryos Kewutéve vOv Otéfupev, T 
&pxTv do Tfjs Zapo0pdkns sowjodpevoi. — raóryv 


1 So Eichstádb: mepamAmotws. 





l1 i.e. the inscription was in hieroglyphs. 
226 


CÓ 


ML 


dee 


v D * 


Peor 


SEEN 


ce 





SS 


pope cem 


BOOK V. 46. 4-47. 1 


The land possesses rich mines of gold, silver, copper, 
tin, and iron, but none of these metals is allowed to 
be taken from the island; nor may the priests for 
any reason whatsoever set foot outside of the hal- 
lowed land, and if one of them does so, whoever 
meets him is authorized toslay him. There are 
many great dedications of gold and of silver which 
have been made to the gods, since time has amassed 
the multitude of such offerings. The doorways of 
the temple are objects of wonder in their construc- 
tion, being worked in silver and gold and ivory and 
citrus-wood. And there is the couch of the god, 
which is six eubits long and four wide and is entirely 
of gold and skillfully constructed in every detail of 
its workmanship. Similar to it both in size and in 
costliness in general is the table of the god which 
stands near the couch. And on the centre of the 


couch stands a large gold stele which carries letters. 


which the Egyptians call sacred,! and the inscription 
recounts the deeds both of Uranus and of Zeus; 
and to them there were added by Hermes the deeds 
also of Artemis and of Apollo.? 

. As regards the islands, then, which lie in the ocean 
opposite Árabia, we shall rest content with what has 
been said. | - 

— 4T. We shall now give an account of the islands 
which lie in the neighbourhood of Greece and in the 


Aegean Sea, beginning ith Samothrace. 'This |... 


2? Cp. Lactantius, Inst. div. 1. 11: " (Euhemerus) composed 
his history on the basis of the holy inscriptions which were | 
contained in very ancient temples, and especially in à shrine 
of Jupiter Triphylius, where, as the inscription stated, Jupiter 

hr had set up a gold stele on which he had written am vA 
account of his deeds, to serve posterity as a monument of / 


himse 


what he had accomplished." . — EXLECES 





t t 
5 
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oboe M Reese cage 


NGHE OI ec MI e ions Is toe sg Müx uis use eei esci eee S dtes fio 


Wesmsganeciom cot m 
cMcpeie anum 
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unes 


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DIODORUS OF SICILY 


hj A ^ M , X * / 
yàp Tiv víjsov 6wt uév $aci TÓ maÀauQóv Záuov 
óvouaoÜ$vai, Tífs 96€ vv Ziíuov krwÜeions Ou 
Tijv Ojovupay mo Tíjs vapakeuuévns Tfj maAÀoAG 
Zu GOpdrkqs XuapoÜpdkqv OovopaoÜfvet — Quem- 
cay 9 ' abr)» ajróyÜoves &üvÜpcvmow Ou kai cepi 
TÓv Tpórov yevouévov Tap ajvrois àvÜpdmcovw 
xai Tyepnóvov od80eis vapaüé0orau AÀóyos.  éwwx 
Oé act TO raAauóv Zaóvvgoov kaAovuévgv Ou roUs 
dxoukuGÜévras &« ve Xiípuov kal Opdkqs XiauoÜpá- 
xv óvouaocÜSva.. — éox0kacu. O6 waÀouiàv iO(lav 
OudAekrTov oi adTÓxÜoves, js aroÀAÀG. év rats Üvoious 
uéxpu. To0  vóv TQpetra.. oí. 96 ZaguóÜpqkes 
icropoboi. mpó TÓv mapà Tots GAAouws vevouéveov 
korakÀvcudv érepov éket uéyav yevéo0ou, vÓ uev 
vp&rov roD wepi ràs Kvavéas cvóparos payévros, 
perà 8é cabra ToU 'EAMgosóvrov. 70 yàp év 
TQ llóvrq céAayos Aiuvs éyov Tá£w uéypt rocos- 
Tov qemAnpOoÜau Ouà TÓv «ciopeÓvrowv morauv, 
péxp« Óórov Ouà TO mÀijÜüos mdpekyvÜév TO peüpa. 
AáBpus é£émeoev eis ràv 'EAjomrovrov kai sroMav 
uev Tí]s "Aatas Tfjs vrapà, ÜdAarrav émékwaev, ook 
oAcygv 0é kai Tíjs émwréOoov yfjs €v «ij Zapo0pdam 
ÜáAorrav émotgoe: kai Óu& ToÜT. év rois uerayeve- 
0Tépois Küwpois éviovs TOv düAéwv àveomakévat 
Tols Oucr(o:s Albwa. kwovókpava, cs kai mÓAenv 
karaükekÀvauévov. | ToOs 06 qrepuidÜévras ! vpoa- 
avaópauetv eig 00s  UjmÀorépovs Tíjs vr9oov 
! So Vogel, zepAeidéyras CFG, Bekker, Dindorf. 


i Island of Saon. . 

? i.e. of the Black Sea. "The Cyanean Rocks (Symplegades) 
are described by Strabo, 7. 0. 1, where see the note of Jones 
inthe L.O.L. - 


228 





Kurse ae 


d 


BOOK V. 4j. 1-5 


island, according to some, was called Samos in 
ancient times, but when the island now known as 
Samos came to be settled, because the names were 
the same, the ancient Samos came to be called 
Samothrace from the land of Thrace which lies 
opposite it. It was settled by men who were sprung 
from the soil itself; consequently no tradition has 
been handed down regarding who were the first men 
and leaders on the island. But some say that in 
ancient days it was called Saonnesus! and that it 
received the name of Samothrace because of the 
settlers who emigrated to it from both Samos and 
"Thrace. The first and original inhabitants used an 
ancient language which was peculiar to them and of 
which many words are preserved to this day in the 
ritual of their sacrifices. And the Samothracians 
have a story that, before the floods which befell other 
peoples, à great one took place among them, in the 
course of which the outlet * at the Cyanean Rocks 
was first rent asunder and then the Hellespont. For 
the Pontus, which had at the time the form of a 
lake, was so swollen by the rivers which flow into it, 
that, because of the great flood which had poured 
into it, its waters burst forth violently into the 
Hellespont and flooded a large part of the coast of 
Asia? and made no small amount, of the level part 
of the land of Samothrace into a sea; and this is the 


reason, we are told, why in later times fishermen . 


have now and then brought up in their nets the stone 
capitals of columns, since even cities were covered by 
the inundation. 'The inhabitants who had been 


caught by the flood, the account continues, ran up . 


.5 Asia Minor. 


- €——— — RR RE 
: m x espe 





229 . 

















Meere 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


cupdeguocxtePpacus 


vómovs" Tíjs O€ oMerrns dvojtuiauans &ei uGA- 
Aov, eü£acÜat rots Ücois TOÍS dyxcplois «al 0.acc- 
0cvras KK mepi óAqv Tiv víjoov Opovs 0éofa. 
Tíjs copias, Ka Bopois ,Bpicacta:, e$ Qv 
péxpi ToD vüv Üew- dor elvaw javepóv OTi mrpó 
ToU karakÀvopoÜU koTdQkouv Tiv Zapofpá«v. 

48. Meráà 8€ rafra rÀv kavà Tiv vjjcov Záovo, 
yevópevov, &gs uév vwés $aow, ék Aus kai NUp- 
$95; ds 8é Tues, é£ '"Eppuo8 kai '"Pyovsgs, guvaya- 
yeiv voÀs ÀaoUs omopábqv oikofvras, KaL vóp.ous 
Üéuevov ajróv pév ámó -Tíjs wücov Zdwva x^g- 
0jva, vó 8é wAíos eis mévre QvÀÓs Owwetuavra 

2 rÀv iOiov vidv émovüpnovs a)rüs vovíjca,. — oUrO 
9' adrOv molrevouéwwov  Aéyovo( mop! abrots 
ToUs ék As kai pue rÀv 'ATrAavribwv 'HAée- 
vpas yevéoÜat. AdpBavóv Te kal 'lacíova «ai 

3 'Apuovíav. dv -Tóv gév  Adápóavov  peyoÀent- 

BoÀov yevópevov, kai mrpóyrov eis Tv 'Acíav émi 

Gyeotas BurepoucoDévra, TÓ gév mpóyrov kriaat 

AdpBavov vOÀw Kai TO DaotAevov TO mepi Tiv 

voTepov kAnÜetoav Tpoéav cverijoaota: KQL TOÜS 

AaoUs dd caro AapOdvovs ovopiaos. émáp£at 

9' aoTÓv doct kat ToÀÀOv éÜvdv xar mur " Ácíav, 

kai ToUs Omép Opákqgs AapOávovs karouciog.. TÓv 

06 Aía BovAnÜévra kal rÓv érepov rÀv viv Tus 

TvXeiv, vrapaDei£at abri T1v TÓv uvorgpiov TeÀe- 


mdioEhS-te erc pukss 
TES FERDUMUM 


BIUSEMSMUMENERUNDDp RE Mp Hae rtO strengen settimo n 
cepe ove 


cuam agnis 
EO Vr eU p 






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CANET I 
M x M * 


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MUSCNQ E Se UE TU 


EE 


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yxep | yxop 











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| 1 i.e, Tasion. 
230 


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seeds 


BOOK V. 47. 5-48. 4 


to the higher regions of the island; and when the 
sea kept rising higher and higher, they prayed to the 
native gods, and since their lives were spared, to 
commemorate their rescue they set up boundary 
stones about the entire cireuit of the island and 
dedicated altars upon which they offer sacrifices 
even to the present day. For these reasons it is 
paret that they inhabited Samothraee before the 
Hood. 

48. After the events we have described one of the 
inhabitants of the island, a certain Saon, who was a 
son, as some say, of Zeus and Nymphé, but, according 
to others, of Hermes and Rhené, gathered into one 
body the peoples who were dwelling in scattered 
habitations and established laws for them; and he 
was given the name Saon after the island, but the 
multitude of the people he distributed among five 
tribes which he named after his sons. And while 
the Samothracians were living under a government 
of this kind, they say that there were born in that 
land to Zeus and Electra, who was one of the Atlan- 
tids, Dardanus and lasion and Harmonia. Of these 
children Dardanus, who was a man who entertained 
great designs and was the first to make his way 
across to Ásia in a make-shift boat, founded at the 
outset a city called Dardanus, organized the kingdom 


which lay about the city which was called Troy at a 


later time, and called the peoples Dardanians after 
himself. They say also that he ruled over many 


nations throughout Asia and that the Dardani , . 
who dwell beyond Thrace were colonists sent forth .. 
by him. But Zeus desired that the other! of his |. 
two sons might also attain to honour, and so he .. 
instructed. him in the initiatory rite of the mysteries, 
| | 231 


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kai TÜw Oc» KvBéy E éavrijs óvopdcau- 
TOv Oé Kopifavra roUs émi rois rís u«Tpós Lepois 


1 So the MSS.; Dindorf's suggestion, vapaÀvÜetcay (** had 
been discontinued "'), is Biepiceye. 


232 


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BOOK V. 48. 4-49. 3 


which had existed on the island since ancient times 
but was at that time, so to speak, put in his 
hands; it is not lawful, however, for any but the 
initiated to hear about the mysteries. And lasion 
is reputed to have been the first to initiate strangers , 
into them and by this means to bring the initiatory 
rite to high esteem.  Ánd after this Cadmus, the 
son of Ágenor, came in the course of his quest for 
Europé to the Samothracians, and after participating 
in the initiation he married Harmonia, who was the 
sister of lasion and not, as the Greeks recount in 
their mythologies, the daughter of Ares. 

49. This wedding of Cadmus and Harmonia was 
the first, we are told, for which the gods provided 
the marriage-feast, and Demeter, becoming enam- 
oured of Iasion, presented him with the fruit of the 
corn, Hermes gave a lyre, Athena the renowed 
necklace and a robe and a flute, and Electra the 
sacred rites of the Great Mother of the Gods, as 
she is called, together with cymbals and kettledrums 
and the instruments of her ritual; and Apollo played 
upon the lyre and the Muses upon their flutes, and 
the rest of the gods spoke them fair and gave the 
pair their aid in the celebration of the wedding. 
After this Cadmus, they say, in accordance with 
the oracle he had received, founded 'Thebes in 
Boeotia, while lasion married. Cybelé and begat 
Corybas. And after Iasion had been removed into 
the circle of the gods, Dardanus and Cybelé and 
Corybas conveyed to Asia the sacred rites of the 
Mother of the Gods and removed with them to 
Phrygia. Thereupon Cybelé, joining herself to the 
first Olympus, begat Alc& and called the goddess 
Cybelé after herself; and Corybas gave the name 


233. 








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: "The Cabeiri; ep. Book 4. 43. 1 f. 
* Op. Book 4. 43. 











234 











BOOK V. 49. 3-50. I 


of Corybantes to all who, in celebrating the rites 
of his mother, acted like men possessed, and 
married Thebé, the daughter of Cilix. In like 
manner he also transferred the flute from Samo- 
thrace to Phrygia and to Lyrnessus the lyre which 
Hermes gave and which at a later time Achilles 
took for himself when he sacked that city. To 
Iasion and Demeter, according to the story the 
myths relate, was born Plutus or Wealth, but the 
reference is, as à matter of facet, to the wealth of 
the corn, which was presented to lasion because of 
Demeter's association with him at the time of the 
wedding of Harmonia. Now the details of the 
initiatory rite are guarded among the matters not 
to be divulged and are communicated to the initiates 
alone; but the fame has travelled wide of how these 
gods? appear to mankind and bring unexpected aid 
to those initiates of theirs who call upon them in 
the midst of perils. The claim is also made that 
men who have taken part in the mysteries become 
both more pious and more just and better in every 
respect than they were before. And this is the 
reason, we are told, why the most famous both of 
the aneient heroes and of the demi-gods were 
eagerly desirous of taking part in the initiatory rite ; 
and in fact Jason and the Dioscori? and Héeracles 
and Orpheus as well, after their initiation attained 
success in all the campaigns they undertook, because 
these gods appeared to them. 

50. Since we have set forth the facts concerning 
Samothrace, we shall now; in aecordance with our 
plan, discuss Naxos. This island was first called 


Strongylé and its first settlers were ren from. 
Thrace, the reasons for their coming being some- 


235 











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1 So Hertlein : £epeta. 


236 


—— 


BOOK V. so. r-5 


what as follows. The myth relates that two sons, 
Butes and Lycurgus, were born to Boreas, but not 
by the same mother; and Butes, who was the 
younger, formed a plot against his brother, and on 
being discovered he received no punishment from 
Lycurgus beyond that he was ordered by Lycurgus 
to gather ships and, together with his accomplices 
in the plot, to seek out another land in which to 
make his home. Consequently Butes, together with 
the Thracians who were implicated with him, set 
forth, and making his way through the islands of 
the Cyclades he seized the island of Strongylé, 
where he made his home and proceeded to plunder 
many of those who sailed past the island. And since 
they had no women they sailed here and there and 
seized them from the land.! Now some of the 
islands of the Cyclades had no inhabitants what- 
soever and others were sparsely settled; conse- 
quently they sailed further, and having been repulsed 
once from Euboea, they sailed to Thessaly, where 
Butes and his companions, upon landing, came upon 
the female devotees of Dionysus as they were cele- 
brating the orgies of the god near Drius, as it is 
called, in Achaea Phthiotis. As Butes and his com- 
panions rushed at the women, these threw away the 
sacred objects, and some of them fled for safety to 
the sea, and others to the mountain called Drius; 
but Coronis, the myth continues, was seized by 
Butes and forced to lie with him. — And she, in anger 
at the seizure and at the insolent treatment she had 
received, called upon Dionysus to lend ber his aid. 
And the god struck Butes with madness, because of 


1 £e, they got their pillage from the ships they seized, but 
their women by raids on the continent. 


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BOOK V. BO. 5—51. 3 


which he lost his mind and, throwing himself into a 
well,met his death. But the rest of the Thracians 
seized some of the other women, the most renowned 
of whom were lphimedeia, the wife of Aloeus, and 
Pancratis, her daughter, and taking these women 
along with them, they sailed off to Strongylé. And 
in place of Butes the Thracians made Agassamenus 
king of the island, and to him they united in marriage 
Pancratis, the daughter of Aloeus, who was a wormaan 
of surpassing beauty; for, before their choice fell 
on Ágassamenus, the most renowned among their 
leaders, Sieelus and Hecetorus, had quarrelled over 
Paneratis and had slain each other. And Agassa- 
menus appointed one of his friends his lieutenant 
and united Iphimedeia to him in marriage. 

51. Aloeus dispatched his sons Otus and Ephialtes 
in search of his wife and daughter, and they, sailing 
to Strongylé, defeated the 'Thracians in battle and 
reduced the city. Some time afterward Pancratis 
died, and Otus and Ephialtes essayed to take the 
island for their dwelling and to ruleover the Thracians, 
and they changed the name of the island to Dia. 
But at a later time they quarrelled among them- 
selves, and joining battle they slew many of the 
other combatants and then destroyed one another, 
and from that time on these two men have 
received at the hands of the natives the honours 
accorded to heroes. The Thracians dwelt on the 
island for more than two hundred years and then 
were driven out of it by a succession of droughts. 
And after that Carians removed to the island from 


Latmia, as it is now called, and made it their home; 
their king was Naxos, the son of Polemon, and he 


called the island Naxos after himself, in place of 
| T ET 


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| cóy Üeóv after 7p yo: omitted by ADE, Vogel, retained b 
Bekker Diadort. ^ 5 ; d 





* Op. the following account with that in Book 3. 64. 
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BOOK V. sr. 35-52. 3 


Dia. Naxos was an upright and famous man and 
left behind him a son Leucippus, whose son Smerdius 
became king of the island. And it was during the 
reign of Smerdius that Theseus, on his voyage back 
from Crete together with Ariadnó, was entertained 
as a guest by the inhabitants of the island; and 
Theseus, seeing in à dream Dionysus threatening 
him if he would not forsake Ariadné in favour of 
the god, left her behind him there in his fear and 
sailed away. And Dionysus led Áriadné away by 
night to the mountain which is known as Drius; 
and first of all the god disappeared, and later Ariadné 
also was never seen again. 

52. The myth which the Naxians have to relate 
about Dionysus is like this:! He was reared, they 
say, in their country, and for this reason the island 
has been most dear to him and is called by some 


Dionysias. For according to the myth which has 


been handed down to us, Zeus, on the occasion 
when Semelé had been slain by his lightning before 
the time for bearing the child, took the babe and 
sewed it up within his thigh, and when the appointed 
time came for its birth, wishing to keep the matter 
concealed from Hera, he took the babe from his 
thigh in what is now Naxos and gave it to the 
Nymphs of the island, Philia, Coronis, and Cleide, 
to be reared. "The reason Zeus slew Semelé with his 
lightning before she could give birth to her child was 
his desire that the babe should be born, not of a 
mortal woman but of two immortals, and thus should 
be immortal from its very birth. . And because of the 
kindness which the inhabitants of Naxos had shown 
to Dionysus in connection with his rearing they 
received marks of his gratitude; for the island 

241 


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53. Tz» 0é vijoov 77v pa óvoualopévy, TÓ 
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Tfjs Te vücov Svcavreóov Kat Tíjs K»ióias pépous 
kupuea. perà O6 ToUs T'peoucobs Xpóvous Kü.TÉ- 
Gxov vjv vfjoov Kapes, «a0' 6v Katpov eÜaAarro- 
Kpárovv. Dorepor 9 a Xpóy yevopiévaov &dvyov 
ek Tís vijaov, Kai KOTQKncar TÓ kaAoópevov 
Ospávwov. 4 9€ Zum Dtépuewev épQpuos, €cws ó 
oTóXos à ? Aaxcebauuovicov kai "Apyetcov mapéBaAev eis 
TOÓTOUS TUS TÓTOUS* Émevra karqkia0n TT ALV Tóvàe 
3 Tóv vpómov. TÓV perà 'Lmwwórov mw peragxov 
Ts dmouias,. óvop.a. Naósos, GvaÀeBów ToUs 
kaBvorepijoavras. Tíjs kArpo8ocías, cpnuov obcav 
Tv Zpav kardykoe Kai Tu érépots UOTEpov 
KoramÀescaci, Ov Tv Siofifos Qyepov, peraoUs 





1 In the battle of Salamis, 480 ».c. 3 In 479 s.c. 
* "The poet Archilochus (Athenaeus, 1. 30 r) compared the 
wine of Naxos to the nectar of 3 gods. 


242 


3 


SNECELASC YS 


e hen 








BOOK V. 52. 3-53. 3 


increased in prosperity and fitted out notable naval 
forces, and the Naxians were the first to withdraw 
from the naval forces of Xerxes and to aid in the 
defeat at sea whieh the barbarian suffered and 
they participated with distinction in the battle of 
Plataeae.? Also the wine of the island possesses 
an excellence which is peculiarly its own and offers 
proof of the friendship which the god entertains for 
the island.* 

53. As for the island which is called Symé and 
was uninhabited in ancient times, its first settlers 
were men who came together with Triops, under 
the leadership of Chthonius, the son of Poseidon and 
Symé, from whom the island received the name it 
bears. At alater time its king was Nireus, the son 
of Charops and Aglaia, an unusually handsome man 


who also took part with Agamemnon in the war 


against Troy both as ruler of the island and as lord 
of & part of Cnidia. But after the period of the 


. Trojan War Carians seized the island, during the 


time when they were rulers of the sea. At a later 
time, however, when droughts came, the Carians 
fled the island and made their home in Uranium, as 
it is called. Thereupon Symé continued to be un- 
inhabited, until the expediiion which the Lace- 
daemonians and the Argives made came to these 
parts, and at that time the island became settled 
again in the following manner. One of the com- 
panions of Hippotes, a certain Nausus by name, was 
a member of the colony, and taking those who had 
come too late to share in the allotment of the land 
he settled Symé, which was uninhabited at: that 
time, and later, whén certain other men, under the 
leadership of Xuthus, put in at the island, he gave 


243 








D 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Tfs vroÀvretas kai Xxdpas kou) TT víjoov kardknae. 
$aol Bé Tíjs dmoikias TaUTQS peraoyelv vOUS T€ 
K»iovs kai 'Pootovs. 

54. KéAvBvav 0é. kai Nécvpov TÓ Uév dpxyaiov 
Kápes KaTqimoav, pero, 06 7a0ra OerraAós ó 
"HpakAéovs dj.dorépas TÓS vijaovs Karekrijooro. 
OuóTrep "Avrt$ós re kai Geiursros ot Kio Bocweis 


crparebovres eis "Lov Tipxov TÀV mAeóvrcov ék 


2 TÀV mpoeiprpévav vijoav. kaà 8é róv ék Tpotas 


3 


4 


2 


&mómovv Térrapes TÓV "Ayap.égvovos ve&v éf- 
Émeaov qrepi KdAvóvov, Kal TOis &yxcoptous KT. 
puyévres kardioav. oi 6€ Tijv Niovpov 7Ó TaÀoc4óv 
oicavres OmO cei Ove od oncav: Üorepov 
€ Kóo:, kabámep Tv KdAvóvav,  7raóTqv 
kardkrnaay [ier 9€ rafra $opás avÜpdymeov 
ev 7j joo yevopévus oi '"Pó8w. émoíkovs eis 
abr) QméoTewAav. 

T7 08 Kápratov Tpóyroi uev Qknoav TÓV per, 
Mire  Twés cvarparevcagévov, KaÜ' Gv xpóvov 
eÜaAarrokpdrmoe Tpóvos Tv EAMjveov- Üorepov 
8é 7roMaís yevea/ts lokAos ó AxpoMéovros, 
"Apyetos dv TÓ yévos, kará Ti Àóywov ürrouctav 
&TéaTetÀev eis Tv Kdpzragov. 

55. Tv 9c vijcov TI» óvopabop.évqy "Po8ov 
mrp&rot kardngay oi qpocaryopevópievot TeAxtves" 
oóro. 0. Jav viol pév GOaoAÁrTyS, dos ó jos 
vapaBéOce, puÜoAoyoüvra, 86 perü Kadetpas 
Tfjs "Qxeavoo Üvyompós | ékÜpéfra: IocedBóvo, 
"Péas a)rots siggkangpegenis TO Dpé$os.  yevé- 





1 Sons of Thebtotwes ep. the Iliad, 2. 076 fi. 
3 "The Sea. 


244 




















BOOK V. s3. 3-55. 2 


them a share in the citizenship and in the land, and 
all of them in common settled the island. And we 
are told that both Cnidians and Khodians were 
members of this colony. 

54. Calydna and Nisyros were settled in ancient 
times by Carians, and after that Thettalus, the son 
of Heracles, took possession of both islands. And 
this explains why both Antiphus and Pheidippus,! 
who were kings of the Coans, in the expedition 
against Troy led those who sailed from the two 


islands just mentioned. And on the return from | 


Troy four of Agamemnon's ships were wrecked off 
Calydna, and the survivors mingled with the natives 
of the island and rade their home there. The 
ancient inhabitants of Nisyros were destroyed by 
earthquakes, and at a later time the Coans settled 
the island, as they had done in the case of Calydna; 
and after that, when an epidemic had carried away 
the population of the island, the Rhodians dispatched 
colonists to it. 

As for Carpathos, its first inhabitants were certain 
men who joined with Minos in his campaigns at the 
time when he was the first of the Greeks to be 
master of the sea; and many generations later 
Ioleus, the son of Demoleon, an Árgive by ancestry, 
in obedience to a certain oracle dispatched a colony 
to Carpathos. | 

55. 'The island which is ealled Rhodes wes first 
inhabited by the people who were known as Tel- 
chines; these were children of Thalatta,? as the 
mythical tradition tells us, and the myth relates 
that they, together with Capbeira, the daughter of 
Oceanus, nurtured Poseidon, whom Rhea com- 


mitted as a babe to their care. And we are told 


245 











DIODORUS OF SICILY 


oÜa. 8' abroüs kal cveyvóv Twv eÜperàs kai 
^ , m 
&XXov 7v ypnoipcov. eis Tóv Biov 7v ávÜpciwrow 
eloqynrás.  áydáAÀuardá Te Üe!v mpórow kara- 
okevácau Aéyovrau, koi rwa vOv üpyaiov dd 
Opupdrcw dm éketvev ézcvopácÜau — apà uév 
Xo Aww8Btois ' AsróMva, TeAxt 0$ 
yàp AwBtow 'AsróMova, "TeAxivtov mpocayopevUfj- 
X & D» I y kl Z; 
va, zapà 8e "loAvoto:s "Hpav xai Nópóas TeM- 
ywías, mapà Oe Kagetpebow "Hpav TeAxwiav. 
Aéyovrau. 9' obrow xai yógres yeyovévat kai 
zapáyew óre fo/Aowro véón e kai óufpovs 
xai yaÀdLas, ópoios 86 xal ytóva édéAeoÜac 
^ / ^ 
Taüra 06 aÜdsep xal To)Ug  p&yovs  moweiv 
e € TEE X L X ^, 
ioropobow.  áAM&rrecÜa,. 8é xai ràs (ias pop- 
$ás, kal elvau. dÜovepo)s év [| 9:8ao ka, TÓv 
TEXVÓV. 
^ ? ^ 
lloceBGva 88 dvBpwÜévra épaoÜUgva. 'AAMas 
^ m. "5 À J à A ^ M B / 2 
vfs TÀv 'leAyüvew dOcA$fs, kaí puxUevra " yev- 
^ ^ / 
vijoa. vaí(O0as &f pév dppevas, piov Oe Üvyarépa. 
*PéBov, àd! 4s c]jv vícov óvopaoOfvoi. — yevé- 
oÜa, 8& kar TÓv kaipóv ToUrov év vois mpós éco 
uépec. Tíje wücov roUs KAnBévras ybyayras* 
Gre 8i kai Ze)s Aéyeraw karomremroAepamkos Tt- 
rüvas épaoÜUgva, paás rÀv vvpdv "IpaAGas óvopua.- 
Üouévgs, kai vpe(s é£ arfs Tekvdoa. vratóas, 
Yaapratov, Kpóvv, Kórov. xorà Bé T?» ToU- 
Li Li 1 * EE ? ?, 
rov SAukíav daciv '"AdpoBirgs é« KuÜfjpov xo- 
paLopévqv els Wimpov Kai mpocoppaLouévgv TÍj 
víoq KwAvÜfva. ómó TOv lloceBGvos viv, 
&vraov ómepqódávov kai ófpwrüv- Tí O6 Oco0 
1 So Vogel, da (AE) . . . elonyíoao0a. MSS., Bekker, 
Dindorf. | | 
246 


» 


Mee e Rr MeeeiweR- es oem 


SEE 


mee peer Rees 


DUBSEUNES 


SES 


"T E EE i 


ea 
HE 
guine 





BOOK V. ss. 2-6 


that they were also the diseoverers of certain arts 
and that they introduced other things whieh are 
useful for the life of mankind. "They were also the 
first, men say, to fashion statues of gods, and some 
of the ancient images of gods have been named 
after them; so, for example, among the Lindians 
there is an " Apollo Telchinius," as it is called, 
among the lalysians a Hera and Nymphae, both 
ealled " Telehinian," and among the Cameirans a 
" Hera Telchinia." And men say that the Telchines 
were also wizards and conld summon clouds and rain 
and hail at their will and likewise could even bring 
snow; these things, the accounts tell us, they could 
do even as could the Magi of Persia; and they 
could also change their natural shapes and were 
jealous of teaching their arts to others. 

Poseidon, the myth continues, when he had grown 
to manhood, became enamoured of Halia, the sister 
of the Telchines, and lying with her he begat six 
male children and one daughter, called Rhodos, 
after whom the island was named. And at this 
period in the eastern parts of the island there sprung 
up the Giants, as they were called; and at the 
time when Zeus is said to have subdued the Titans, 
he became enamoured of one of the nymphs, Himalia 


by name, and begat by her three sons, Spartaeus, 


Cronius, and Cytus. And while these were still 
young men, Áphrodité, they say, as she was journey- 
ing from Cytherae to Cyprus and dropped anchor 
near Rhodes, was prevented from stopping there by 
the sons of Poseidon, who were arrogant and insolent 
men; whereupon the goddess, in her wrath, brought 





? caro after uuyBépra, omitted by ABDE, Vogel, retained 
by Bekker, Dindoet. JE ar fud 
pM 247 








IUSHNEOSUEME 





d 


E 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


8| r]v ópyijy épaAosons a)roís pavíav, puyfjvoa 
ajroie Bie 7j ww«rph xai woAAà Kakao. Opüv Tos 

7 éyywoplovs.  lloceiBGvo, 8& TO yeyovós aicÜopevov 
Tos vioUe kpóbar xarà yfjs Bu. viv sempavypévnv 
aloyóvqv, oüs kA«ÜSvas rpocuovs OQt[Lovas* 
*Allav 8e püjaca» éavriv eis Tiv ÜdAorrav 
Acvkoléav dvopacÜtva: kal Tus áÜavdrov rvxeiv 
«apà Tots éyxcptois. 

56. Xpóvp 9' vorepov vpoaicÜop.évous — Tos 
TeAyivas vv uéAWovra  yiveota. ka TakÀva gu óv 
éxAumeiv Tiv víjoov kal Owxocapfjvai. — Avkov ox 
ék ro raw capayevópevov eis mv. Auktav " AmróA- 
Aewos Auklov Íepóv iBp/cacÜa. vapà TOv EdvÜov 

2 worapóv. o0 O6 korakÀvouo0 yevopévov ToUs 
uév dAiovs SudÜapfves, íjs 96 víjcov 9uà TTv 
émoufpíav émwroAacávrow TÀv Dypóv Ausváca. 
rode émuréSovs rómovs, QAtyovs O' eig rà uerécpa. 
Tfjs vijoov avp.dvyóvras 0uiocOfvar éy olg )máp- 

3 yew kal roUs Auóg maibas.  "HAov Oé karà pév 
Tóv puÜov épaoÜévra Tíjs "Pó8ov Tc/v Te víjoov 
ám! abrfs óvopáca. "Pó8ov kai TO émvroAd Gov 

ef » 7 £ » 5» M / kd M * 

Üócp á$avicav ó 9' àÀq0r)s Aóyos OTt kora Tv 

éÉ dpyfás aóeraow Tí vüjcov mwWAÀé8ovs ovons 
ér kal poAaxíje, Tóv TÀwv áva£npávavra Tl)V 
oy jypórqra Looyovijeat 1v vyfj, Kal yevé- 
cÜa. rods kAwÜévras ám! ajro0 'lAuiQas, émrà 
cóv ápiüuóv, kai dXovs óuolus Aao)s! abró- 

4 xÜovas.  ákoAoó8cs 96 Toro vopuoÜfjvat Tv 

1 So Vogel, &ovs omitted by E, kai ross (omitted by D) 
Aaods ópotcs Bekker, Dindorf. 





1 'The sun. 
2498 


cov cms om 


me. c Me A 





Md 
c -—-— 


x Eemens 


c 





emu epu 


Hc meccccnemsnmecemoese stercus, 


d 

Vat 

Yu 
? 
i 


ipee 






Sunc Melo igi eium, o 


BOOK V. ss. 6-56. 4 


a madness upon them, and they lay with their 
mother against her wil and committed many acts 
of violence upon the natives. But when Poseidon 
learned of what had happened he buried his sons 
beneath the earth, because of their shameful deed, 
and men called them the '" Eastern Demons " ; and 
Halia east herself into the sea, and she was after- 
wards given the name of Leucothea and attained to 
immortal honour in the eyes of the natives. 

56. At a later time, the myth continues, the 
Telchines, perceiving in advance the flood that was 
going to come, forsook the island and were scattered. 
Of their number Lycus went to Lycia and dedicated 
there beside the Xanthus river a temple of Apollo 
Lycius. And when the flood came the rest of the 
inhabitants perished,—and since the waters, because 
of the abundant rains, overflowed the island, its level 
parts were turned into stagnant pools—but a few 
fled for refuge to the upper regions of the island and 
were saved, the sons of Zeus being among their 
number. Helius)! the myth tells us, becoming 
enamoured of Rhodos, named the island Rhodes after 
her and caused the water which had overflowed it 
to disappear. Dut the true explanation is that, 
while in the first forming of the world the island was 
still like mud and soft, the sun dried up the larger 
part of its wetness and filled the land with Msg 
creatures, and there came into being the Heliadae, 
who were named after him, seven in number, aud 
other peoples who were, like them, sprung from the 
land itself. In eonsequence of these events the 


t ^ Ohildren of the Sun." J. L. Myres (Who Were the 


Greeks ?, 130—40) sees in these "Children of the Sun" the 
early Minoan inhabitants of Rhodes. ! | 


249 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


víjcov lepàv 'HAMov kal oos j.eróà. rara, yevopévovs 
*Do8[ous OtareAéca,  mepvrTÓvepov TOV dAÀcov 
Üev rui&vras vóv "Hv ds dpymyóv o8 yévovs 
abrQy. elvuu 86 oU émrà vios "Oxwwov, 
Képkadov, Máxapa, "Arriva, 'Tevdyqv, Tpwsav, 
KávSaAov, Üvyarépa 96 — piaw, "HAekrpvo- 
vqv, fjv ért vrapÜévov o$cav peraAAd£ae vOv iov 
kal Tusdv Tvyeliv sapà. *Po8iow 1jpeoucv . vópc- 
Ücic, 88 vois "HAudOaus eimetv TÓv "HAwv, óri1 
otrwes dv ^AOqvü OUcowow mnpórot, cap! éavrois 
Ztovoi v])v Üeóv: vÓ 8' aóró Myera o.acadfjoat 
rois 71» "Àmvuciv korowobot. 8:0 kat doct To)s 
uév '"HOudBas Dià cüv omovOjv émAaÜojévovs 
éveykeiv «Üp émÜeivai cÓre 2 rà Üópara, TOV 
62 róre BacuAevovra, TY ' ABgvatcov. Kékposra. éri 
rof svpós Ü6ca, ÜDorepov.  Diómep daci Oiauévew 
uéxp. ToU vüv TÓ Kor Tjv Üvoíav iSwv év Tfj 
*Pó8q, xat vyjv 0eóv év abr] kaBipo0a. 

Ileoi pév oov TÓv dpyatoÀoyovpévov  vapà 
*"Po8tow ojr« Twés pvÜoloyotow: év ots éav Kai 
Zijvow ó 7à epi rasr1s cvvra£djevos. 

57. Ot. 8 *HoudBa, 8uíQopow vyevnÜévres Tv 
&Xov. év arad&ela. Sujveykav. kal páAuoT. év Gorpo- 
Aoyíg. elaqyüoavro 9€ kal «epi Tfj vavrias 
2 q0ÀÀà kal Tà mrepi Tàs copas Oiéra£av. eoovéora- 

1 $n added by Eichstádt. 

? So Oldfather: xoi émfetva, róre MSS., Bekker: xoi and 
aérc omitted by Eichstádt, Dindorf, Vogel 


bh Aib 4C ANE OMM MELLE EE 
1 That is, the Heliadae performed the sacrifice as soon as 
they were told and so before Cecrops did, but in their haste 
they forgot to light the fire before putting the victims on the 
kindling ; yere observed the correct custom of putting the 
victims on the blazing fire, but later than the Heliadae. 


250 












EST LC QM UE Man 


CRGO 


ue 


szctoupee 
aÓ3 


ge 


TR TATE 


Ke ee Ree EE ERE ee perum ts 


NN 


— 


Ó— 


SepeT nde 


MAL 


UH CHeapispogi gets xen. ve ete tesa 


BOOK V. s6. 4-57. 2 


island was considered to be sacred to Helius, and the 
Rhodians of later times made it their practice to 
honour Helius above all the other gods, as the ancestor 
and founder from whom they were descended. His 
seven sons were Ochimus, Cercaphus, Macar, Actis, 
Tenages, Triopas, and Candalus, and there was one 
daughter, Electryoné, who quit this life while still 
a maiden and attained at the hands of the Rhodians 
to honours like those accorded to the heroes. And 
when the Heliadae attained to manhood they were 
told by Helius that the first people to offer sacrifices 
to Athena would ever enjoy the presence of the 
goddess; and the same thing, we are told, was dis- 
elosed by him to the inhabitants of Attica.  Conse- 
quently, men say, the Heliadae, forgetting in their 
haste to put fire beneath the victims, nevertheless 
laid them on the altars at the time, whereas Cecrops, 
who was king at that time of the Athenians, per- 
formed the sacrifice over fire, but later than the 
Heliadae. This is the reason, men say, why the 
peculiar practice as regards the manner of sacrificing 
persists in Rhodes to this day, and why the goddess 
has her seat on the island. 

Such, then, is the account which certain writers of 
myths give about the antiquities of the Khodians, 
one of them being Zenon, who has composed a 
history of the island. E | 

57. 'The Heliadae, besides having shown themselves 
superior to all other men, likewise surpassed them 
in learning and especially in astrology; and they 
introduced many new practices in seamanship and 


established the division of the day into hours. The . 
* Polybius (16. 14) considered Zenon of sufücient import- 


251 


ance as a historian to criticize his local patriotism. 


VOL. TII. 








Me MUMUT VA US IMMNS get een as mie i eri meeen sa 


SOMME HRespacmcsone taps 





WUSUM I eT E C UU Le ique icemtccces 


REM Elli c 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ros 8 yevóuevos "Teváyns go rv dóeAoav Gu 
3 Li ^ y^ 
doóvov dvppéan:  yvooÜeians óé TÍS émBovAiis 
oí ueraayóvres ro dóvov mávTes éjvyov.  TovTov 
$e Mákap pév els AéoBov ádíkero, KdvüaAos 9€ 
ek rjv Kó: "Axis 8' eis Alyswrov dmdpas 
£cmwoe Tj» "HAwosmoÀw óvouatopérgv, dzó o0 
sarpós Üépevos Trjv qapoomyopíav" oL O AtyUTTtot 
ZuaBov sap" aoXroo TO. 7repi 71jv áovpodoy(av Üecop- 
para. Uorepov O€ aopü rois "EAAQoi yyevopLévou 
kocroAvopo, kal Su. Tv ésropfipiay r&v vrÀelovav 
dvÜpdyraw | ámoAopévav, óuoios Toórow Koi TÀ 
8i& r&v ypapqiáreov Dmopyijuora cvvéfn $apfivac 
89 $v airiav ot. Avyómrioi kaupóv eDÜerov AaDóvres 
é£iBiomovicavro và epi Tíjs áoTpoÀoylas, kai Tv 
*EXXjvev 8i vij». Gyvotaw wgkéri vóv ypappárov 
dvrizowvpévav. évloyvaev)! cos ajTol Tpóvroi Tl]v 
Tüv dorpcw  eüpeow  émoujcavro. ópoícos O€ 
kal "AÜqvato kricavres €v Alyómro móMv Tv 
óvogalopévgy 2v, Tíjs óuolas érvyov dyvoias 
Sià Tóv karakÀvopóv. 9v ds avrias  moÀÀats 
ÜDorepov yeveois Kdopos ó 'AywWvopos ék Tfjs 
Qoiwikgs | vpáxros ómeMjóUq Kopico. ypdppara 
* * € Di * » 5? ki , i] * Li 
eig rjv "EAAdóo: Kat àv ékewov TO Aovróv ol 
"EXWjves &Bofav deb Tt qrpocevpiokew epi TÓYv 
ypappárov, Kowvijs Tiwog  Qyvo(as iavreyoons 
ToUs "EAAgvas. 

Tpiózas 8é wAeDcas «cis «jv Kapíav karéoxev 
dxporm(puy TÓ m ékevov Tpimov | kXyfév. 


1 So Stephanus : évieyvcav. 


NER GENE Muse e CHE IDNEEDI TS 
1 Book 1l, passim, presents the claims put forward by the 
Egyptiens for the priority of their civilization; the counter 


252 





] 
à 

l 

1 

H 

' 
i 
, 

H 
d 
d 
j 
[D d 





EET AERA cnc rcr metae dEe 


eet DI meebeee 


BOOK V. zz. 2-6 


most highly endowed of them by nature was Tenages, 
who was slain by his brothers because of their envy 
of him; but when their treacherous aet became 
known, all who had had a hand in the murder took to 
flight. Of their number Macar came to Lesbos, and 
Candalus to Cos; and Actis, sailing off to Egypt, 
founded there the city men call Heliopolis, namin 
it after his father; and it was from him that the 
Egyptians learned the laws of astrology. But when 
ata later time there came a flood among the Greeks 
and the majority of mankind perished by reason of 
the abundance of rain, it came to pass that all written 
monuments were also destroyed in the same manner 
as mankind; and this is the reason why the Egyp- 
tians, seizing the favourable occasion, appropriated to 
themselves the knowledge of astrology, and why, 
since the Greeks, because of theirignorance, no longer 
laid any claim to writing, the belief prevailed that the 
Egyptians were the first men to effect the discovery 
ofthe stars. Likewise the Athenians, although they 
were the founders of the city in Egypt men call Sais, 
suffered from the same ignorance because of the 
flood. And it was because of reasons such as these 
that many generations later men supposed that 
Cadmus, the son of Agenor, had been the first to 
bring the letters from Phoenicia to Greece; and 
after the time of Cadmus onwards the Greeks were 
believed to have kept making new discoveries in the 
science of writing, since a sort of general ignorance 
of the facts possessed the Greeks.! 


Triopas sailed to Caria and seized a. promontory 
which was called Triopium after him. But the rest 


claims of the Greeks here set forth are xy cud boasting. "On 
Cadmus and the '" Phoenician letters " see Book 3. 67. 


253 








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254 














BOOK V. sz. 6-58. 2 


of the sons of Helius, since they had had no hand in | 
the murder, remained behind in Rhodes and made | 
their homes in the territory of Ialysus, where they 
founded the city of Achaea. Ochimus, who was the |] 
oldest of them and their king, married Hegetoria, 
one of the Nymphs of that region, and begat by her | 
a daughter Cydippé, whose name was afterwards  — 
changed to Cyrbia; and Cercaphus, another of the 
brothers, married Cyrbia and succeeded to the throne. 
Upon the death of Cercaphus his three sons, Lindus, 
Ialysus, and Cameirus, succeeded to the supreme 
power; and during their lifetime there came a great | 
deluge and Cyrbé was buried beneath the flood and | 
laid waste, whereupon the three divided the land ^^ | 
among themselves, and each of them founded a city | 
which bore his name. 
58. About. this time Danaüs together with his 
daughters fled from Egypt, and when he put ashore 
at Lindus in Rhodes and received the kindly welcome 
of the inhabitants, he established there à temple of 


. Athena and dedicated in it a statue. of the goddess. 


stay in Lindus, but the rest sailed on to Argos. 
together with their father Danaüs. And a little 

after this time Cadmus, the son of Agenor, having | 
been dispatched by the king to seek out Europé, ^. 
putashoreatRhodes. Hehadbeenseverely buffeted — .. 
by tempests during the voyage and had taken a vow — 
to found a temple to Poseidon, and so, since he had. : 1 
come through with his life, he founded in the island , ...| 
a sacred precinct to this god and left tbere certain ' 
of the Phoenicians to serve as its overseers. These, 
men mihgled with the Ialysians aud continued to : 


Of the daughters of Danaüs three died during their ; 
| 
| 







live as fellow-citizens with them, and from them, we 
b o o UHBSS. ad 


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25 





BOOK V. 58. 2-59. 2 


are told, the priests were drawn who succeeded 
to the priestly office by heredity. Now Cadmus 
honoured likewise the Lindian Athena with votive 
offerings, one of which was a striking bronze 
cauldron worked after the ancient manner, and this 
carried an inscription in Phoenician letters, which, 
men say, were first brought from Phoenicia to Greece. 
Subsequent to these happenings, when the land 
of Rhodes brought forth huge serpents, it came to 
pass that the serpents caused the death of many of 
the natives; consequently the survivors dispatched 
men to Delos to inquire of the god how they might 
rid themselves of the evil. And Apollo commanded 
them to receive Phorbas and his companions and to 
colonize together with them the island of Rhodes 
—Phorbas was a son of Lapithes and was tarrying in 
Thessaly together with a considerable number of 
men, seeking a land in which he might make his 
home—and the Rhodians summoned him as the 
oracle had commanded and gave him a share in the 
land. And Phorbas destroyed tbe serpents, and 
after he had freed the island of its fear he made his 
home in Rhodes; furthermore, since in other respects 
he proved himself à great and good man, after his 
death he was accorded honours like those offered to 
heroes. | f 
59. At a later time than the events we have 
described Althaemenes, the son of Catreus the king 


of Crete, while inquiring of the oracle regarding 


certain other matters, received the reply that it was 
fated that he should slay his father by his own hand. 
So wishing to avoid such an abominable act, he fled 
of his free will from Crete together with such as 


desired to sail away with him, these being a eon- ^... 
pem $252. '] 


— 


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ty after ó deleted by Bekker. 
Dindorf :  mopsxaparre. . 


2 : 


BOOK V. sg. z-5 


hodes at Cameirus, and on Mount Atabyrus he 
' e a temple of Zeus who is called Zeus Ata- | 
» byrius; and for this reason the temple is held in | 
special honour even to this day, situated as it is upon j 
a lofty peak from which one ean desery Crete. So | 
Althaemenes with his companions made his home 
1 in Cameirus, being held in honour by the natives; but | 
| his father Catreus, having no male children at home 
and dearly loving Althaemenes, sailed to Rhodes, | 
being resolved upon finding his son and bringing him | 
back to Crete. Andmnow the fated destiny prevailed: | 
Catreus disembarked by night upon the land of | 
Ehodes with a few followers, and when there arose | 
a hand-to-hand confliet between them and the 

E natives, Althaemenes, rushing out to aid them, hurled 
his spear, and struck in ignorance his father and . " | 
E killed him. And when he realized what he had - | 
MT 
| 


| 
| J giderable company. Althaemenes, then, put ashore : 
| 








——————É— 


done, Althaemenes, being unable to bear his great 
afliction, shunned all meetings and association wih 
mankind, and betook himself to unfrequented places d 
and wandered about alone, until the grief put an — "i 
end to his life; and at a later time he received at the —..— 
hands of the Rhodians, as a certain oracle bad com- | 
manded, the honours which are accorded to herbes, EN 
Shortly before the Trojan War Tlepolemus; the 
son of Heracles, who was a fugitive because of the 
death of Licymnius, whom he had unwittingly slain, P 
fled of his free will from Argos; and upon eee Hu 
an oracular response regarding where he should. go 
to found a settlement, he put ashore at ms . 
together with a few people, and being kindly received 


2 : 3 " : , : T "T 
1 Cp. the similár account about Tlepolemus mm Book £ We 
7-8. etr ose 17 aue M 2 


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C 
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porn M 


BOOK V. zo. 5-60. 4 


by the inhabitants he made his home there. And 
becoming king of the whole island he portioned out 
the land in equal allotments and continued in other 
respects as well to rule equitably. And in the end, 
when he was on the point of taking part with Aga- 
memmnon in the war against Ilium, he put the rule of 
Rhodes in the hands of Butas, who had accompanied 
him in his flight from Argos, and he gained great 
fame for himself in the war and met his death in 
the Troad. 

60. Since the affairs of Rhodes, as it happened, 
became interwoven with certain events occurring in 
the Cherronesus which lies opposite the island, I 
think it will not be foreign to my purpose to discuss 
the latter. The Cherronesus, as some men say, 
received in ancient times the name it bears from the 
fact that the natural shape of the region is that of an 
isthmus, but others have written that the name 
Cherronesus is given it from the man who once ruled 
over those parts. The account runs like this: Not 
long after Cherronesus had ruled, five Curetes passed 
over to it from Crete, and these were descendants of 
those who had received Zeus from his mother Rhea 
and had nurtured him in the mountains of Idé in 
Crete.! And sailing to the Cherronesus with a 
notable expedition they expelled the Carians who 
dwelt there, and settling down in the land them- 
selves they divided it into five parts, each of them 
founding a city which he named after himself. Not 
long after this Inachus, the king of the Argives, since 
his daughter Io had disappeared, sent forth Cyrnus, 
one of his men in high command, fitting him out with 
à considerable fleet, and ordered him to hunt for 


i! See chap. 65 below. 
261 


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; à added by Hertlein, 
TÓy dóvoy DF, Vogel, Tob ódvov other MSS., Bekker, 
Dindorf 
* uév after 7j deleted by Bekker. - 


262 


BOOK V. 6o. 4-61. 3 


Io in every region and not to return unless he had 
got possession of her. And QCyrnus, after having 
wandered over many parts of the inhabited world 
without being able to find her, put ashore in Caria 
on the Cherronesus we are discussing ; and despairing 
of ever returning to his house, he made his home in 
the Cherronesus, where, partly by persuasive means 
and partly by the use of force, he became king of a 
part of the land and founded a city which bore his 
name Cyrnus. And by administering affairs in a 
popular fashion he enjoyed great favour among his 
fellow-citizens. 

61. After this, the account continues, Triopas, one 
of the sons of Helius and Rhodos, who was a fugi- 
tive because of the murder of his brother Tenages, 
came to the Cherronesus. And after he had been 
purified there of the murder by Melisseus the king, 
he sailed to Thessaly to give assistance as an ally to - 
the sons of Deucalion, and with their aid he expelled 
from Thessaly the Pelasgians and took for his portion 
the plain which is called Dotium. There he eut 
down the sacred grove of Demeter and used the wood - 
to build a palace; and for this reason he incurred 
the hatred of the natives, whereupon he fled from 
Thessaly and put ashore, together with the peoples 
who sailed with him, in the territory of Cnidus, where 
he founded Triopium, as it was called after him. 
And setting out from this place as his base he won . 
for himself both the Cherronesus and a large part of 


neighboring Caria. But as regards the ancestry of ig 


Triopas there is disagreement among -many of the 
historians and poets; for some have recorded that 





4 So CFG, Dindorf, karaxpíjo0 a other MSS., Bekker, Vogel. 
263 








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sro4OCov, Zorepov 5e $povricavra Ts Tpoófs 
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peydÀas Twuk&ds.  Tàg Oé Tíjs dÉapelons GBeAQàs 
MoArmaOtav kat llapÜcvov $vAarrovcas TOv o0 
v'após olvov, spooóárcs kar ávÜpdymrovs e3pn- 
pévov, eig vmvov korrevexsvau- kaÜ' Ov 1) kaupóy 
TÓS vpedopévas vOp' avrots 9s eigeADetv, xai TÓv 
T€ ÉXovra, TÓv oivov Képauov cuvrpübau KaL TÓV 
otov Sua d Ücipaa. Tüs € vrapÜévous. pa foscas 
TÓ yeyovós, Kai dofq0cícas -TÓ dmóropov cob 


264 


Een Menit m vem RS er PISIS T4 


Enimpmco ue ueri Ranma ee se n en ta c 


- € me 


es 


io MN NR t NM onte eut 
S ord . - - dd 


BOOK V. 6x. 3-62. 3 


he was the son of Canaché, the daughter of Aeolus, 
and Poseidon, but others that he was born of Lapithes, 
the son of Apollo, and Stilbé, the daughter of Peneius. 

629. In Castabus, on the Cherronesus, there is a 
temple which is sacred to Hemithea, and there is no 
reason why we should omit to mention the strange 
occurrence which befell this goddess. Now many 
and various accounts have been handed down regard- 
ing her, but we shall recount that which has prevailed 
and is in accord with what the natives relate. 

To Staphylus and Chrysothemis were born three 
daughters, Molpadia, Ehoeo, and Parthenos by 
name. Apollo lay with RKhoeo and brought her 
with child; and her father, believing that her seduc- 
tion was due to à man, was angered, and in his anger 
he shut up his daughter in a ehest and cast her into 
the sea. But the chest was washed up upon Delos, 
where she gave birth to à male child and called the 
babe Anius. And Rhoeo, who had been saved from 
death in this unexpected manner, laid the babe upon . 
the altar of Apollo and prayed to the god to save its 
life ifit was his child. "Thereupon Apollo, the myth 
relates, concealed the child for the time, but after- 
wards he gave thought to its rearing, instructed it 
in divination, and conferred upon it certain great 
honours. .Ánd the other sisters of the maiden who 
had been seduced, namely, Molpadia and Parthenos, 
while watching their father's wine, & drink which 
had only recently been discovered among men, fell 
asleep ; and while they were asleep some swine which 
they were keeping entered in and broke the jar 
which contained the wine and so destroyed the wine. 
And the maidens, when they learned what had | 
happened, in fear of their father's severity fled to 


265 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


mürpós, juyeitv émi TÓóv aiywAÓv kai dmó Twv 
werpüv OmA!v éavrás püjow. | 'AwóAMwova 8Oé 
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KpáTq TOoL0001, rÓv O'. duáuevov 1) $eyóvra jos 
o) vójuguov arpooeADBetv srpós TÓ Téuevos. 

63. 'Ev 8é rots Üomepov ypóvois émi Toocobrov 
&Aae TÓ iepóv aségow -íjs '"Hyu0fas, core T) 
póvov mapà cols éyycpiow kai cols «epiolkots 
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jmápyov kai àkivOvvov €yov r]v dpmaywv. abríav 
06 Tfjs émi wAéov aj£5oews $épovaw Tv kowTJw 


* 





1 Half-goddess. 

* Cicero (Laws, 2. 20) tells us that Xerxes burned the 
ternples of Greece in &ecordance with the advice of the Magi, 
" on the ground that the Greeks shut up the gods within 
walls, whereas all places consecrated to them ought to be open 


266 


igiene. as 





— 


zs 


SENE 


Dedi 


ees 











BOOK V. 62. 3-63. 2 


the edge of the sea and hurled themselves down 
from some lofty rocks. But Apollo, because of his 
affection for their sister, rescued the maidens and 
established them in the cities of the Cherronesus. 
The one named Parthenos, as the god brought it to 
pass, enjoyed honours and a sacred precinet in 
Bubastus of the Cherronesus, while Molpadia, who 
came to Castabus, was given the name Hemithea,! 
because the god had appeared to men, and she was 
honoured by all who dwelt in the Cherronesus. 
And in the sacrifices which are held in her honour a 
mixture of honey and milk is used in the libations, 
because of the experienee which she had had in 
connection with the wine, while anyone who has 
touched a hog or eaten of its flesh is not permitted 
to draw near to the szcred precinct. | 

63. In later times the temple of Hemithea enjoyed 
so great a development that not only was it held in 
special honour by the inhabitants of the place and of 
neighbouring regions, but even peoples from afar 
came to it in their devotion and honoured it with 
costly sacrifices and notable dedications. And most 
important of all when the Persians were the 
dominant power in Asia and were plundering all 
the temples of the Greeks,? the precinct of Hemithea 
was the sole shrine on which they did not lay hands, 
and the robbers who were pillaging everything they 
met left this shrine alone entirely unplundered, and 
this they did despite the fact that it was unwalled 
and the pillaging of it would have entailed no danger. 
And the reason which men advance for its con- 
tinued development is the benefactions which the 


and free, seeing that this whole universe is their temple and 
home " (tr. of Keyes in the L.C.L.). E 
z 267 


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kar TOUS Ümvous édiorauévny davepós oi8óvau 
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o0 D7O vA oU0' oxo Teiyovs Oyvpob óvAÀac- 
TÓLeva, GÀA' bnó Tíjs cvvrjU ous SetoiBoupovías. 

64. Ilepi puév oóv 'Pó8ov kal Xepporicov 
dpkeaÜnoópeÜa ,Tofs pu8cto:, qepi Oé Kprjrns 
vOv Duébusev. ol p&v yàp r3» Kpyrgv kavroucobvrés 
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dvÜpdimav piov eóeMjca:. kal TOV ÜeGv 8é ToDs 
mÀetarovs py oAoyo6ot "ap cavrots yevéoÜOat ous 
Ó.& Ts KowWüs , eüepyeaías TUXÓVTOs àDavdrav 
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peva. OLé£uuev  ükoAosÜws ois évOofordrows TÓv 
Tàc Kpyruás mpá£es cvvra£apévav. 

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pevÜcvres 'lóatou AdkrvÀoi. | vrovTrovs O' oi pév 
ékaróv TÓv dpiluóv "yeyovévau. mapaócBdkaow, 


i , Tem óyrag after ovveyojévous deleted by Vogel. 
* TÓ mepi after Tocrow deleted by Dindorf. 

by Vogel. after róv uou nu OF, Bekker, Dindorf, retained 
ogel. | 


268 





- — Lu 





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ldbiWsEEssge e eene me PR Ou Og rl 


BOOK V. 63. 2-64. 5 


goddess confers upon all mankind alike; for she 
appears in visible shape in their sleep to those who 
are in suffering and gives them healing, and many 
who are in the grip of diseases for which no remedy 
is known are restored to health; furthermore, to 
women who are suffering in childbirth the goddess 
gives relief from the agony and perils of travail. 
Consequently, since many have been saved in these 
ways from most ancient times, the sacred precinct 
is filled with votive offerings, nor are these protected 
by guards or by a strong wall, but by the habitual 
reverence of the people. 

64. Now as regards Rhodes and the Cherronesus 
we shall rest content with what has been said, and 
we shall at this point discuss Crete. "The inhabitants 
of Crete claim that the oldest people of the island 
were those who are known as Eteocretans,! who were 
sprung from the soil itself, and that their king, who 
was called Cres, was responsible for the greatest 
number of the most important discoveries made in 
the island which contributed to the improvement of 
the sociallife of mankind. Also the greater number 
of the gods who, because of their benefactions to all 
men alike, have been aecorded immortal honours, 
had their origin, so their myths relate, in their land; 
and of the tradition regarding these gods we shall 
now give a summary account, following the most 
reputable writers who have recorded the affairs of 
Crete. | 

The first of these gods of whom tradition has left a 
record made their home in Crete about Mt. Id& and 
were called Idaean Dactyli. "These, according to 
one tradition, were one hundred in number, but 


1 * (Xenuine Cretans." 


269 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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Ücob Kai vrepiápipura. srouetv, cS 'yeyovóros aDroU 


yógros kai à epi TÓS Telerás ézvrernoeukóros* 
270 | 


: BOOK V. 64. 3-7 


others say that there were only ten to receive this 
name, corresponding in number to the fingers 
(dactylt) of the hands. But some historians, and 
Ephorus is one of them, record that the Idaean 
Daetyli were in fact born on the Mt. Idé which is in 
Phrygia and passed over to Europe together with 
Mygdon; and since they were wizards, they prac- 
tised charms and initiatory rites and mysteries, and 
in the course of a sojourn in Samothrace they amazed 
the natives of that island not a little by their skill 
in such matters. And it was at this time, we are 
further told, that Orpheus, who was endowed with 
an exceptional gift of poesy and song, also became 
& pupil of theirs, and he was subsequently the first 
to introduce initiatory rites and mysteries to the 
Greeks. 

However this may be, the Idaean Dactyli of Crete, 
| so tradition tells us, discovered both the use of fire 
| and what the metals copper.and iron are, às well as 
l the means of working them, this being done in the 
territory of the city of Aptera at Berecynthus, as it 
is called; and since they were looked upon as the 
originators of great blessings for the race of men, 
they were accorded immortal honours. And writers 
tell us that one of them was named Heraoles, and 
exceling as he did in fame, he established the 
Olympic Games, and that the men of a later period 
thought, because the name was the same, that it was 
the son of Alemené who had founded the institution 
of the Olympie Games. And evidences of this, they 
tell us, are found in the fact that many women even 
to this day take their incantations from this god aud 
, make amulets in his name, on the ground that he 
was a wizard and practised the arts of initiatory 

| | Tor E 





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yevéata« Koupfjras € évvéa.. Toros o oi pev piuDo- 
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Tv TÓÀV Kovprjrcov Tuctay TOUS kaAovptévovs 
Turüvas.  Tro?rovs 8é míjs Kvwocías yopas &yew 





* When Cronus was searching for the baby Zeus in order 
to destroy it, the Curetes drowned out its wailing by the din 
raised in their war-danvce, 


272 





E 





BOOK V. 64. 7—66. 1 


rites; but they add that these things were indeed 
very far removed from the habits of the Heracles 
who was born of Alemené. 

65. Afterthe Idaean Dactyli, according to accounts 
we have, there were nine Curetes. Some writers of 
myths relate that these gods were born of the earth, 
but according to others, they were descended from 
the Idaean Dactyli. Their home they made in 
mountainous places which were thickly wooded and 
full of ravines, and which, in à word, provided a 
natural shelter and coverage, since it had not yet 
been discovered how to build houses. And since 
these Curetes excelled in wisdom they discovered 
many things which are of use to men generally; so, 
for instance, they were the first to gather sheep into 
flocks, to domestieate the several other kinds of 
animals which men fatten, and to discover the making 
of honey. In the same manner they introduced the 
art ofshooting with the bow and the ways of hunting 
animals, and they showed mankind how to live and 
associate together in à common life, and they were 
the originators of concord and, so to speak, of orderly 
behaviour. The Curetes also invented swords and 
helmets and the war-dance, by means of which they 
raised a great alarum and deceived Cronus.! And 
we are told that, when Rhea, the mother of Zeus, 
entrusted him to them unbeknown to Cronus his 
father, they took him under their care and saw to 
his nurture; but since we purpose to set forth this 
affair in. detail, we must take up the account at a 
little earlier point. | 

66. The myth the Cretans relate runs like this: 
When the Curetes were young men, the Titans, as 
they are called, were still living. These Titans had 


218 


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274: 


BOOK V. 66. 1-5 | 


their dwelling in the land about Cnosus, at the place 
where even to this day men point out foundations of 
a house of Rhea ! and a cypress grove which has been 
consecrated to her from ancient times. "The Titans i 
numbered six men and five women, being born, as | 
certain writers of myths relate, of Uranus and Gé, i 
but according to others, of one of the Curetes and 
' Titaea, from whom as their mother they derive the i 
| name they have. The males were Cronus, Hyperion, 
i Coeus, Iapetus, Crius, and Oceanus, and their sisters 
H were Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyné, Phoebé, and 
Tethys. Each one of them was the discoverer of 
things of benefit to mankind, and because of the 
benefaction they conferred upon all men they were | 
accorded. honours and everlasting fame. 
Cronus, since he was the eldest of the Titans, | 
became king and caused all men who were his subjects 
to change from a rude way of living to civilized life, 
and for this reason he received great approbation 
and visited many regions of the inhabited earth. 
Among all he met be introduced justice and sincerity 
of soul, and this is why the tradition has come down 
to later generations that the men of Cronus' time 
were good-hearted, altogether guileless, and blest 
with felicity. His kingdom was strongest in the 
western regions, where indeed he enjoyed his greatest 
honour; consequently, down even to comparatively 
recent times, among the Romans and the Carthagin- 
ians, while their city still stood, and other neighbour- 
ing peoples, notable festivals and sacrifices were cele- 
brated in honour of this god and many places bore 














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1 This "House of Rhea" has been found, in the opinion | | 
of Sir Arthur Evans (Palace of Minos, 2. 6 £f.), in the remains | 
of an Hellenie temple lying within the palace area. A, 1 


275 


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e)vopias áBikgpga uév wrgóév OMos )mó uoevos 
ovvreÀetaÜau, mávras 86 voUe Dnó T] Tjyepovíav 
voórov reraypévous uaápiov Biov ébkévou, vráons 
7)80vfjs ávepzroOtoT«s dmroAasovras. epi Dé roUrcv 
kal rÓv mow]ri)v '"Hoío8ov émuuaprvpetv év TotaOe 
TOlS ÉTregiv- | 
oí uév émi Kpóvov sjoav, Ór' o)pawQ épuaot- 
Aevev, 
core Ücoi 8" &Lcov, àkx8éo. Üvpàv éyovres, 
vócdtv &rep 7e kaKáüv xai rep xaAemoto 
TrÓVOLO | 
vovcqv T ápyaAéov kai darjpoves, oj0é uéAeaat 
yfjpas émfv, aiet 8e móóas kai xetpas ópotot 
Téprovr. év ÜaAcgot kaucóv éxrooÜev éóvres- 
Üváokov 9' ds ÜOmwp OSe0wquévo.. da ce 
Tr0ÀÀQ. 
rotaw éqv: kaprróv 9 &depe LelOwpos &povpa 
ajrojudrg zroÀÀóv Te kai &$Üovov: o6 8. émi yan 
ebdpoves épy' évéuovro o)v éc0Aototw mroMéeaow, 
dvetol ujAowst, diÀot uakápeocc Üeotot. 


mepi ev oov Kpóvov Toux0ra, uvÜoAoyobtow. 

67. *"Y«repíova. 0é $acv voU e zjMov rijv kürqow 
kai cekjvgs kai TÀv ÓÀMov doTpov, €rv O6 às 
Gpas ràs ovvreAovpuévas 070 ToUrOV, mpóvrov ét 


? J ^ 
 émuueAelas kai vapormmpnsens karavorcavra To(s 


LÀ ^ e^ r^ 
&AAots eis 'yvi)ow arapaGoÜvau, kai 9ux roUro aDTOv 


gra.répa, TovTcov ÓvoyuaoO vas, kaDarepet yeyevvoióra. ' 





1 "The Saturnalis of the Romans is well known; Diodorus 
elsewhere (13. 86; 20. 14) mentions the ancient practice of 
n. Carthaginians of sacrificing children to Cronus. 

27 


1 BOOK V. 66. 5-67. 1 


his name.! And because of the exceptional obedi- 
ence to laws no injustice was committed by any one 
at any time and all the subjects of the rule of Cronus 
lived a life of blessedness, in the unhindered enjoy- 
ment of every pleasure. To this the poet Hesiod i 
also bears witness in the following words :? 


And they who were of Cronus' day, what time 
He reigned in heav'n, lived like the gods, no care | 
In heart, remote and free from ills and toils | 
Severe, from grievous sicknesses and cares; j 
Old age lay not upon their limbs, but they, 
Equal in strength of leg and arm, enjoyed 
Endless delight of feasting far from ills, 
And when death came, they sank in it as in 
Á sleep. And many other things were theirs: 
Grain-giving earth, unploughed, bore for them | 
fruit i 
Abundantly and without stint; and glad | 
Of heart they dwelt upon their tilth throughout | 
The earth, in midst of blessings manifold, : 
Rich in their flocks, loved by the blessed gods. | 


This, then, is what the myths have to say about | 
Cronus. 

67. Of Hyperion we are told that he was the first to 
understand, by diligent attention and observation, | 
j the movement of both the sun and the moon and the | 
| other stars, and the seasons as well, in that they are | 
caused by these bodies, and to make these facts 
known to others; and that for this reason he was 
caled the father of these bodies, since he had be- 
gotten, so to speak, the speculation about them and 


? Works and Days, 111-120; but Diodorus! Greek differs 
radically in several places from the present text of Hesiod. 


217 








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: E Book 1. 16. 1. 
? Themis (law ") and thesmos (ordinance ") are both 
derived from the stem (Ae ('* establish '). 


278 


BOOK V. 6;. 1-5 


P 


their nature. To Coeus and Phoebé was born Leto, | 
and to lIapetus was born Prometheus, of whom | 
tradition tells us, as some writers of myths record, ] 
that he stole fire from the gods and gave it to man- | 
kind, though the truth is that he was the discoverer 
of those things which give forth fire and from which | 
jt may be kindled. Of the female Titans they say | 
that Mnemosyné discovered the uses of the power of i 
reason, and that she gave a designation to every | 
object about us by means of the names which we use | 
to express whatever we would and to hold conversa- | 
tion one with another; though there are those who | 
attribute these discoveries to Hermes.! And to this | 
goddess is also attributed the power to eall things | 
to memory and to remembrance (mnemé) which men | 
possess, and it is this power which gave her the | 
name she received. "Themis, the myths tell us, was | 
the first to introduce divinations and sacrifices and | 
the ordinances which concern the gods, and to | 
instruet men in the ways of obedience to laws and | 
of peace. Consequently men who preserve what is 
holy with respect to the gods and the laws of men 

are called ''law-guardians " (Zhesmophulakes) and 

" Jaw-givers "' (thesmothetaz),? and we say that Apollo, 

at the moment when he is to return the oracular | 
responses, is "issuing laws and ordinances" | 
(themisteuein), in view of the fact that Themis was the | 
discoveress of oracular responses. And so these gods, 

by reason of the many benefactions which they con- 

ferred upon the life of man, were not only accorded 
immortal honours, but it was also believed that | 
they were the first to make their home on Mount | 
Olympus after they had been translated from among - | 
men. : 





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Te 'Eoríav kai Adjpz]rpav kai "Hpav, er, O6 Aia 
kai ILoceiódva kai "Aibqv.- TOUTCV E Aéyerat 
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cirov $vop.évov uev cs Éruxe perà fs dAXys 
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xai TV bnó TIAosrcos apsrarynv epmpfioas. Tüvra 
Tóv kaprróv Sd T€ TV exÜpav TT Tpós TOV Ata 
kai Tv Émi 7j Üvyocpi Avv.  gueró 8é Tv 
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kai TÓ TpurroAéu dTo80Üva. TOv TOÜ oirov 
ovópov, e avvrá&au v&cw dvÜpcomois peraBotya, 
rijs re Scpeüs kai 7à vrepi TW épyaatay ToO aópov 
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peytarav yàp dryafàv dvÜpáymois airíay yevopéynv 
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BapBápois, ócot 7íjs Tpodíjs raórws ékowdvigav. 

69. "Apdeofinrobo: LT mrepi MC eópécecs Tob 
KapzoU ToUTov ToÀÀoL, riv Üeóv d$áuevow map 


280 


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BOOK V. 68. x-69. 1 


68. 'To Cronus 2nd Khea, we are told, were born 
j Hestia, Demeter, and Hera, and Zeus, Poseidon, and 
| Hades. Of these, they say, Hestia discovered how 
to build houses, and because of this benefaction of 
hers practically all men have established her shrine 
in every home, according her honours and sacrifices. 
Ánd Demeter, since the corn still grew wild together 
with the other plants and was still unknown to men, 
was the first to gather it in, to devise how to prepare 
and preserve it, and to instruct mankind how to sow 
it. Now she had discovered the corn before she gave 
birth to her daughter Persephoné, but after the birth 
of her daughter and the rape of her by Pluton, she 
burned all the fruit of the corn, both because of her 
anger at Zeus and because of her grief over her 
daughter. After she had found Persephoné, how- 
ever, she became reconciled with Zeus and gave 
Triptolemus the corn to sow, instructing him both to 
share the gift with men everywhere and to teach 
them everything concerned with the labour of sow- 
ing. Ánd some men say that it was she also who 
introduced laws, by obedienee to which men have 
become accustomed to deal justly one with another, 
and that mankind has called this goddess Thesmo- 
phoros ! after the laws which she gave them. | And 
since Demeter has been responsible for the greatest 
blessings to mankind, she has been accorded the most 
notable honours and sacrifices, and magnificent feasts 
and festivals as well, not only by the Greeks, but also 
by almost all barbarians who have partaken of this 
kind of food. 

69. There is dispute about the discovery of the 
fruit of the corn on the part of many peoples, who 


1 Law-giver. 





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DIODORUS OF SICILY 





abrots. vpárots ódÜfjvar kai T TOÜTOU $iow 
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etvat, KGi eis Alyvmrov éveykety TÓ oméppua. 
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Nettov morapio0, rats o. Gpa4s puo To, TÍS Xdpas 

2 Ta r)S kekpaiévis Tos o "A8rvatovs, kazep 
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Ta TQ "EAevotva mpocayopeóew ázO TOD cap 
érépcov éA8etv TO e"épiua To0 OÜTOU kopuatéy. 
3 oí 8é Zukeléyra:, vfjsov iepàv Adíjumrpos Kai 
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cL TÀ..  Z. i D c 


282 


BOOK V. 69. 1-3 ^ 


claim that they were the first among whom the 

goddess was seen and to whom she made known both 

the nature and use of the corn. "The Egyptians, for 

example, say that Demeter and Isis are the same, 

and that she was first to bring the seed to Egypt, 

since the river Nile waters the fields at the proper 

time and that land enjoys the most temperate 

seasons. Also the Athenians, though they assert 
that the discovery of this fruit took place in their 
country, are nevertheless witnesses to its having 
been brought to Attiea from some other region; 
for the place which originally received this gift they 
call Eleusis,! from the fact that the seed of the com 
came from others and was conveyed to them. But 
the inhabitants of Sicily, dwelling as they do on an 
island which is sacred to Demeter and Coré, say that 
it is reasonable to believe that the gift of which we 
are speaking was made to them first, since the land 
they cultivate is the one the goddess holds most 
dear; for it would be strange indeed, they maintain, 
for the goddess to take for her own, so to speak, 
a land which is the most fertile known and yet to 
give it, the last of all, a share in her benefaction, as 
though it were nothing to her, especially since 
she has her dwelling there, all men agreeing 
that the Rape of Coré took place on this island. 
Moreover, this land is the best adapted for these 


e 


fruits, even as the poet also says : ? 
But all these things grow there for them unsown 
And e'en untilled, both wheat and barley. 

This, then, is what the myths have to say about 


Demeter. 
? Odyssey, 9. 100 f. 


283 
VOL. UI. j K 














4 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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povíav TaUTQqv ToU Kpóvov: O0 koi capa8o- 
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karàü ÜdAarrav parropévov Kai Üvoías (mo 
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ru4Às Tüv TeÜvecTwv kora8eifat, vOv mpÓ cob 
xypóvov p8euiüs ovons émwuueAelas mepi aDroUs: 
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AymraL kupuevew, dmoveurnÜetons TO vaÀauóv adr 
Tfs roUTcv àpxijs kai ópovrióos. 

70. Ileol 8é -fjs vob Auós yevéoeós ce kai 
Baoietas O.adcvetrau | kat mwwes uév $aow a)TOV 
perà Tiv éÉ avÜpdymrev TOÜ Kpóvov neráoragw 
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hi / P4 ^^ ^ M A ^ 
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^ / / / M ^ ^ 4 
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yevécecs, óTv sapaupjcera,. T)v Daouetav abTob 


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66 'Péa» dyavakrijoaoay, KaL pq Ovvauévqv 


peraÜetva, Tiv  «poaípeow  càvOpós, cTÓv  Aía 
284 





Ü 
| 

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L 
5 


BOOK V. 69. 4-70. 2 


As for the rest of the gods who were born to 
Cronus and Rhea, the Cretans say that Poseidon was 
the first to concern himself with sea-faring and to 
fit out fleets, Cronus having given him the lordship 
in such matters; and this is why the tradition has 
been passed along to succeeding generations that 
he controls whatever is done on the sea, and why 
mariners honour him by means of sacrifices. Men 
further bestow upon Poseidon the distinction of 
having been the first to tame horses and to introduce 
the knowledge of horsemanship (/ppi£é), because of 
which he is called " Hippius." And of Hades it is 
said that he laid down the rules which are concerned 
with burials and funerals and the honours which 
are paid to the dead, no concern having been given 
to the dead before this time; and this is why tradi- 
tion tells us that Hades is lord of the dead, since 
there were assigned to him in ancient times the first 
offices in such matters and the concern for them. 

70. Regarding the birth of Zeus and the manner 
in which he came to be king, there is no agreement. 
Some say that he succeeded to the kingship after 
Cronus passed from among men into the company 
of the gods, not by overcoming his father with 
violence, but in the manner prescribed by custom 
and justly, having been judged worthy of that 
honour. But others recount a myth, which runs as 
follows: There was delivered to Cronus an oracle 
regarding the birth of Zeus which stated that the 
son who would be born to him would wrest the king- 
ship from him by force. Consequently Cronus time 
and again did away with the children whom he begot ; 
but Rhea, grieved as she was, and yet lacking the 
power to change her husband's purpose, when she 


285 








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DIODORUS OF SICILY 


rekoDoav év rfj mpocayopevopévy "Ion kAeiau kat " 
9obvat AdOpq. TOÍS Kovpfow eÜpéiau vols karok- 
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mapakeAevaaqiévovs viv 7ácav émuiéAeuxy ajToÜ 
3 vrouetoa4. abra. Oé Hé kai .yYáAa. utovovaa 
vO q0u00ov éÜpejav kai Tíjs aiyós. Tfs ÓOvopga- 
Cop.évos "ApaAMe(as TOV paoróv eis ÓuvrpoóTyv 
mrapetxovro. onp.eta, Bé ToÀÀÀ uéypi ToU vüv Sua. 
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cvuBávros "OuóaAóv apocayopevOtvat Kai Tó Trepi- 
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Tpov év Q Tv Blaurav ete kaDiéporat «ai oi srepi ; 
abr Aeuuaves ó óptoleos üvetvrau Trepi TT)v GKpdpe.av 

b óvres. TÓ ó€ TávTOV zrapaDo&órarov kai uÜoAo- 
yoópevov Trepi TÓV peAvrT(v OUk &Eov zrapaAva- 
ety: TOV yàp. Ücóv $acw àÜBávoarov uvumv Tíjs apos 
aDTüs oUetórt]TOS SuiévAd£au BovAópevov àÀAá£o 
p.év Tiv xpóav adrÀv kai mrovfja xa Ad xpuaociBet 
mapasXmotav, To TómOv Ó. Ovros bmAo8 ka D 
brrepBoA, kai meum ao TE peyáAcv ev aT 4 
ywopévcy. kai xióvos sroAMjs murrotans, üverai- 4 
dÜrjrovs a)Tàs KQGL ómaDets. movífjoau, Bvoyeuteporá- 

6 rovs TówOvs vepopuévas. Tfj Üpejáao 9' aiyt ruis 





l1 ze Dindorf, 8/4 Wesseling : 8é. 


286 | CER] 





BOOK V. zo. 2-6 


had given birth to Zeus, concealed him in Idé, as it 
is ealled, and, without the knowledge of Cronus, 
entrusted the rearing of him to the Curetes who 
dwelt in the neighbourhood of Mount Idé. 'The 
Curetes bore him off to a certain cave where they 
gave him over to the Nymphs, with the command 
that they should minister to his every need. And 


the Nymphs nurtured the child on a mixture of 


honey and milk and gave him upbringing at the udder 
of the goat which was named Axmaltheia. And many 
evidences of the birth and upbringing of this god 
remain to this day on the island. For instance, when 
he was being carried away, while still an infant, by 
the Curetes, they say that the umbilical cord 
(omphalos) fell from him near the river known as 
Triton, and that this spot has been made sacred and 
has been called Omphalus after that incident, while 
in like manner the plain about it is known as 
Omphaleium. And on Mount Idé, where the god 
Was nurtured, both the cave in which he spent his days 
has been made sacred to him, and the meadows round 
about it, which lie upon the ridges of the mountain, 
have in like manner been consecrated to him. But 
the most astonishing of all that which the myth 
relates has to do with the bees, and we should not 
Omit to mention it: The god, they say, wishing to 
preserve an immortal memorial of his close association 
with the bees, changed the colour of them, making 
it like copper with the gleam of gold, and since the 
region lay at a very great altitude, where fierce 
winds blew about it and heavy snows fell, he made 
the bees insensible to such things and unaffected by 
them, since they must range over the most wintry 
Stretches. To the goat (aeg-) which suckled him 


287 





MUN Uem 






Orte A eue 


Aum 


B scEscHAe 
oes SE cms 


Cu cu 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Trekofoav év rfj mpooayopevopévm "Ion kAéias «al 
6otvat AáOpa. Toís Kovpfjow ekÜpépau ros kamou- 
o0ct qÀnatov ópovs 7íjs "Ións.  vroórovs 9 Garevéy- 
kavras eis Tt üvrpov za pabobvaa TOUS Nóppaus, 
mapakeAevaapiévous Tiv sücav émuiéAeuay aDTo0 


3 mroLetoÜas. abra. Oé pé kai ydAÀa Utovyovoa 


TO qüiiov éÜpejav kai TÍs aiyós. Tfs Ovopga- 
Lopévs "ApaAMetas TÓV paoróv eis Ota pod 
mapetyovro. onueta. óc ToÀÀA uéypu roD vv Óua.- 
[iéveuw Tíjs yevéaecos kat Dwrpoefs. Toó Üco0 TOÜU- 


4 TOU Kü/TÓ Tv vijcov. óepopuévov uev yàp ÓmÓ TÓV 
Li 1 Li 


Koupyjrcv. a)roB vqsiou $aoiv üxomeocty TÓv Óp- 
$aÀóv "epi. TÓV orav TÓV kaAospuevoy Tpézeva, 
kai TÓ Xcoptov ve * Trofro kaÜiepcÜév ázó Tob TÓTE 
cvpBávros "OpóaAóv mpocoyopevÜfjva, kal TÓ Trepi- 
Keijtevov TreOtov Ópotcos "OudAetov. Kará Oé Tv 
"Ióqv, év $ owvégn vpa.dfjvou TOv Üeóv, Tó Te &y- 
Tpov €v Q TTv tavray ele kaBiéporrat kai oi Trepl 
abró Aeutdwes ó ópolcos dvetvraL vrepi 77)v GKpdpeua 


b Ovres. TO O6 mávrow mapaQo£órarov kai uvÜoAÀo- 


youjuevov mepi TÓV pelrróv ok &fuov zrapaAvr- 
civ: Tóv yàp Ücóv $acw àÜávarov uvü)jwmv Tfjs vpóos 
aràs oikeiórnros SuudvAá£as BovAóuevov aÀAá£at 
pv Ti» xpóav aor&v kai zrovfjo a. XaAKd XpvaoeBet 
vapaAnoiav, Tob TómOV Ó. OvTOS DimAo8 ka o" 
omepBoAijv, Kai qvevpárav T€ peyáAcov er aT 
yWwOJL yov. kai xióvos T'oÀMjs mumrobons, aveau- 
cÜrfrovs ajràs kai daa is vrovfjaat, OvoXeuseparrá- 


6 rovs TÓTOUS Mepoperda. . Tfj Üpeáoy 9' atyi cuds 


ies .. 1 se Dindorf, 8.à Wesseling : 8é. 


A TG 
NU 


) 
: . 
: 
1 
P" 
| 








uisus usd E eleme ous eue * - 
buco cus Nam qoam Bes 
- 


Rp elo ie 


quoe» 


cem 


BOOK V. 7o. 2-6 


had given birth to Zeus, concealed bim in Idé, as it 
is called, and, without the knowledge of Cronus, 
entrusted the rearing of him to the Curetes who 
dwelt in the neighbourhood of Mount 1dé. The 
Curetes bore him off to a certain cave where they 
gave him over to the Nymphs, with the command 
that they should minister to his every need. And 
the Nymphs nurtured the child on a mixture of 
honey and milk and gave him upbringing at the udder 
of the goat which was named Amaltheia. And many 
evidences of the birth and upbringing of this god 
remain to this day on the island. For instance; when 
he was being carried away, while still an infant, by 
the Curetes, they say that the umbilical cord. 
(omphalos) fell from him near the river known a8 
'Triton, and that this spot has been made sacred and 
has been called Omphalus after that incident, while 
in like manner the plain about it is known as 
Omphaleium. And on Mount Idé, where the god 
was nurtured, both the cave in which he spent his days 
has been made sacred to him, and the meadows round 
about it, which lie upon the ridges of the mountain, 
have in like manner been consecrated to him. But 
the most astonishing of all that which the myth 
relates has to do with the bees, and we should not 
omit to mention it: The god, they say, wishing to 
preserve an immortal memorial of his close association 


with the bees, changed the colour of them, making | 


it like copper with the gleam of gold, and since the 
region lay at a very great altitude, where fierce 
winds blew about it and heavy snows fell, he made 
the bees insensible to such things and unaffected by 
them, since they must range over the most wintry 
stretches. To the goat (aeg-) which suckled him 

287 














DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Té T:vas &AÀas ámovetquau kal T?v émcovvptay dz 
aoTÍs Aofetv, Alytoxov émovopaoévra. dvpc- 
Ücvro. 9' adróv $aot "póyrov Tró kriaat T€pL TT)v 
Aíxrav, Ómov xai Tv yéveow aoro6 yevéoGa, 
pivOoAoyobow- 7s éxAeidüctos év Tots VOT€pov 
Xpóvous Ounuévew | ér. kai vv  épuara  TÓW 
ÜenueAMcov. 

TE. Avevéykau € TÓv Ücóv roDrov arvo 
dv8pela. kal cvuvéget kai Bucouoaóvy KaL rais dAAaus 
aácaus Gperaís- O10 kai mapaAaBórra TTV 
BaowUetay 7apà ToÜ Kpóvov vÀetora, kai uéytora 
Tóv &yÜpdymvov Biov eOepyeríjcat. arpóyrov pev 
yàp d&mávrcov karaóet£at zepi TÓYv  GÓucnudrav 
TÓ Olkaiov dAXjÀois Bióva TOUS dvOpcomrovs 
«ai ToU Día Ti mpárrew ámooTfoat kpice, 8e 
KaL Buca ro pto Tàs p.d Bree Ova Dew. 
kaBóAov 06 Tà mepi me TÍíjs eàvopias Kai TÍs 
etpnjvns mpocavaminpóooa, TOUS  év aryaÜoUs 
meiBovra., To?s 8é daojovs 7j Tuucopiq. kai 

2 7 $óBo. karraamrrópevov. emeAgeiv S aDTÓV 
«di TÜV olcovpévyv cxeBóv mácav roUs pev Agorás 
kai àoceBeis &vospotvra, Tv Ó' icórnra kat Tiv 
Sn pokporiav ela myopevov: óre 91) acu abróy kal 
TOUS ybyavras iveActv, év gév Kprirn (TOS Trepi 
MiAwov, kar àé Tiv Dpvyiav TOUS Trepi Tv$óva. 

3 mpo O6 Tfjs Háxns Tíjs zrpós ToDs €v Korm ytyarTas 
Aéyera TÓv Aía. 09oa. Boüv. HAíe ka Qipavà 
KaL I8 émi O6 vÓv iepóv Gmávray $javíijvo, Tà 
vepl ToUTcv émikpiévra Ov. Dv! émonuaiverac 















i 8) dy» Reiske: à CF, mpórov other MSS.; the passage 
has been variously emended., 


208 








OR QE 


cese 


BOOK V. zo. 6-71. 3 


Zeus also accorded certain honours, and in particular 
took from it a surname, being called Aegiochus.! 
And when he had attained to manhood he founded 
first à city in Dicta, where.indeed the myth states 
that he was born; in later times this city was 
abandoned, but some stone blocks of its foundations 
are still preserved. : 

71. Now Zeus, the myth goes on to say, surpassed 
all others in manly spirit and wisdom and justice and 
in the other virtues one and all, and, as a consequence, 
when he took over the  kingly power from 
Cronus, he conferred benefactions of the greatest 
number and importance upon the life of mankind. 
He was the first of all, for instance, to lay down 
rules regarding acts of injustice and to teach men to 
deal justly one with another, to refrain from deeds 
of violence, and to settle their differences by appeals 
to men and to courts of justice. In short, he 
contributed in abundance to the practices which are 
concerned with obedience to law and with peace, 
prevailing upon good men by persuasion and 


intimidating evil men by threat of punishment and | 
by their fear. Ee also visited practically the entire 


inhabited earth, putting to death robbers and impious 
men and introducing equality and democracy; and 
it was in this connection, they say, that he slew the 
Giants and their followers, Mylinus in Crete and 
Typhon in Phrygia. Before the battle against the 
Giants in Crete, we are told, Zeus sacrificed a bull to 
Helius and to Uranus and to Gé; and in connection 
with each of the rites there was revealed to him what 
was the will of the gods in the affair, the omens 


1 Sep peeng à common epithet of Zeus, from aegis 


(^ goat-skin *'). 
289 














EC AU 


Yn RUSPEMEE SE 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 





kpáros Kai ümócTacis dO TÓV TroÀeuicov Tpós 4 

aDTOUS. ákóAovÜov 66  ToDroig yevéaQa TOÜ 

ToAépuov TÓ TÉÀos: odropoAfjca. Lev yàp €K TÓV 

moÀepicov Movoatov, kai ruxelv copuoLévoov Tuy, 

korakomfva,. GO  Oxz0 TOv ÜcOv dmavras ToDs 
üvrvraf£agévovs. 

4 , Evorfjvas € kal GAAovs TroAépovs ajrQ Trpós à 
ytyavras, Tfjs pev Max«e8ovías zepl TÜV IaA- 
Am, Ts O "IraMas KüGTà TÓ zreBtov, ó TÓ 
pev waAÀaiÓv dmó Tob Karakexaupuévou TÓTOU 
DAeypatov cvopátero, KaTà O6 ToUs Üorepov 4 

5 Xpóvovs Kvuatov npoeryópevov. koAacÜfjva. 06 
TOUS vytyavras vm Auós 9i T) eis ToUs dAÀovs | 
àvÜpoxmrovs mapavop£av xal Oud TÓ Tails To. j 
caparos brrepoxals. kai pxpoas Temoóras kora- | 
SovAotioUat pev ToUs TÀmgotoxyópovs, dewetv Bé 
TOÍS Tepl Tob Oukacov vi ep.évois vópois, nróÀepuov 9' 
ékdépew TpOs TOUS Otà Tàs koivüs eüepyeatas jTO | 

6 mávTOV 0coos vouuLopuévovs. — TÓv 9 otv Aía Aéyovot 

p?) uóvov dpOgv e ávÜpcmrov á$avíaa, TOUS 

&ceBeis KQL sovnposs, áAA kai Tos &piarois 

TÓY Üedv kal Qpxccov, eru 0. àyÓpóv Tàs d£tas 

aTove(ua, vtpás. | Oià O6 cO uéyeÜos vÀv eyepye- 

ouv kal TV Dmrepoynv Tíjs Bvvápiecs. cup.dovos 
aT Tap. vávrov ovykexopíjoÜa, vcXjv Te Baor- 

Aeíav els vóv del ypóvov kal Tiv oücQotv T1 €v 
"OA gro. 

12. KaraBevyBivas. óé «a Üvoias aor GUv- i 
TeÀetv Ümép TOUS GAAovs ómavras, Kai perà Tv : 
éK fis peráoraau eis TÓv oopavóv éyyevéoOa, Bócas 
Ouxatovs év rais rÀ» € emovÜórwow ivxals, ds 





3» d 
SEES 


poi i-am. 
Ee eet 


SER d hes 


--— 








290 





E E 


Deetmeepe- 


Modal Eo 


Mou E M E 


CNRC 


BOOK V. 71. 3-72. 1 


indicating the victory of the gods and a defection to 
them of the enemy. And the outcome of the war 
accorded with the omens; for Musaeus deserted to 
him from the enemy, for which he was accorded 

eculiar honours, and all who opposed them were 
cut down by the gods. 

Zeus also had other wars against the Giants, we 
are told, in Macedonia near Pallené and in Italy on 
the plain which of old was named Phlegraean 
(" fiery ') after the region about it which had been 
burned,'!but which in later times men called Cumaean. 
Now the Giants were punished by. Zeus because they 
had treated the rest of mankind in a lawless fashion 
and, confiding in their bodily superiority and 
strength, had enslaved their neighbours, and because 
they were also disobeying the rules of justice which 


he was laying down and were raising up war against | 
those whom all mankind considered to be gods | 


because of the benefactions they were conferring 
upon men generally. Zeus, then, we are told, not 
only totally eradicated the impious and evil-doers 
from among mankind, but he also distributed 
honours as they were merited among the noblest of 
the gods and heroes and men. And because of the 
magnitude of his benefactions and his superior 
power all men aecorded to him as with one voice 
both the everlasting kingship which he possesses 
and his dwelling upon Mount Olympus. 

12. And it was ordained, the myth continues, that 
sacrifices should be offered to Zeus surpassing those 
offered to all the other gods, and that, after he 
passed from earth into the heavens, a just belief 
should spring up in the souls of all who bad received 

1 Cp. Book 4. 21. 5 f. ! 
! : | 291 


CSS USENUSS DUI Ue ucc AL 





steps 


- MuEeser ees Uis esteem tsmiemeceei 


M 


NUTEo emet ctetuer ses s: 
UUUANENCURCNeTmQh o gexeeuas 





dou serecskescerp eme cese 


— 


Biss 


2 


ud ie csse 


3 


4 


b 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ámávrow TÓV ywopévo Ka" ojpavóv obros ein 
kóptos, Aéyo o. ópBpov T€ kai , Bpovráw KaL Kepau- 
vOv kat TOv dÀÀcov TÓV TOLOÜTOOV. .Suómrep aDTOv 
mrpoaa/yopevÜfvas Záva. pev dzÓ ToD Sokety TOÍS 
dvÜpdymrow abrtov etyat 08 fjv, rais ek TOD Trép- 
éyovTos eükpaataus ToUs Ka pTroUs &vdyovra,. Tipos 
TéAos, marépa. óé 9i TV $povr(ba. kal (TT evouxy 
TU eis dzravras, en O€ kal TO Ookety dosep &pxn- 

Ov etva, ToU yévous | Tv ávÜpdymav, ozaTov Oé 

Ka BaciMéa. 8t Tv Tfjs &pxtjs brepoxy?v, e)BovAéa 
Oé kaL uyriérqv Ou 7?)v év T. BovAeUcoÜons kaoÀGs 
aUveotv. 

Muv0oAoyot2t d KüL TTV "A8gv&v. KaTrà T)v 
Kei ex Atos É€v Taís "2yaís Tob Tpércovos 
qoTo Jo yevvrÜsvaa- 95 kal Tpvroyévewar ó óvopa- 
o0fjvaa. éor Oé aL vüv éri mrepi Tüs "yas 
raUras tepóv dyvov Tfjs Üco0 raTQs, €v à Tóm 
TÜ)V yéveaw aorfjs Ünáp£a piu BoXo yon. AMyovet 
9é «aL ToUs yáptovs TOÜ T€ ÍNÓS xai Tfs. "Hpas év 
Tfj Kveootcv xycpq. yevéo0at kará Tua TÓTOV mÀ- 
ciov To Orjprivos mora, Kap" óv vüv dtepóv 
éoTw, € Q Üvoias kar cvuawróv &ytovs Ümó TÓV 
éyyoplev cvvreAetotat, kai TOUS yüpovs üzopiu- 
etoÜa., kaÜdmep  é£ pyfjs -yevéoÜaw  mape8ó0- 
ncav. 

To6$ ! 8é Auós ék'yóvous $aci yevéatat ücaàs uév 
"Adpobtrqv ai Xáprras, mpós Óé ra)rous Eici- 
Üvwav kai Tv Tabrs cvvepyóv "Aprepav, kai rds 
zrpoga;opevop.évas "Qpas, Exvopiav T€ kal Aükmv, 
er, 9. Eipyjvgv kai ' AÓnvaáv kot Movcas,? Ücobs 8é 

1 roü Dindorf: coU. 
* ka,  AUqvüv kx. Movcas added by Iensius. 
202 


Ei 


MeT 


SSH issue iie tute M et 


émis enc se s 





eeu cruÀ ope ER Sises i US ES e duiRgRer ire En a ees oce 


ms 


CDU É SRI 


BOOK V. zz. 1-5 


his benefactions that he is lord of all the phenomena 
of heaven, that is, both of rain and of thunder and 
of lightning and of everything else of that nature. 
It is for this reason also that names have been given 
him: Zén,! because in the opinion of mankind he is 
the cause of life (zén), bringing as he does the fruits 
to maturity by tempering the atmosphere; Father, 
because of the concern and goodwill he manifests 
toward all mankind, as well as because he is 
considered to be the first cause of the race of men; 
Most High and King, because of the pre&minence of 
his rule; Good Counsellor and All-wise, because of 
the sagacity he manifests in the giving of wise 
counsel. | 

Athena, the myths relate, was likewise begotten 
of Zeus in Crete, at the sources of the river Triton, 
this being the reason why she has been given the 
name Tritogeneia.? And there stands, even to this 


day, at these sources a temple which is sacred to 


this goddess, at the spot where the myth relates 
that her birth took place. Men say also that the 
marriage of Zeus and Hera was held in the territory 
of the Cnosians, at a place near the river Theren, 
where now a temple stands in which the natives of 
the place annually offer holy sacrifices and imitate 
the ceremony of the marriage, in the manner in 
which tradition tells it was originally performed. 

To Zeus also were born, they say, the goddesses 
Aphrodité and the Graces, Eileithyia and her helper 
Artemis, the Hours, as they are called, Eunomia and 
Diké and Eirené, and Athena and the Muses, and 

1 Cp. Book 3. 61. 6. | 

? Another reason for this name is adduced in Book 1. 12. 8; 
ep. also 3. 70. 2. f ! 

293 


—————ÉÉÁÉÉRRBRBBBNÉÁ 


SiesEescestorg cem 


Pemstuute e etyeetrcce ee cnsrutis Ara 


memes 


M — 


MEE ludi 










e 


Se 
El 


seumeibe 


ees 
USE 


e 


cese iure de fpc 


mOSCcReceERE 


— 


ILIA ees 
oA CWERe 
em 


zx moder ce t m 


-— 
ipfum 


mee 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


"Héauorov Ka "Apmv kal "AqróAÀcova, vpós 06 
ToUTow '"Epufv kai Auóvugov kai '" HpakAéa..! 

13. Tovvrov 9 Skáoro pvÜoAoyotiot TOv Aia 
TÓYy cópeÜévra bm abroo kai cvvreAovpévav 
epycov Tüs émwuas kal Ts TLLOS Tfjs €Üpéaecs 
Gmrovetpat, , BovAGpuevov aiDviov  aDTois  repi- 

2 socfjcat pp Tap qráctv dvÜpdymois. Tapa- 
Oo0fjva. O8 T[j pev "Adpobíry T/v T€ TÓV 7ap- 
Üéveov. QjAÀucav, év ols Xpóvots Set yopiety abrás, 
Kai riv &AAqv émpéAeuay Tv ÉTi kai vüv év rois 
yápots yivojévqv per Üvouv Kai OTOovOOv, ás 
zroofoty &yÜpcomo Tf 0e rasrp. mpoUovat 0d 
mpórepov Gmravres TQ A TÓ Tele) kal "Hpe 
TeÀela 9i TÓ TOÜTOUS ápynyos yeyovévaa kal ráv- 

3 Tav edperás, kaDórt "poeíp]ras. ras o6 Xdpiat 
So8fjvat Tiv Tíjs Ouecs Kóoynou kai TÓ a oxnporc- 
Lew € &kaoTov pépos Tof od aros. Trpós TO BéArvov 
Kal mpoamvés rois Üecwpotov, TpOÓs Oé ToUTOus TO 
KQ/Tápx ew edepyeoias kai má dpeiBeoUa TOUS 

4 mpoonkoUcais xápiat TOUS có movjgavras. EiAcc- 
Üvia 0€ Aafetv Tv mepi Tüs TuKTOUGas émwAdAeiay 
KG Üepareíav. TÓv Éy TÓ Tikrew kakomraÜDovoóv. 
OiÓ kai ràs €v rois rowoíTOLS kwOvvevoUaas yvvai- 
Kkas émukaAetoÜDat páAwra. Ti Üeóv raórqQv. 

5 "Aprejuv é $aow. eópeiy civ TÀV vqmicv rriv 
Üeposretay ka rpoóás Twas "dpuoLosoas Tjj jic« 
Tüv Bpeódv- d$ s airías xai Kovporpódov 

6 abT)v óvouáleoÜo..  rÀv 9' óvouatouévov 'Opàov 


: And «al Auóvvoov x. 'HpaxAéa added by Iensius. 
* và lensius: roó. 





1 "The same word as '  Graces "' above. 


294. 


[n 
: 
Li 

j 


"uae RR 


 . BOOK V. zz. z-73. 6 


the gods Hephaestus and Ares and Apollo, and 
Hermes and Dionysus and Heracles. 

13. 'To each one of the deities we have named, 
the myth goes on to relate, Zeus imparted the know- 
ledge of the things which he had discovered and was 
perfecting, and likewise assigned to them the honour 
of their discovery, wishing in this way to endow 
them with immortal fame among all mankind. "fo 
Aphrodité was entrusted the youth of maidens, the 
r years in which they are expected to marry, and the 
D supervision of such matters as are observed even 
yet in connection with weddings, together with the , 


VATUSS AU deese tees es pcc eret 


mom ueccpeeeciceens mue n iac 





M E LL 


p 

1 

] sacrifices and drink-offerings which men perform to 

! this goddess. Nevertheless, all men make their 

j/ first sacrifices to Zeus the Perfecter and Hera the | 


| Perfectress, because they are the originators and 
4 discoverers of all things, a$ we have stated above. 
1 To the Graces was given the adornment of personal 
' appearance and the beautifying of each part of the 
body with an eye to making it more comely and 
| pleasing to the gaze, and the further privilege of 
i being the first to bestow benefactions and, on the 
i other hand, of requiting with appropriate favoursi 
such men as have performed good acts. Eileithyia 
received the care of expectant mothers and the 
alleviation of the travail of childbirth ; and for this 
reason women when they. are in perils of this nature 
call first of all upon this goddess. And Artemis, we 
are told, discovered how to effect the healing of 
* — young children and the foods which are suitable to 
the nature of babes, this being the reason why she 
is also called Kourotrophos.? And as for the Hours, 


E zs 
cech dE E LLL 


SENE 


EE eie. 
cce 


is -" ii EL 
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"A8rvG 0€ erpooázrrovot rv Te TOv éAo4v zjuépco- 
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T4. Tats 96 Mosatus ,So0fiva mrapó TOU Tropós 
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eioiv oL perà KdBpov m'Acócavres eis TÜv Eoporv, 
kai uà ToUTO TOUS "EAAqvas TÀ. ypápquara. Dowt- 
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€£ àpxfis eopetv, GA TOUS TÜTOUS TV ypapuá- 
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rob after xal omitted by D, Vogel, retained by Bekker, 


Dindorf 
? obk after raórgs deleted by Vogel. 


296 





CEU 


VERONAE Ee e e em 


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BOOK V. 73. 6-74. 1 


as they are called, to each of them, aecording as her 
name indicates, was given the ordering and adorn- 
ment of life, so as to serve to the greatest advantage 
of mankind; for there is nothing which is better 
able to build a life of felicity than obedience to law 
(Eunomia) and justice (Diké) and peace (Eiren). 

To Athena men ascribe the gift to mankind of the 
domestication and cultivation of the olive-tree, as 
well as the preparation of its fruit; for before the 
birth of this goddess this kind of tree was found only 
along with the other wild woody growths, and this 
goddess is the source of the care and the experience 
which men even to this day devote to these trees. 
Furthermore, Athena introduced among mankind 
the making of clothing and carpentry and many of 
the devices which are used in the other arts; and 
she also was the discoverer of the making of the pipes 
and of the music which they produce and, in a word, 
of many works of cunning device, from which she 
derives her name of Worker. | 

4. 'To the Muses, we are further told, it was given 
by their father Zeus to discover the letters and to 
combine words in the way which is designated poetry. 
And in reply to those who say that the Syrians are 
the discoverers of the letters, the Phoenicians having 
learned them from the Syrians and then passed them 
on to the Greeks, and that these Phoenicians are 
those who sailed to Europe together with Cadmus 
and this is the reason why the Greeks call the letters 
* Phoenician," men tell us, on the other hand, that '. 
the Phoenicians were not the first to make this dis- 
covery, but that they did no more than to change 
the forms of the letters, whereupon the majority of 
mankind made,use of the way of writing them as 

- 2977 


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pavrukfs TéyvQs ywopern, oU js TO sraÀatóv 
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i So Bochart: Xuwvüuóy. 
! On the '* Phoenician "' letters cp. Book 3. 67. 1. 





298 








BOOK V. 74. 1-6 


the Phoenicians devised it, and so the letters received 
the designation we have mentioned above.i 
Hephaestus, we are told, was the discoverer of 
every manner of working iron and copper and gold 
and silver and everything else which requires fire 
for working, and he also discovered all the other uses 
to be made of fire and turned them over both to the 
workers in the crafts and to all other men as well. 
Consequently the workmen who are skilled in these 
crafts offer up prayers and sacrifices to this god before 
all others, and both they and all mankind as well 
call the fire " Hephaestus," handing down in this way 
to eternal remembrance and honour the benefaction 


which was bestowed in the beginning upon man's 


social life. Ares, the myths record, was the first 
to make a suit of armour, to fit out soldiers with 
arms, and to introduce the battle's fury of contest, 
slaying himself those who were disobedient to the 
gods. And of Apollo men recount that he was the 
discoverer of the lyre and of the musice which is got 
from it; that he introduced the knowledge of heal- 


ing, which is brought about through the faculty of | 


prophecy, whereby it was the practice in ancient 
times that the sick were healed;? and as the dis- 
coverer of the bow he taught the people of the land ? 
al about the use of the bow, this being the reason 
why the art of archery is especially cultivated by 
the Cretans and the bow is called " Cretan." To 
Apollo and Coronis was born Asclepius, who learned 
from his father many, matters which pertain to the 


? A reference to the practice of inoubation; the sick would 
sleep in temples in the hope that the god would reveal to them. 
in dreams the cure for their maladies. Cp. Book 1. 25. 3. 

* £e. where the invention was made. 


209 













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kaÜóÀov mpofuBdoa, Tv éxvqgv émi Tooobrov, 
dore os ápynyóv abríjs kat kriorqv rui&oÜ0os. 

75. TQ 9' 'Eppuá «pocámrovot vàs év rots 
voÀéuow *wopuévas émwuegpvkeias xat. Qui ayas 


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kal o7ovOüs kal TÓ ToDrcYv ojconuov knpüretov, ó 


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cavra. Kai r.Lcopiav Dmép «jv ü£tav AaBóvra. srapá 
ToU AeijÜévros perapeAnÜfvau, kai vàg ék Ts 





! But the expression has the meaning of ' Hermes Share 
the Luck " in Menander, Epit. 67, 100. 


300 


—R Áo E 











BOOK V. 74. 6—75. 3 


healing art, and then went on to discover the art of 
surgery and the preparations of drugs and the 
strength to be found in roots, and, speaking generally, 
he introduced such advances into the healing art that 
he is honoured as if he were its source and founder. 
15. To Hermes men ascribe the introduction of 
the sending of embassies to sue for peace, as they 
are used in wars, and negotiations and truces and 
also the herald's wand, as à token of such matters, 
which is eustomarily borne by those who are carry- 
ing on conversations touching affairs of this kind 
and who, by means of it, are accorded safe conduct 
by the enemy; and this is the reason why he has 
been given the name '" Hermes Koinos " because 
the benefit is common (Lom) to both the parties 
when they exchange peace in time of war! "They 
also say that he was the first to devise measures 
and weights and the profits to be gained through 
merchandising, and how also to appropriate the 
property of others all unknown to them. Tradition 
also says that he is the herald of the gods and their 
most trusted messenger, because of his ability to 
express clearly (herméneuein) each command that has 
been given him; and this is the reason why 
he has received the name he bears, not because he 
was the discoverer of words and of speech, as some 
men say, but because he has perfected, to a higher 
degree than all others, the art of the precise and clear 
statement of a message. He also introduced wrest- 
ling-schools and invented the lyre out of a tortoise- 
shell after the contest in skill between Apollo and 
Marsyas, in which, we are told, Apollo was victorious 
and thereupon exacted an excessive punishment of 
his defeated adversary, but he afterwards repented 


gor 



































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DIODORUS OF SICILY 


raldpas . Xopbàs éxpnj& avra. péxpt TiwvÓS  xpóvov 
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en 8" olvozowas xai vo0 * oÀAoUg TÀy éK víjs 
ómo)pas kapmv ámoÜroavpibcoUa. kai Tàs Xp«tas 
Kül TS rpoQàs "rapéyeata, rois &vÜpcomrots eni 
ToÀDV Xpóvov. ToUrov O6 TOV Üeóv. yeyovéva. 
$aciv ék Auós kai Depoedóvns Ka Tv Keim», 
óv "Opóeis KOTü Tàs TeÀerüs apéocoke LO.OTQ- 
pevov O50 TÓv Turávov- mÀetovas yàp Aovi- 
COUS cvpBatvet yeyovévaa, Trepi Gv Jjnets cadéc- 
repov TÀ kKüGTà pepos €v  oixetorépous  Kaipoís 
dvayeypádapev. oí O'  oDv Kpfires Tfjs Tap 
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uroapioo Tfs olkovuévgs aDrÓv érépo 0, semow- 
Kévat. 

16. 'HpaxAéa 9c piuÜBoAoyoGow ék Aiós yeve- 
aUas maquróAows erect mpórepov ToU yevrnBévros ? 


ét "AÀkuis. rofrov oe rpós uev ua) mapeiXn- | 


déva, Tivos Jw, a)0TÓ O6 póvov Órw pom Goipuaros 

moX TÓV üüvTGV Oveveykay erf T oLKov- 

pé, KoAdLev pev ros aO ikovs, ávaipáv 8é 

Tü TTV Xepav doikrrov sototvra. 8mpía. "áo o. 

ávÜparois TÜV eAcvÜepiay mepurovjaas dirrmos 

u éyévero kai &rpoarros, uà Bé màs eoepyectas 
To Reiske : : ros. 


? mepi 7v "Apyelav after B4rros omitted by ADEF GN, 
Vogel, retained br Bekker, "Din orf. 


302 





BOOK V. 4s. 3-76. 1 


of this and, tearing the strings from the lyre, for a 
time had nothing to do with its music.! 

As for Dionysus, the myths state that he dis- 
covered the vine and its cultivation, and also how to 
make wine and to store away many of the autumn 
fruits and thus to provide mankind with the use of 
them as food over a long time. "This god was born 
in Crete, men say, of Zeus and Persephoné, and 
Orpheus has handed down the tradition in the 
initiatory rites that he was torn in pieces by the 
Titans. And the fact is that there have been 
several who bore the name Dionysus, regarding 
whom we have given a detailed account at greater 
length in connection with the more appropriate 


period of time,? 'The Cretans, however, undertake 


to advance evidences that the god was born in their 
country, stating that he formed two islands near 
Crete in the Twin Gulfs, as they are called, and 
called them after himself Dionysiadae, a thing which 
he w done, they say, nowhere else in the inhabited 
earth. 

76. Of Heracles the myths relate that he was 
sprung from Zeus many years before that Heracles 
who was born of Alemené. As for this son of Zeus, 
tradition has not given us the name of his mother, 
but only states that he far excelled all others in 
vigour of body, and that he visited the inhabited 
earth, inflieting punishment upon the unjust and 
destroying the wild beasts which were making the 
land uninhabitable; for men everywhere he won 
their freedom, while remaining himself unconquered 
and unwounded, and because of his good deeds he 


1 Op. Book 3. 59. | ^ | 
? On the three of that name, ep. Book 3. 63. ff. 
| : 303 


A Amer 


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DIODORUS OF SICILY 


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Bowfeías, ToU ueyiorov cv Ücdv obcav Üvyarépa, 
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ore TQ Mívq cav  mpoodmrew  rowDrqv 


394. 








BOOK V. 76. 14 


attained to immortal honour at the hands of man- 
kind. The Heracles who was born of Alemené was 
very much later, and, since he emulated the plan of 
life of the ancient Heracles, for the same reasons 
he attained to immortality, and, as time went on, 
he was thought by men to be the same as the other 
Heracles because both bore the same name, and the 
deeds of the earlier Heracles were transferred to the 
later one, the majority of men being ignorant of the 
actual facts.| And it is generally agreed that the 
most renowned deeds and honours which belong to 
the older god were concerned with Egypt, and that 
these, together with a city which he founded, are 
still known in that country. 

 Britomartis, who is also called Dictynna, the 
myths relate, was born at Caeno in Crete of Zeus and 
Carmé, the daughter of Eubulus who was the son 
of Demeter; she invented the nets (dictya) which 
are used in hunting, whence she has been called 
Dictynna, and she passed her time in the company 
of Artemis, this being the reason why some men 
think Dietynna and Artemis are one and the saxe 

oddess; and the Cretans have instituted sacrifices 
and built temples in honour of this goddess. But 
those men who tell the tale that she has been named 
Dictynna because she fled into some fishermen's 
nets when she was pursued by Minos, who would 
have ravished her, have missed the truth; for it is 
not à probable story that the goddess should ever 
have got into so helpless a state that she would have 
required the aid that men can give, being as she is 
the daughter of the greatest one of the gods, nor is 
it right to asceribe such an impious deed to Minos, 


1 Op. Book 3. 74. 4-5. ; 
' 30 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


dcéfav, mapaBeDouévo cvpdovos Sucaiav mrpo- 
aipeaww kai Biov émawospevov ébAexévaa. 

Ti. IlAo8rov 8é yevéo0aw $aoiv év TpwuróAo 
vs Kpárgs é« Adjugvrpos koi 'laoíwvos, Owcds 
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év rois Kikoow, O0ev 0 koraOeifas "Opdóe)s jj, 


306 





BOOK V. 76. 4-77. 3 


who tradition unanimously declares avowed just 
prineiples and strove to attain a manner of life which 
was approved by men. 

Tí. Plutus, we are told, was born in Cretan 
Tripolus to Demeter and lasion, and there is a 
double account of his origin. For some men say that 
the earth, when it was sowed once by lasion and 
given proper cultivation, brought forth such an 
abundance of fruits that those who saw this bestowed 
& special name upon the abundance of fruits when 
they appear and called it plutus (wealth); conse- 
quently it has become traditional among later genera- 
tions to say that men who have acquired more than 
they actually need have plutus. But there are some 
who recount the myth that a son was born to Demeter 
and lasion whom they named Piutus, and that he 
was the first to introduce diligence into the life of 
man and the acquisition and safeguarding of property, 
all men up to that time having been neglectful of 
amassing and guarding diligently any store of 
property. | | 

Such, then, are the myths which the Cretans 
recount of the gods who they claim were born in 
their land. They also assert that the honours 
accorded to the gods and their sacrifices and the 
initiatory rites observed in connection with the 
mysteries were handed down from Crete to the rest 
of men, and to support this they advance the follow- 
ing most weighty argument, as they conceive it: 
The initiatory rite which is celebrated by the 


Athenians in Eleusis, the most famous, one may. 


venture, of them all, and that of Samothrace, and 
the one practised in Thrace among the Cicones, 
whence Orpheus came who introduced them—these 


307 


eemxa esee 


VEM R CARUIT SECISER AUN E. RU peers d essere ER eR STER arancs i 


















DIODORUS OF SICILY 


peoruKós mapaó(óosÜa, xarà. 06 T)v Kpürqv 
év KveodQ vópupov é£ dpyatow etva« davepás Tàs 
TeÀleràs vra)ras srüow zapa8iQooÜo,, kal Tà sapà 
TOUS dAÀÀots €v üsroppijr«» srapadiGójueva, rap. axTols 
wu89éva xp)mrew  TÀv  BovÀouévow  7à Towbra 
4 yweaKew. — TOv yàp Üedv $act roos vÀeiarovs ék 
Tís Kpwürqs OóppÜévras émiévos woMM uépo Tfj 
oikoupévQs, eDepyeroüvras TÀ 'yévy TOv üàvÜpo- 
vv Kai ueraOigoyras ékdoTows Tíjs ék Tv iOicw 
eopguárcv cóeAclas. | Acjugrpav uév yàp mepau- 
Ücicav eis cr5v 'ATruc)v ékeiÜev eis ZuceAóav 
dmüpat, kal uerà raÓr eig Ályvmrov: év O6 Toó- 
TOls rÓoOws j.dMoTa, TÓv ToÜ Oirov kapmóv mapao- 
0obcav xai rà repli Ov orópov Ou9d£acav ueyáAcv 
5 Tuv Tvyetv vapà «ois e0 maÜo0cw. Ógoiws 
9' 'AdpoBirqv évOwrpüjar £s uév XukeMas repli 
TÓv "Epvka,, r&v 86 vijacv sept Kónpa. kai Iádov 
Ts Kimpov más 86 '"Ao(as mepi v/v Ivpiav: Oud 
6 rjv érióádveww kai Trjv éat srÀéov émriónuiav aDrfjs 
ToUs éyyc«opiovs éfibuáLeoÜa, vv Ücóv, kaAotvras 
" Adpoótrgv "Epukivqv kal Kv0épewav kai ILadíav, 
6 ér, 0€ kai Xwpíav. «caórcs 96 róv uév 'Aróà- 
Aeva mvÀetorov wpóvov davíveu «epi Afov kai 
Avkíav kai AeÀdoUs, riv O' "Aprepuv qepi Tv 
"Edecov xai róv llóvrov, ér( 06 77» llepoiSa xai 
7 Tjv Korqw DBumep do TOv TÓmOv 1) vpábeov 
TÓv ,vap' ékdáorouw  orvvTeÀeoÜews v  rÓv uev 
Adv kai Askwv kai Ilótwv óvoudieo0ot, T)v 





i de, secretly. | 
? As the Syro-Phoenician Astarté. 
3 At Didyma near Miletus. 


308 





BOOK V. 77..3-; 


are all handed down in the form of à mystery! 
whereas at Cnosus in Crete it has been the custom 
from ancient times that these initiatory rítes should 
be handed down to all openly, and what is handed 
down among other peoples as not to be divulged, 
this the Cretans conceal from no one who may wish 
to inform himself upon such matters. Indeed, the 
majority of the gods, the Cretans say, had their 
beginning in Crete and set out from there to visit 
many regions of the inhabited world, conferring 
benefactions upon the races of men and distributing 
among each of them the advantage which resulted 
from the discoveries they had made. .Demeter, for 
example, crossed over into Attica and then removed 
from there to Sicily and afterwards to Egypt; and 
in these lands her choicest gift was that of the fruit 
of the corn and instructions in the sowing of it, 
whereupon she received great honours at the hands 
of those whom she had benefited. Likewise Aphro- 
dité made her seat in Sicily in the region of Eryx, 
among the islands near Cythera and in Paphos in 
Cyprus, and in Asia in Syria; and because of the 
manifestation of the goddess in their country and her 
extended sojourn among them the inhabitants of the 
lands appropriated her to themselves, calling her, as 
the case might be, Erycinian Aphrodité, and 
Cytherian, and Paphian, and Syrian. And in the 
same manner Apollo revealed himself for the longest 
time in Delos and Lycia ? and Delphi, and Artemis in 
Ephesus and the Pontus and Persis and Crete; and 
the consequence has been tbat, either from the names 
of these regions or as a result of the deeds which 
tbey performed in each of them, Apollo has been 
called Delian and Lycian and Pythian, and Aphrodité 


899 




















DIODORUS OF SICILY 


9' "Edeoíav xol Kpngoíav, ér. 8é TavpomóAov kai 
Ilepoíav, àp$orépeov év Kp5o-m vyeyevvnuévow. 
8 vuuGra, 8€ kal sapà Trois llépoous 7) 0cós aT: 
8:.depóvros, kal pvorjpu. zowÜcw oi BápBapor, 
cvvTeAoUueva ap. érépots péypi vÀv vÜv xpóvow 
"Apréju0u llepoig.  zapazA(jot 96 puÜoAoyoboct 
ka. arepi TÀv GAAÀcv Üeàv, vrept cv T)utv àvarypd ew 
pakpóv &v etj, rois Ó' àvayweaockovot mavreÀds 
&cvorrTov.? 

78. Merà 8é vàs Tv ÜeOv yevéoew vomepov 
voÀÀais yeveais $aot yevéocÜo. xarà Tiv Kpyrqv 
4]pexas oÀk OACyovs, cw jmápyew émtjaveorárovs 
ToUs cepi Mive) kal 'Pa8dpavOvv kai Zapzrn9óva. 
TobvTovs yàp puÜoAoyoboiw éx As yeyevvíjoOo: 


kai rífjs '"Ay1jvopos EXporys, jv $acw érzi raspov. 
7 


O.ukopucÜgva. mpovoig ÜeOv eis c)v Kpw9rm. 
Mivo pév ov mpeoprarov OÓvra BaoiÀeboaw Tfjg 
vijcov, kai kríaa TrÓAetg oUx dAbyas ev aorfj, TOÜT(V 
9' émujaveordras 7pets, Kvooóv pév év Tots TpÓs 
Tiv "Aeíav vejovot uépeat 7fis vijoov, Dauoróv o 
éri ÜaÀárrgs éorpapévnv éri ueonupiav, Kv8o- 
víav 9: év ots Tpós éorépav ? 7óvows kam. Avrucp) 
rijs lleAomoww5cov.  Üetva. 9€ kai vóuovs Toís 
Kpnqoiv oÀk OÀCyovs, vpoorowUpevov Tapà Aus 
ToU «orpós Aaufávew, ovvepyópevov «eis Aóyovs 
abDTQ kará Ti omjÀauov.  krácacÜa, O6 kal 
OUvapuv vavruciv peydAmv, kai rív Te vüccv TÓs 
qÀeioras koraorpéjaoÜau. kai mpórov vÀv 'EA- 
Axjvc ÜaAorrokpamíjoo.. —ueyáAmv 86 8ó£a» srepc- 
1 So Scháfer: Mig wv. . ? Bo Schàfer: eJosvorrov. 


5 kekApévots after éowépav omitted by D, Vogel, retained 
by Bekker, Dindorf. egu* 


310 








BOOK V. z;. 7-78. 4 


has been called Ephesian and Cretan and Tauro- 
polian and Persian, although both of them were 
born in Crete. And this goddess is held in special 
honour among the Persians and the barbarians 
hold mysteries which are performed among other 
peoples even down to this day in honour of the 
Persian Artemis. And similar myths are also re- 
counted by the Cretans regarding the other gods, 
but to draw up an account of them would be a long 
task for us, and it would not be easily grasped by 
our readers. 

78. Many generations after the birth of the gods, 
the Cretans go on to say, not a few heroes were to be 
found in Crete, the most renowned of whom were 
Minos and Ehadamanthys and Sarpedon. "These 
men, their myth states, were born of Zeus and 
Europé, the daughter of Agenor, who, men say, was 
brought across to Crete upon the back of a bull by 
the design of the gods. Now Minos, by virtue of 


his being the eldest, became king of the island, and ^ 


he founded on it not a few cities, the most renowned 
of which were the three, Cnosus in those parts of the 
island which look toward Asia, Phaestus on the sea- 
shore to the south, and Cydonia in the regions to the 
west facing the Peloponnesus. And Minos estab- 
lished not a few laws for the Cretans, claiming that 
he had received them from his father Zeus when 
conversing with him in a certain cave. Furthermore, 
he eame to possess a great naval power, and he 


subdued the majority of the islands and was the 


first man among the Greeks to be master of the sea. 
And after he had gained great renown for his manly 


1 As the great Persian goddess Anaitis or Ánahita, a chief 


deity of Mazdaism. 
31I 





enücteutenho fem etes n SURUENUTSDSUS T MERMUMNUR CURT RAS N e Eres 


Nerei quss p 


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um 


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mescussenquememwenzsepuryuscetec tacere. 


TPRESRUNCOEANRDETSTUAT SPA x eS osse cim 





Curs. e ge CUM 
"E OL A EN DE px em 
gg Ecc C e M re E UNTEN 


eum E: 


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WE ACE T ge rU 
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1 







DIODORUS OF SICILY 


vowodpevoy ér. áyOpeig. kat Gucauoaívr, karaovpé- 
Vau TÓv Diov év XukeMa kavà Tüv émi KokaAov 
oTparelav, epi Ts rà karà puépos àveypdibaguev 
óre rà vepL AaíiGaAov dveypá$opev, Ov. Óv kat Tv 
orparetay cvvéy yevéotas. 

19. *PaódpuavÜvv 8e Aéyovot rás Te plats rávrcv 
üucaioráras  memowvjoÜa. Kai Toils Apgorais kai 
dceDéo, xai rois dÀAow kakospyow dmapairwrov 
émevqvoyévau * Twuopiav. | koraerijoao0a, 86 kai 
vijcovs oÀk óAtyas kai Tfjs Actas rroAMv Tíjs rapa.- 
ÜaAarrlou ydpas, &rrávrov éxovotos srapatibóvrov 
éavro)s 0:4 TT]» Bucauoovgv. — 7óv 6e "PaóduavÜvy 
"Epó0pq guév évi vàv aóroU s«oaiócv mapaOotva 
T))v Bacueiay Gv 8v éxeivov "EpvOpóv óvouacOe- 
cdv, Olvomnicvi. 9é vr 'Apiióvos $$ Mive Xov 
éyyeipicau daociv, óv évvov. uvÜoAoyoba, Atovicov 
yevópevov paÜ8ety vapà ToÜ sarpós và sept Tiv 
olvorotíay. TÓv O' dÀMov TÓYv srepi a9rOv fyeuóv- 
cv ékdáorq viov 7) mÓAwv O«wprncaoÜa, Aéyovoi 
Tóv "PaóduavOvv, Góavr. uév Afjuvov, 'Evvet 8é 
Kipvov, 2va$Xo 8é IlemápoÜov, Eodáv0ev 986 
Mapevetuav, ' AAxatc 8€ IIápov, ' Avicve 86 ANífjAov, 
'Avüpet 896 Tyv ám éketvov kÀnÜctcav "Avó 

pei 8e m] ] pov. 
6: 8e mv ÜmepBoXrv Tíjs wepi a)rÓv Bwawooivns 
pepuO0oAoyfjaÜa. Sucacr)v adróv dxroOecOetyÜac kaD" 
à8ov kal Ouakpívew o)s e0ceDeis kai ro)s movQ- 
poUs.  rerevyéva, Oé ijs abris Tus kaLí TOv 
Mívc, BeBaouMevkóra vopwurrara kai puáAcra 
OLkatooUvns zreópovrikóra. | 

Tóv 9é rpirov àócÀóóv 2ZlapmqO0ó0va aci puerà 
Ovvápews: eis Tv ' Áotav OvuBávra. karakrjoac0a 
! So Hertlein : éyqvoxévas. 


BOOK V. 78. 4—79. 3 


spirit and justice, he ended his life in Sicily in the 
course of his campaign against Cocalus, the details 
of which we have recounted in connection with our 
account of Daedalus, because of whom the campaign 
was made.1 

19. Of Rhadamanthys the Cretans say that of all 
men he rendered the most just decisions and inflieted 
inexorable punishment upon robbers and impious 
men and all other malefactors. He came also to 
possess no small number of islands and a large part 
of the sea coast of Asia, all men delivering them- 
selves into his hands of their free will because of his 
justice. Upon Erythrus, one of his sons, Rhada- 
manthys bestowed the kinegship over the city which 
was named after him Erythrae, and to Oenopion, 
the son of Minos' daughter Ariadné, he gave Chios, 
we are told, although some writers of myths state 
that Oenopion was a son of Dionysus and learned 
1 from his father the art of making wine. And to 
"5, | each one of his other generals, the Cretans say, he 
in made a present of an island or a city Lemnos to 

Thoas, Cyrnus to Enyeus, Peparethos to Staphylus, 

Maroneia to Euanthes, Paros to Aleaeus, Delos to 
Anion, and to Andreus the island which was named 
after him Andros. Moreover, because of his very 
great justice, the myth has sprung up that he was 
appointed to be judge in Hades, where his decisions 
separate the good from the wicked. And the same 
honour has also been attained by Minos, because he 
ruled wholly in aecordance with law and paid the 
greatest heed to justice. x" 

The third brother, Sarpedon, we are told, crossed 
over into Ásia with an army and subdued the regions 


1 Cp. Book 4. 79. 










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DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ro)s sep, Avkiay vómovs. | Edavópov 86 yevóyevov 
| viov a)ToU Oua8éfacÜa. Tv év Avkig acie, 
| kai yjgavra Awmápewr 71». BeMepodóvrov rex- 
voca, Xapmwqüóva TOv éwi Tpoíav uév orpare)- 
4 cavra,! jró rwv 96 Aus viov óvouatóuevov. Mivo 
| 8é dacw vio)s yevéo0a. NevkaAiová ve kai MóXor: 
" / / X , 
kai AevkaAicvos uev "lóouevéa, MóAov 86 Mapi- 
| vqv ÜOmápéau..  TroDrovs O6 vavow  évevükovra 
| orpereüoa,. per 'Ayapuéuwovos eis "DWov, kai 
| 8iucwÜévras eis Tw wavrpíóa TeÀevríoar kal 
| vus émujavoüs àfuoÜfvaw kal vuv áDavádrwy. 
bs kai rÓv Tájov abrÀv év rfj KvooQ Oewuviovow, 
| émvypadr]v éyovra Továvóe, 
| Kvooatov 'Ioopevífjos ópa 7áóov. airàp éyó co 
sÀqotov tópvuac Mapióvgs 0 MóAov. 


| Koíjres 9wjepóvrwos, ÜVovres kai xarà coUe év 
ToÍs vroAépots kwovvovs érrucaAoUgevou BonÜovs. 
80. To/rev 9' dutv Owvkpwnuévov | Aebreraa 
Tepi T&v émuuxÜévraw cvv Tos Keri 9LeA ctv. 
órL uév otv arpóyro, kamrqkmoar T1)v víjoov oi mpoo- 
ayopevÜévres uev '" Emeókprres, 9okotüvres 9. omápy- 
ew a)róxÜoves, mpoewnjkajev: pqerà 0é mo/rous 
ToAMaís yyevea.ts Üorepov ILeAacyol mrÀavdpuevot ou 
TÓS GUV€yeis OTpa Tetas kat jeravaaácews KoTaoyT)- 
cavres eis 71v Kprjrqv uépos Tíjs vjoov karQioav. 
2 Tpirov Qé yévos $aci rÀv A«piécv mapaBaAeiv. eis 


.. 1 per " Ayauénvovos after orparejcayra deleted by Dindorf. 





i The MSS. state thab he took part * with Agamemnon," 
but Sarpedon was an ally of the 'Trojans. 


314 





/ Y ^? €. € E ^ ONE m. 
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E 

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BOOK V. 59. 3-8o. 2 


about Lycia. Euandrus, his son, succeeded him in 
the kingship in Lycia, and marrying Deidameia, the 
daughter of Bellerophon, he begat that Sarpedon | 
who took part in the expedition against Troy, 
although some writers have called him a son of | 
Zeus. Minos' sons, they say, were Deucalion and 
Molus, and to Deuealion was born Idomeneus and 
to Molus was born Meriones. "These two joined 
with Ágamemnon in the expedition against llium 
with ninety ships, and when they had returned in 
safety to their fatherland they died and were 
accorded a notable burial and immortal honours. 
And the Cretans point out their tomb at Cnosus, 
which bears the following inscription : 


Behold Idomeneus the Cnosian's tomb, 
And by his side am I, Meriones, 
The son of Molus. 


These two the Cretans hold in special honour as 
heroes of renown, offering up sacrifices to them and 
calling upon them to come to tbeir aid in the perils 
which arise in war. | 
| — 80. But now that we have examined these matters 
it remains for us to discuss the peoples who have 
H become intermixed with the Cretans. That the 
| first inhabitants of the island were known as Eteo- 
cretans and that they are considered to have sprung 
from the soil itself, we have stated before;? and 
many generations after them Pelasgians, who were 
in movement by reason of their continuous expedi- 
tions and migrations, arrived at Crete and made 
their home in a part of the island. The third people 
to cross over to the island, we are told, were Dorians, 


* Chap. 64. 1. 


t —— 


Mida E D MM 





LO E—Ü 


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hint me neade rec aset c ee i &. : - —r—M—— BE AES 
CiQSUE cone a I alneee Re eK upd EE REAL LL E ce 


VOL. Ill. 





"s ES 
ess Lad 













' DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Tijv víjaov 1jyovpévov 'Texrápov To Adópov: ro?rov 

06 ToU AaoU uépos TO! pév wÀéov dà0powÜOTfvo. 

Aéyovow ék vÓv epi TÓv "OAvjmrov 7ómovw, ro 8é 

i] vi uépos ék TOv karà Ti» Aakcvuc)v ' Ayatv Oi 
TÓ T»v á$oppv TrÓv Aópov ék vív vepi MaAéav 
TÓTOV Tovfjcat. Téraprov Oé yévos ovupwyfjval 
$acw eis Tiv Kpiyrqv uvyáccv. BapBápcw v&v Gu 
TOv xpóvov éfouowoÜévrov Tfj 9uAékrqo Tofs éyyc- 

3 píow "EAAQo:. — perà 86 raro, ToUs Trepi Mivco kai 
"PaoduavÜvv ioy/cavras Ómó uíiav dyayetv ovvré- 
Aeiav Tà éÜvg rà ? xarà T5v víjoov.  rÓ Oé reAev- 
ratov perd T?» káÜlo8ov rÓv 'HpaAeióóv 'Apyetot 
kai ÁAakeBautóvuot srépmovres dmowuctas dÀÀas Té 
vwas víoovs €krway kai. rarus vfjs vioov ? 
koraKkrQoduevoL móÀews Twüs «dicar? év aDrais: 
mepL Qv rà karà pépos év ots iOlo:s ypóvois àva- 

4 ypdibopev. émei 86 rv và Kpnrucà yeypadórcv 
oí TÀetovo. Ouudwvobou «pós GAÀMjAovs, o9 xpi) 
ÜavpáLew éàv pw) m&ow ÓpoAoyospueva. Aéycouev: 
TOis yàp Tà mavoTepa Aéyovoi kai uáAora 
voTevopiévous émgkoAovÜrjcapev, & uév. '"Emuevi- 
Op T Üecolóyq mpoooyóvres, & 06 Acciáóy kai 
Xxootkpáre, kai NaoaoÜ0evióg. 


81. 'Ewei 86 mepi KpwWrqgs ixavós OujAOopev, 


———— ÁBOIÓ 


- g z Euch. y e s 
22k 2483 E ——àÀi uu 
————ÁRÓÓàÓ A 









1 76 added by Hertlein. 

? 7à added by Wesseling. 

* So Reiske : casas rs vijoovs. ; 

* So all the MSS. but F, Wesseling, Eichstüdt; lensius pre- 
Like: the dear of F, and was followed by Dindorf, Bekker, 

ogel. | 





i Cp. Book 4. 60. 
316 


jj BOOK V. 8o. 2-81. 1 


under the leadership of Tectamus ! the son of Dorus; 
and the account states that the larger number of 
these Dorians was gathered from the regions about 
Olympus, but that a part of them consisted of 
Achaeans from Laconia, since Dorus had fixed the 
base of his expedition in the region about Cape 
Malea. And a fourth people to come to Crete and 
to become intermixed with the Cretans, we are told, 
was a heterogeneous collection of barbarians who 
1 in the course of time adopted the language of the 
] native Greeks. But after these events Minos and 
Rhadamanthys, when they had attained to power, 
gathered the peoples on the island into one union. 
And last of all, after the Return of the Heracleidae? 
AÁrgives and Lacedaemonians sent forth colonies 
which they established on certain other islands and 
i likewise took possession of Crete, and on these 
T islands they colonized certain cities; with regard 
1 to these cities, however, we shall give a detailed 
account in connection with the period of time to 
which they belong. And since the greatest number 
| of writers who have written about Crete disagree 
| among themselves, there should be no occasion for 
B surprise if what we report should not agree with 
| every one of them; we have, indeed, followed as 
| our authorities those who give the more probable 
| account and are the miost trustworthy, in some 
lb matters depending upon Epimenides who has 
| " written about the gods, in others upon Dosiades, 
Sosicrates, and Laosthenidas.? 
81. Now that we have discussed the subject of 


* Cp. Book 4. 57-8. | 
3 These writers on Cretan history are little more than 


names to us. 
317 





iiieeesscetnessmeeccedesmemeeditiS ipt iate 


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Ee E i 
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MUMiemumasesiser usum s eruca poetae tec citer 


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Vu ia eor Deer eere mettere yere tae 


cse 





z 


ues, Foster cur cosa Mater c USES cm acón 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Trepi Tfjs AéaBov vOv Aéyew émtyeupijoopiev. raó- 
Tv yàp TV vijoov TÓ ma Àouóv Qnae "Ato ye, 
ToÀÀÀv peravaorácgecy év aoTfj yevopévow. ép5j pov 
yàp. ovans  aorfis mpávrous Il eAaoyovs Korragxety 
2 abr]v Toup é Twi TpómqQ.  &ávÜos O Tpuózrov 
TÓv e£ "Apyovs Ieaoyóv BacwUecow, kai kara 
Oxav pépos 7t Tíjs Nutas xc)pas, Tó p.év mipóáyrov éy 
aDT[j karoucdv épaciÀeve vÀv cavvakoAovÜncárrav 
ILeAaoyó, ,Sorepov óé srepaucoÜeis eig TV Aéo- 
Bov obcay js TV uev  Xdpav To oJ Aaots é ej ep- 
!0€, viv € víjoov a TÓV karoucovray GUTDV 
T! cAaovytav. dQvópace, TÓ mpó roD kaAovpévqv 
3 "laca. Üorepov Oé yeveats émT& yevonévov To0 
Kürà  AMeukaAicova karakXvo uoo KGi  TOÀÀÓOY 
avpdymay ómoAopévow, cvvéBn kai Tv AéaBov óuk 
Tv énoufpiav cpnpeoUfjvas. per 96 rabra. Maka- 
peUs eis aor)v &dukópevos, kai TÓ KkdAAos TÍjs xc)pas 
4 karavonjaas, karqicaev abri. 5v 8 ó Maxapebs 
vios pév Kpwdkov TOÜ Ais, ds $now eri 
Kai dAÀoL Tivég TÓv sov)rüv, kürowucdw o. 
"QAévo ríjs róre uev 'lId8os, vóv 9" 'Ayaias kodov- 
pévys. eiye 96 Aao)s wvÜpoicuévovs, vo)s gév 
"Iovas, TOUS 9 ^ df üAÀAwmv éÜvàv mavroóamüvw 
6 cvveppvr]kóras.. Kai TO pév mp rov T)v Aéofoov 
kardknae, perà, Oc rabra eL paAAov abt ópievos 
Oud. 7e Tl)V dperiv TÍs woov Kai Tv iotav émuei- 
Ketáv Te kai Bucaton ry Tàs o veyyvs vrjoovs 
karekráro, kai OrepépiLe T xdpav &puov 
6 oócav.  kurü Oé rojvrovs ToUs Xpóvous. Aéofos ó 
Aamilov ToU ÁAiólov roO 'lmmórov karé Tw mvÜó- 









e SE 


———— 





318 


vds 


READER. c 


Ed 


m 


Reis 


xU ehe 
reges 








GERVOSPIESSRG MESURER sted Ue esc aete SA emnsuiend ie sun tueuts e miti see s 


BOOK V. 8r. 1-6 


Crete at sufficient length, we shall undertake at this 
point to speak about Lesbos. "This island has been 
inhabited in ancient times by many peoples, since it 
has been the scene of many migrations. "The first 
people to seize it, while it was still uninhabited, was 
the Pelasgians, and in the following manner: 
Xanthus, the son of Triopas, who was king of the 
Pelasgians of Árgos, seized a portion of Lycia, and, 
making his home there, at the outset he became 
king over the Pelasgians who had accompanied him ; 
but later he crossed over to Lesbos, which was 
uninhabited, and divided the land among the folk, 
and he named the island, which had formerly been 
called Issa, Pelasgia after the people who had 
settled it. And seven generations later, after the 
flood of Deucalion had taken place and much of 
mankind had perished, it came to pass that Lesbos 
was also laid desolate by the deluge of waters. 
And after these events Macareus came to the island, 
and, recognizing the beauty of the land, he made 
his home in it. This Macareus was the son of 
Crinacus, the son of Zeus, as Hesiod and certain 


other poets state, and was a native of Olenus in. 


what was then ealled Ias, but is now called Achaia. 
The folk with him had been gathered from here and 
there, some being Ionians and the rest those who had 
streamed to him from every sort of people. Now at 
first Maeareus made his home in Lesbos, but later, 
as his power kept steadily increasing because of the 
fertility of the island and also of his own fairness and 


sense of justice, he won for himself the neighbour- 


ing islands and portioned out the land, which was 
uninhabited. And it was during this time that 
Lesbos, the son of Lapithes, the son of Aeolus, the 

| 319 


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GEE is 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


EMPORIUM 


Gud 


Xpnorov pev olkmrópcov mÀeóoas eis T]V Tpoetupn- 
pérqv véjoov, kai yüuas Tr» Üvyarépa roó Maxa- 
péos Mauf)vuvav, kowfj kardknoe, yevópevos 9 
émidavis áv)p rv ve vífjoov Aéofov evógaccv àd' 
éavroÓ kai To); ÀaoUs Aeofiovs mpoowyópevoe. 
7" Maxapet 06 Üvyarépes éyévovro oov àAAus Mvri- 
Ajwn kai Mifvpva, àó' dw ai wóÀew éoxov cv 
vpooqQyopíav. ó 66 Makape?s émigaAMOpevos vàs 
o)oveyyvs wüjcovs i0í(as karackeudlew  éfémeyuev 
dzouctav eis vpoyrqv Tijv Xtov, év& TÀv éavro0 soí- 

8 cv mapaSo)0s Tv dyyepovíav: perà O06 raóra. eis 
Tjv Xáyuov érepov é£émejuhe TOv /Ovoyalóuevov 
Kv8póAaov, ós év ra$ry karoucjcas kai vrjv víjoov 
karakAmpovyrjcas éflaciAevev aDTfjs: rpérq» 88 Tiv 
K& karoucicas ! dzéóei£ev a)ríjs Dacia. Néav- 
Opov: é£$js 8' eis r)v '"PóSov Aebskurzov é£émeyube 
perà ovyváv olknrópcv, o9s ot 73v '"Pó9ov karot- 
ko8vres 0ià Trjv aarávu TÓv  ávÓpiv dopuevow mpoo- 
eOé£avro kai kowjj rijv vfjoov Qimoav. ! 
82. 'Tdv 9" &vrvrépas TÀv vijocv kar éketvous 
ToUs katpo)s cvvé 8uà vÓv karakAvopóv ueydÀas 
Kai Oewàüs karaoyetv drvyias: Ou puév yàp màs 
ézoufpías émi moÀAoUs ypóvovs é$Üapuévow cv 
kapmüv omáws Te TOV émvrgóeiv Ümíjpxye kai 
AouutkT) kavráoTaois ézetye ràs móÀews Ou, TT)v Tob 

2 dépos $Üopdv. a£ 9€ vífjcow Ouaveópevas kat cÓv 
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TO(ÍS kaprrots émvrvyyávovaos, àei ? uGAÀAov ebmopías 
éyepov, kai TGXO TOUS karoucoÜüvras aDTàs uaKapiovs 


IEMSSADE P RErienUA 





. 1 fo Tensius : raroucjoas. 
? áei added by Dindorf. 
320 dA v 


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po cp 





cosmubcuie iu lwiesse meercueesu mius rcl eiedminemuewgtee s... oue pedupeiitudiviuntendsRividRvaeegecsctslhdtqen x dictam fice 
MIL T "an A m 4 n e a S - vi t. c SUR - 


mee 


BOOK V, 8r. 6-82. 2 


son of Hippotes, in obedience to an oracle of Pytho, 
sailed with colonists to the island we are discussing, 
and, marrying Methyma, the daughter of Macareus, 
he made his home there with her; and when he 
became à man of renown, he named the island 
Lesbos after himself and called the folk Lesbians. 
And there was born to Macareus, in addition to 
other daughters, Mytilenéand Methymna, from whom 
the cities in the island got their names. Moreover, 
Macareus, essaying to bring under his control the 
neighbouring islands, dispatched a colony to Chios 
first of all, entrusting the leadership of the colony 
to one of his own sons; and after this he dispatched 
another son, Cydrolaüs by name, to Samos, where 
he settled, and after portioning out the island in 
allotments to the colonists he became king over it. 
The third island he settled was Cos, and he appointed 


 Neandrus to be its king; and then he dispatched 


Leucippus, together with a large body of colonists, to 
Rhodes, and the inhabitants of Rhodes received them 
gladly, because there was a lack of men among them, 
and they d'welt together as one people on the island. 


82. The mainland opposite the islands, we find, 


had suffered great and terrible misfortunes, in those 
times, because of the floods. "Thus, since the fruits 
were destroyed over a long period by reason of the 
deluge, there was a dearth of the necessities of life 
and a pestilence prevailed among the cities because 
of the corruption of the air. "Ihe islands, on the 
other hand, since they were exposed to the breezes 
and supplied the inhabitants with wholesome air, 
and since they also enjoyed good crops, were filled 
with greater and greater abundance, and they 
quickly made the inhabitants objects of envy. 

321 


ESSERE 


—— 


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DIODORUS OF SICILY 


émoíqcav. Ou kal uakdpov GvouácÜncav víjco,, 
vfje ebmopías c&Àv dyaÜdv arias yevouévns cs 
vpooamQyoptas. wow Oé d$aow abrás pakdpov 
vioovs cvopáoÜa. axo Makapéws ! rÀv maibaw 
8vvaoTevoárrov abTÓÀv.  xaÜóÀov O' a£ mrpoeun- 
uéva,. víjoow Ovjveykav  eüOnwtovia uda Tí 
ove»yyus KetLévov oU póvov kaTá TOUS dpyaious 
xpóvovs, dM kai karü Tijv jjperépav TAucta 
áperj yàp xopas kai TOv eÜkaipiais évi 
dépcov kpáoet kaAMoTevovoau, kamrà Aóyov kaAofv- 
vau kai mpós dAwjÜeukv eiciw ebOatuoves.  aDrós O. 
ó Maxape?s €v TÍj AéoBo Baciedov ? vóuov éypaue 


T0ÀÀ&, r&v kowÍj ovjepóvrcv srepiéyovra, cvóuaace 


8" adrÓv Aéovra, àxó Tíjs ToD Ld ov Ovvduecos kai 
dAcfje Üduevos Tiv mpoowmyopíav. 

83. "Yorepov 96 Tfjs karà, T?jv AéoBov dxrowtas 
(kavofs Tus, xpóvots cvvéDo cv vífjoov civ óvo- 
paLouévqv "léve8ov  koroucoÓfjvat TouOé uu 
vpómq.  Tévvas jv vtós uév Kókvov o0 BaotAcU- 
cavros KoÀówws Tíjs év Tjj Tocqd8i, &v?p 9. émíon- 


e 80V dpercv.  oÓros oikvyopas àÜpoícas kai 
Lo per) P 


rjv ópu3jv ék víjs dvrwmépas Tymetpov sowodpevos, 
^ Z 


kameAáflero vífjoov épypov oocav Tijv óvouatopévqv 
Aeókodpuv: karakÀnpovy)oas O' ajT)v Tots bm 
a)rÓv TüTTOLévots, kai krícas év abri móÀw, 
dvópacev á$' éavroU  léveOov.  voMrevópevos 
06 kaÀGs kat voAÀà TOUS Éyycpious e)epyeríoas 
Làv uév peyáAgs dmoOoyfs éréyyave, reAevrijoas 

i xol "Iwvos after Makapéws deleted by Wurm. 

? So Bekker, Dindorf, v0 rÀwv m. roUTwv 8. omitting a$rÀv 


Vogel, rosrov rv raiócv CD, qaiówv rv AEG, airóv omitted 
by BCD. : 


322 


Sms 


Rm a 


sme. 


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*- amd; 
ages Secus eee c DURS 


—— 


Ene 


ue 


ers ET ees. 


BOOK V. 85. 2-85. 3 


Consequently they have been given the name Islands 
of the Blessed, the abundance they enjoy of good 
things constituting the reason for the epithet. 
But there are some who say that they were given 
the name Islands of the Blessed (macariot) after 
Macareus, since his sons were the rulers over them. 
And, speaking generally, the islands we have men- 
tioned have enjoyed a felicity far surpassing that of 
their neighbours, not only in ancient times but also 
in our own age; for being as they are the finest of 
all in richness of soil, excellence of location, and 
mildness of climate, it is with good reason that 
they are called, what in truth they are, " blessed." 
Ás for Macareus himself, while he was king of Lesbos - 
he issued à law which contributed much to the 
common good, and he called the law the " Lion," 

iving it this name after the strength and courage 
of that beast. ' 

83. When a considerable time had elapsed after the 
settlement of Lesbos, the island known as Tenedos 
came to be inhabited in somewhat the following 
manner. 'Tennes was a son of Cyenus, who had been 
king of Coloné in the Troad, and was à man who 
had gained renown because of his high achievements. 
Gathering together colonists and using as his base 
the mainland opposite to it, he seized an uninhabited 
island ealled Leucophrys; this island he portioned 
out in allotments among his followers, and he founded 
a city on it which he named Tenedos after himself. 
And since he governed uprightly and conferred 
many benefactions upon the inhabitants, during his 
lifetime he was in high favour, and upon his death 





3 mpürov pév after Baatey» deleted by Bekker. 
| | T3 


YRAANDHN Ue Hsc eNIegcuiemnesuameccemicccnmóectstaS eU menester s 
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DIODORUS OF SICILY 


$' dÜavárcow Twv TjfuóÜn: kai yàp Tépevos 
a9ro8 kaTeokeVacav kal Üvaieus ds Üeóv érigow, 
&sc BuerdAovv Üdovres uéxpu rÀv vecvrépow kawpóv. 

O3 «apaAewrréov 9' Tjuiv cepi TÓÀv 4rapà Tots 

TeveBiow | uuÜoAoyovpévev | mepi ToO kTicavTos 
X / Z Á/, "d 1 ; 
vi» «óAw "Tévvov: Kókvov ydp $act vOv marépo 
mioTeUcavra. yvvaiKós OuifoAats dOikows TÓV VLOÓV 
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$' ómó o8 kAXBwvos depopévqv mwpocevexOfjvas 
vá Tevébog, kal vóv Tévwqv vapa8óécs oc«wÜÉvra 
Oc» Twog mpovoig Tíjs vioov paciueb0cot, kal 
yevópevov émjavi] 9. vj» Owotoc/vqv kal às 
dAAas áperàüs rvxeiv àÜavárow Tuv. Kayà Oé 
* t »^ * 5 ^ e^ 
vàs Tíjs prpviás SuaBoAs odMgroO Twos JrevodOs 
karapapropijcavros, vópapov éBevro un8éva adM]riv 
els vÓ cépevos elaiévos. — kacrà 0€ To)s Tpctkois 
xpóvovus 'AxUMéws TÓv Tévvq» áveAóvros &a0" 

Li X * / £ * , 

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/ eÜ e eis /8 Ü Li * e^ $ ^ 

vóuov €Üecav ot Tevéów: pnoévo éfetvau. év TQ 

reuévev roD krlorov. Óvouáco, "Aya. srepl 

uiv otv Tís levé&ov kai rÀv €v abri) TO sraÀouóv 

oucnoáyrov TouxUra. uvÜoAoyobow. 

84. "Emel 86 «epi vv dfwoAoycorórow wijocv 
BujADouev, «eph Gv éAoarróvow  dvaypdibopev. 
TÀv yàp KvkAáSwv vijocv ó saAoiv épijjcov oov 
Mívos ó Aus kal Eipéimgs, Baciedov rífjs Kpryrqs 

A / / : s 
kal peydAas Bvrdpeis &ycov srebás 7e kai vavrwds, 


324 


BOOK V. 83. 3-84. 1 


he was granted immortal honours; for they built 
for him a sacred precinet and honoured him with 
sacrifices as though he were a god, and these sacri- 
fices they have continued to perform down to 
modern times. 

But we must not omit to mention what the myths 
of the Tenedians have to tell about Tennes, the 
founder of the city. Cyenus his father, they say, 
giving credence to the unjust slanders of his wife, 
put his son Tennes in a chest and cast it into the 
sea; this chest was borne along by the waves and 
brought to shore on Tenedos, and since Tennes had 
been saved alive in this astonishing fashion by the 
providence of some one of the gods, he became king 
of the island, and becoming distinguished by reason 
of the justice he displayed and his other virtues, he 
was granted immortal honours. But it had hap- 

ened, when his step-mother was slandering him, 
that a certain flute player had borne false witness 
against him, and so the Tenedians passed a law that 
| no flute player should ever enter his sacred precinct. 
| And when Tennes was slain by Achilles in the course 
i of the Trojan War, on the occasion when the Greeks 
| sacked Tenedos, the Tenedians passed a law that 
no man should ever pronounce the name of Achilles 
in the sacred precinct of the founder of their city. 
Such, then, is the account which the myths give 
" regarding Tenedos and its ancient inhabitants. 

j 84. Since we have set forth the facts concerning 
d the most notable islands, we shall now give an 
account of the smaller ones. While in ancient times 
the Cyelades were still uninhabited, Minos, the son 
of Zeus and Europé, who was king of Crete and 
possessed great forces both land and naval, was 


325 





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2 coxe. Oiómrep év ras vijoous &pa i kal xarà Tv 


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8 Tfjs óc aTOv reraypévis xdpas e£emepabev. ó 5 


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pev kriorty éroínae émcvópov TÓÀecS Kam 
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KaTà pépos év Tots olketois Xpóvots avaypdilopev. 


* So Vogel: dA. 3 có added by Dindorf. 


326 


^ 
Ege EL PM 





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rw e M n Na is 
GusRaEAD mE. nie ereneg Rees e 


"Hh 


BOOK V. 84. 1-4 


master of the sea and sent forth from Crete many 
colonies, and he settled the greater number of the 
Cyclades, portioning the islands out in allotments 
among the folk, and he seized no small part of the 
coast of Ásia.! And this cireumstance explains why 
harbours on the islands as well as on the coast of Asia 
have the same designation as those of Crete, being 
called '* Minoan." The power of Minos advanced to 
great heights; and having his brother Rhadamanthys 
as co-ruler, he envied him because of his fame for 
righteousness, and wishing to get Rhadamanthys out 
of the way he sent him off to the farthest parts of 
his dominion. Rhadamanthys went to the islands 
which lie off Ionia and Caria, spending his time 
upon them, and caused Erythrus to found the city 
which bears his name? in Asia, while he established 
Oenopion, the son of Minos' daughter Ariadné, as 
lord of Chios. Now these events took place before 
the Trojan War; and after Troy was taken the 
Carians steadily increased their power and became 
masters of the sea; and taking possession of the 
Cyclades, some of the islands they appropriated to 
themselves, expelling the Cretans who had their 
homes on them, but in some islands they settled 
jointly with the Cretans who had been the frst 
to dwell there. And at a later time, when the 
power of the Greeks increased, the major number of 
the Cyclades came to be inhabited by them, and the 
Carians, who were non-Greeks, were driven out of 
them. But of these matters we shall give a detailed 


account in eonnection with the appropriate period of 


time. " 
i i.e, Àsia Minor. 3 Erythrae. 


327 





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coórmv yàp Ékaorov á(Bwy &yew cv yéveow KaL 
-7]v 9upovijy:. érépous 86 Aéyovaw émrvyelovs yevéo- 
i Üa. Ücoís, 8u& 8é vàs eis dvÜpdwrovus c)epyeoías 
áÜavárov Terevyóras Tuis ve Koi Oófgs, olov 
'HpakAéa, Auóvvoov, "Apwratov, kal ros &AAovs 
3 ro)s oírois Opoíovs. epi O6 TÓV émvyeitov 
edv sroÀAol. kak mrouctÀot rapaSébovrat Aóyo srapá 
^ e e^ 5 
vois ioropucois Te kai pwÜoypádow: xai TÓv 
X e p^ LFU Lj * DE i * E] A 
uiv feropuxdy Exjpepos ó jv iepàv dvaypadrv 
330 | M 


























*— 


Rp ms 
EE LET 


LE — 


Ls 








FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VI 


[Ovn first six books embrace the events and 
legends prior to the Trojan War, the first three setting 
forth the antiquities of the barbarians, and the next 
three almost exclusively those of the Greeks.] 


1. The foregoing is told by Diodorus in the Third 
Book of his history.! And the same writer, in the 
sixth Book as well, confirms the same view regarding 
the gods, drawing from the writing of Euhemerus 
of Messené,? and using the following words : 

* As regards the gods, then, men of ancient times 


have handed down to later generations two different 


conceptions: Certain of the gods, they say, are 
eternal and imperishable, such as the sun and the 
moon and the other stars of the heavens, and the 
winds as well and whatever else possesses a nature 
similar to theirs; for of each of these the genesis 
and duration are from everlasting to everlasting. 
But the other gods, we are told, were terrestrial 
beings who attained to immortal honour and fame 
because of their benefactions to mankind, such as 
Heracles, Dionysus, Aristaeus, and the others who 
were like them. Regarding these terrestrial gods 
many and varying accounts have been handed down 
by the writers of history and of mythology; of the 


historians, Eiuhemerus, who composed the Sacred - 


! Chaps. 560—061, in which Diodorus purporis to give the 
account of the Atlantians regarding the origin of the gods. 
a Cp. P. 210, n. 1l. d 1 
331 





rl  E—— 


E —— 


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| 










DIODORUS OF SICILY 


digas eucupiuec uk 
P OEDLOCERERUER 


ee 


i moujadj.evog (Gigs dvayéypadev, vv 66 puvÜoAó- 
yox "Opmpos oi ' Hotoóos kal "Opóe)s kai érepot 
ToioDro, repocDeoTépous pUUovs mzepi Üedv me- 
mAdkaow- Tjieis 86 rà, vrap' ápdorépows &voryeypag- 
péva. seipaoópeUa. ovvrópaos émipapetiv, oroxaló- 
pevou 7fjs avpuierpias. 

4  Ebpepos pév obv, dios yeyovos Kacadvópov 

roS BaciAécs koi Ou robrov vjvaykao pévog TeÀeiv 

Bacuukás Twas xpetas kal peydÀas ámoómuias, 

drjolv éxromicÜSva.  korà. Tj)v peonuppiav eis 

cv dkcavóv- ékmAevoarra yàp abróv éx Tíjs Euoot- 
uovos " Apaflías sovjoac0a, TÓv qÀoüv Ov ckeavob 
mÀelovs $uépas, kai mpocevexDtvat vícow TeÀa- 
ylaus, dv piav mápyew TÜ)v óvoualouévgv lley- 
yalav, év $j re8e&oÜa, vois évowobvras ILoyxaiovs 
ejcefeía Ouudépovras kai ToUs Ücoós cwAGvras 
ueyaAomperreoráraus Üvoicus kai ávaÜjuacw d£w- 

Aóyois dpyupofs Te kai xpvoois. etva, Oé xai 

T)v víjcov iepàv ÜeQv: xai érepa mÀelo Üavpa- 

Lóueva kará Te Tjv dpyaiórrra kai viv TÍjs 

karacKevíjs aoXvreyvíav,| epi Ov  TÓ KO TO, 

pépos év rais mpó vasrgs BipAow ávaryeypáQapev. 
cfva, 89". dy abrá kará cwa. Aódov DnAóv ka 
ómepBoXy» iepóv Ads TpubvAoov, kaÜpvpévov 
$m! ajro0, kaÜ' v keiwpóv éBacíAevoe Tíjs oikov- 
pévqs ámáogs ém korà  ávÜpdwmovs Gv. év 
roírq TÓ lepQ orüjqv «lvo. xpvaíjv, év fj Toís 

IIoyyaío:s ypáppacw ómápyew vyeypopuiévas. Tás 

ve Ü)pavoü xai Kpóvov kai Auós wpá£ew kea- 

Aauooós. 


* Jacoby adds ye after soÀurexviav. 
332 | 


i 
| 
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FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VL rz. 3-7 


History, has written a special treatise about them, 
while, of the writers of myths, Homer and Hesiod 
and Orpheus and the others of their kind have 
invented rather monstrous stories about the gods. 
But for our part, we shall endeavour to run over 
briefly the accounts which both groups of writers have 
given, aiming at due proportion in our exposition. 
« Now Euhemerus, who was a friend of King Cass- 
ander? and was required by him to perform certain 
affairs of state and to make great journeys abroad, 
says that he travelled south ward as far as the ocean; 
for setting sail from Arabia the Blest he voyaged 
through the ocean for a considerable number of 
days and was caxried to the shore of some islands 
in the sea, one of which bore the name of Panchaea. 
On this island he saw the Panchaeans who dwell 
there, who excel in piety and honour the gods with 
the most magnificent sacrifices and with remarkable 
votive offerings of silver and of gold. "The island is 
sacred to the gods, and there are à number of other 
objects on it which are admired both for their an- 
tiquity and for the great skill of their workmanship, 
regarding which severally we have written in the 


preceding Books. There is also on the island, 


situated upon an exceedingly high hill, a sanctuary 
of Zeus Triphylius, whieh was established by him 
during the time when he was king of all the inhabited 
world and was still in the company of men. And in 
this temple there is a stele of gold on which is in- 
scribed in summary, in the writing employed by the 
Panchaeans,the deeds of Uranus and Cronus and Zeus. 


1 The first to becorae king of Macedonis after the death of 
Alexander; he was generally recognized as king in 301 B.c. 
and held the throne until his death in 297. 

* (Op. Book 5. 41-46. 


333 







































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DIODORUS OF SICILY 


A ^ PF ^ ki 1 F 
Merà «aürá dmow mpórov O)pavov BaciAéa 
yeyovévau, émieucfj Twa dv8pa xal eDepyerucóv 
kai Tfs TÓV GoTpov kunjcecs émworpova, óv 
kai wpürov Üvoíms  Tuijoa. roUs  oUpavious 
Ücosc- 8i kal Obpavóv «pocayopevÜfjvat. vios 
82 adr yevéoÜo, ámó yuvawkóg. "Eorías Tvr&vo. 
X 7 / X € / M / 
koi Kpóvov, Üvyarépas 9€ Péav kai Anüwnrpa. 
Kodvov 8é Bacue0oa. perà Odpavóv, kai y'jpavra 
*P / ^ 7 i v M 8 ^ 
éav yevvíoan. Aia, kai Hpav kai lloset0óva. 
A b Jc , * / ^ 
róv 8é Ada Oujefüpevov "V Bacielav yfja 
"H b: A / 3 o / ? T 18 
pav kal Acjunyrpa kai Veg, é£ dw» «aióas 
zowjcacÜa,. Kovpíjrae pé ámó Tís mporms, 
Iepcedóvgv 8é ék Tfj Bevrépas, 'AÜqvüv 8€ 
3 & ^ Lj $ ; | ? p^ 
àrà fg. «pírgs. édMóvra O6 eis BafvAóva 
émi£eve va.  BijAeo, kai perà vaUra eis Tiv 
JLoyyaía» víjov pós TO dkeavQ  keuiévmv 
gapayevóuevov  Oipavoó To0 iBiov Tpozráropos 
A € / » ^ A , 5 ^-^ 
Bwpóv. pócacÜa. kákeiDev 8uà Xwpias éAetv 
M * / à / K / 2 ? I M K Li 
mpós TÓv róre Ovuváorqv Máoctov, é£ o9 vró Kdáotov 
Ld * 7 X ? ; ? ^^ 
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fva. 

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Üvyráw ád»Bpüv «epi vÀv Üeóv 8wA0ív émiépe 
Aéycw- kal mepi pév Eonpépov ToU avvra£apévov 
vi» tepàv ávarypadriv ápkeoÜUnaópe0a. rots. pu etou, 


1 So Dindorf: Iláya. | . * Kácowv Eusebius. 


£f 


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FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VI. r. 8-11 


* Euhemerus goes on to say that Uranus was the 
first to be king, that he was an honourable man and 
beneficent, who was versed in the movement of the 
stars, and that he was also the first to honour the 
gods of the heavens with sacrifices, whence he was 
called Uranus or " Heaven." There were born to 
him by his wife Hestia two sons, Titan and Cronus, 
and two daughters, Rhea and Demeter. Cronus 
became king after Uranus, and marrying Rhea he 
begat Zeus and. Hera and Poseidon. And Zeus, 
on succeeding to the kingship, married Hera and 
Demeter and Themis, and by them he had children, 
the Curetes by the first named, Persephoné by the 
second, and Athena by the third. And going to 
Babylon he was entertained by Belus, and after that 
he went to the island of Panchaea, which lies in the 
ocean, and here he set up an altar to Uranus, the 
founder of his family. From there he passed through 
Syria and came to Casius, who was ruler of Syria 
at that time, and who gave his name to Mt. Casius.1 
And coming to Cilicia he conquered in battle Cilix, 
the governor of the region, and be visited very many 
other nations,.all of which paid honour to him and 
publicly proclaimed him a god." 

After recounting what I have given and more to 
the same effect about the gods, as if about mortal 
men, Diodorus goes on to say: ** Now regarding 
Euhemerus, who composed the Sacred History, we 


1 Jebel el-Akra, à mountain nearly 6000 feet high on íhe 
coast a few miles south of the mouth of the Orontes. It is 
the most conspicuous landmark of North Syria, its summit 
commanding & view of Cyprus and the Taurus mountains. 
Hadrian once climbed the mountain to view the spectacle of 
the sunrise from it. It& is the ''Mount Casius old" of 
Paradise Losi,2.598. ^. PES. i 

335 


— ——— — 


Ame unione mem 


DACDRA Armee i ees ans 


Pr oeeduntteceems ete cteeretnto 


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NUMERI TU EE AMD ER teneiiRetecr cemere tectis 
juadErueum mmcemrtem estes qt hTS UT SER de t peaseeiceremmreeca cas 





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DIODORUS OF SICILY 


7à Bé «apà coís "EXXgot pvOoAoyospueva. Trepi 
0cGv ákoAotÜws 'Hoiw8o kai 'Owjpo kat "Opóet 
sreipacópeÜa, ovvróucis. émOpoqietv. ei0' é£fjs ém- 
cvvdarre, Tàs TÓv srovyr&v po0oAoyias. | (Eusebius, 
Praeparatio evangelica, 2. 2. 595-614.) 

2. Iept &v (0eàv) év vais ovyypaóats abToD 
Aéyev kal ó AuóBcpos Ó codoraros rabra, OT. 
dvÜpcrrro, yeyóvaow oi col, o9avwas ot &vÜpexrot 
de vopiLovres 8v  eUepyecíav GÜavárovs mpoo- 
wyópevov. vwüs Bé xal óvopárow Tipoo"yyoptas 
éoymkévat kpocíjcavras ycopas. (Malalas, p. 54.?) 

3. AuíBcppos 86 Aéye. karà gwÜucjv ieropíav 
WávÜov xoi BaoMov ' Twüvas etva(  wpórepov, 
Bonon. 88 TQ A, EávÜov y&v ILocet8cvos 
éraipov dvra, BaMov 86 Adós: xoi év 4j uéxn 
áfuOcat ueraDéo0a, civ nopiyjv, ofa, ai&ovuévovs 
óp&aÜa. jwó TÓv Ouoyevüv "Twvrávov, KQL 'yevé- 
cÜa. Tijv adrQv á£íeou- kal elvai Toírovs TOUS 

^ ^ / / J Y M c-— P 
-Q llqAe? 9o0évras. Ow, d«oi, koi EávÜos 
pavreieras TQ ' Ayuet róv Üdvarov. (Eustathius, 
Commentary on. ihe Iliad, Book 19, p. 1190.9) 

4. Saturnum Pherecydes ante omnes refert coro- 
natum, lovem Diodorus post devictos Titanas hoc 
munere a ceteris honoratum; dat et Priapo taenias 
idem et Ariadnae sertum ex auro et Indicis gemmis, 
Vuleani ac post Liberi munus, postea sidus. (Ter- 
tullian, On the Crown, 13.5) | 

* Ed. Gifford, Oxford, 1903. 


? Ed. Dindorf, Bonn, 1831. 
3 Ed. Stallbaum, Leipzig, 1825-30. | * Ed. Marra, 1927. 








! IThe horses of Achilles (Jitad, 19. 400). 
2 Between Zeus and the Titans. 


836 


— H—ÉPÁ€ÓÓ SY 








FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VI rir. ri-4. 1 


shall rest content with what has been said, and shall 
endeavour to run over briefly the myths which the 
Greeks recount concerning the gods, as they are given 
by Hesiod and Homer and Orpheus." "Thereupon Dio- 
dorus goes on to add the myths as the poets give them. 

2. Regarding the gods, the most learned Diodorus 
also says in his writings that those gods whom men 
were wont to address as immortal, considering them 
to be so because of their beneficences, had indeed 
been born human beings; but that certain of them 
had aequired the appellations they have after the 
lands they conquered. 

3. Diodorus says, following the account preserved 
in the myths, that Xanthus and Balius ! were form- 
erly Titans and had come to the aid of Zeus, Xanthus 
as à companion of Poseidon and Balius of Zeus; 
and in the battle ? they asked that their shape might 
be changed, since they were ashamed to be seen 
by their brethren the Titans, and their request 
was granted; and it was these horses which were 
given to Peleus. This explains, Diodorus says, why 
Xanthus is able to prophesy his death to Achilleus. 

4. Pherecydes records that Saturnus was the first, 
before all others, to wear a crown, and Diodorus 
relates that, after he had defeated the Titans, 
Jupiter was rewarded by the rest with this same 
distinction; the same writer gives even to Priapus 
fillets and to Ariadné a wreath made of gold and 
precious stones from India, this wreath becoming 
also a distinction of Vulcan, and then of Liber, 
and later a constellation.? 

? "The constellation of the Northern Crown, still sometimes 
called *' Ariadne's Crown"'; cp. Ovid, Pasti, 3. 459-561; 
Metam. 8. 176 f£. 


33r. 





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DIODORUS OF SICILY 


5. 'O 8e à8eAjós Nívov llixos Ó kai Ze)s 
éBaciAevoe Tfj '"lroAtas, érgy pk/ kparüv TÍjs 
Sócecs. oye 86 vioós kai Üvyarépas soÀAas 
ámó TÀv «bmpemeoTárcw — yvvoAkóv- Kai yOp 
kal pvorikds d$avracías wowbv Tias Kai Uvrmo- 
voleiuw» aürás. atrwes yvvaikes kai «s Üeóv 

2 a)róv efyov, dÜeipóueva: om abrob. &oye 8é 
& abróe likos ó kai Zeüs vióv Ovópart Gaóvov, 
&v kai "Epuífjv ékáAeoev eis Óvopa ToU TÀaviyrov 
dorépos.  uéAAwwv Bé reAevráv ó Zebs ékéAevoe 
Tó Aebbavov a$ro0 ceÜiva. €v TÍ) Kpyrg woo: 
kal xricavres ajrQ vaóv oí ajroU maios éünkay 
abróv éket- Ómep uvipá dort uéxpu Tíjs o'jpepov, 
d kai émwyéypamrau, "Ev0d8e karákevra, lios, 
» kal Ada. kaÀotov:. repli o9. ovveypdiaro Awod- 
pos ó codrarmos xpovoypádos. (From the Chronicle 
of John of Antioch, in Cramer, 4mecd. Paris. 2, 
p. 236.7) m 

6. "Órt vapa8éBovra, Káorcp kai ILoAv8eókns, 
ol kal A«óakopou, voÀD TOv dAAcw dperíj Otevey- 
ketv kai avorpareÜcau Tois 'Apyovaórais emt 
$avéorora:  woMois O6  Ocopévois émrtkovpias 
BeBonÜnkévas. — kaÜóAov 86 ém' dvüpeta KaL oTpaTT)- 
yía, wpós Bé Toírow Oucatocsvy xai eDceBeio.,? 
zapà müci ayeBóv dvÜpd wow éoxov Oófav, émi- 
daveis onÜoi ois apà  Aóyov KivOvveUovat 

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1 J. A. Cramer, Anecdota, Graeca e codd. mss. bibl. Paris. 
Oxford, 1839-41. | 
? So Dindorf: dyüpeíg xal 8uxmiocóvg . . . orparqyiq Kal 


evcefleta. 


338 


$ 


uM m ee 





FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VI. s. r-6. 1 


5. Ninus' brother, Picus, who was also called 
Zeus, became king of Italy, holding sway over the 
west for one hundred and twenty years. And he 
had many sons and daughters by the most comely 
women; for he assumed in some cases mysterious 
aspects when seducing them. And these women, 
when they were being debauched by him, looked 
upon him as a god. This same Picus, who was also 
called Zeus, had à son named Faunus, whom he also 
called Hermes for the name of the wandering 
star. And when Zeus was on the point of death 
he gave orders that his remains be laid away on the 
island of Crete; and his sons built him a temple 
there in which they laid him. "This monument exists 
even to the present day, and it bears the inscription, 
" Here lies Picus whom men also call Zeus." 
Diodorus, the most learned chronographer, has 
composed an account of this Picus. 

6. According to tradition, Castor and Polydeuces, 
who were also known as the Dioscori, far surpassed 
all other men in valour and gained the greatest 
distinction in the campaign in which they took 
part with the Argonauts; and they have come to 
the aid of many who have stood in need of succour. 
And, speaking generally, their manly spirit and skill 
as generals, and their justice and piety as well, 
have won them fame among practically all men, 
since they make their appearance as helpers of 
those who fall into unexpected perils? Moreover, 
because of their exceptional valour they have been 


1 Students of Euhemerism will be interested in the note on 
Pieus in M. P. Nilsson, The Minoan-Mycenaean Religion, 483. 

? Mereury. —.— | 

3 je. to mariners in storms; cf. Book 4. 43. 2, and note. 


339 





RS S 


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DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Aus vios vevopiato4, kai é£ àvÜpoymrov peraaváv- 
vas TuuÀV TUxeiv aDavárev. 

2 "Orc "E«ermreós BaoiAeUs Zukudvos TOUS Üeoos 
eis páyn mpoicoAospevos Tà Teuévy kai co)s 
cos aTÓV cAvpotvero. 

3  Gaoi Tóv  Sígvóov mravovpyía. KQL  duorexvio 
OLeveykety TY &AÀcv, Kai Ou Tfjs tepoakorrías 
&zavra eópioew kat zpoAéyew rots avÜpcrots. 

4 "Or o ZaÀpovebns doces kai  mepijpavos 7v 
«al TO Üctov OuGvpe, ràs 96 abroD "rpá£eis Ürrep- 
éyew vÀv 700 Aus Gregatvero" 810 kaL karagkevá- 
bv Oud Twos unxavijs yóov e£alatov kai pau oó- 
pevov 7s Bpovrás éfpóvra. kai oUre Üvoias ojre 
aymyópets eréAet. 

5. "On ó airós XaAucveos éowxe Üvyarrépa. .lvpáó ; 
7Trus Oià vov AcukórryTa. KaL TV roó od p.aros 
paÀakórgra  raDTQ)s Tfs  wpooQyopias érvyev. 
(Const. Exc. 2 (1, pp- 210-11. ;) 

7. Obros yàp. does cv xai brep?ioavos Ó 
, EaApeoveis TO uev Üctov Ouéovpev, rds Oé abrob? 
zrpd£ eis Ümepéyew  TÓv ToU Aug &mepalvero- 
Oi0 Kai kormroakcevdlav Oui TLivOS poxavfjs yódov 
éfaiciov Kai papoUpevov Ts povrás éavTóv 
amedaívero petLov Bpovrfjca TOU Áuós.  kaÜóAov 
e karraryeAQv TÓv Üedv oj)re Üvoias oUre Tav)- 
ypew  Tovrots ocuveréÀe,  kaÜácep oi Aovrrot 

2 Ovvdocat votetv eicÜact? | éyévero 0€ aDToÜ puovo- 
yevi)s Üvyárop lupo, Sv Ou T)v roD o«dcpuoros 


! Excerpta Historica J'ussu Imp. Constantini Porphyrogeniti 
Confecta, ed. Boissevain, de Boor, Büttner-Wobst, 1906 ff. 

? So Ludwiek: a$ro8. 
* kabámep . . . eicag: deleted by Vogel, 











FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VI. 6. 1-7. 2 


judged to be sons of Zeus, and when they departed 
from among mankind they attained to immortal 
honours. | 

Epopeus, the king of Sicyon, challenged the gods 
to battle and violated their sanetuaries and altars. 

Sisyphus, we are told, excelled all other men in 
knavery and ingenuity, and by means of his skill in 
divination by inspection of victims he discovered 
everything that was to happen and foretold it to 
mankind. 

Salmoneus was impious and arrogant and made it 
his practice to ridicule the divinity, and he declared 
that his achievements excelled those of Zeus. Con- 
sequently he used to make a tremendous noise by 
means of a machine he contrived and to imitate in 
this way peals of thunder, and he would celebrate 
neither sacrifices nor festivals.! 

The same Salmoneus had a daughter named 
Tyro? who received this name by reason of the 
whiteness and softness of her body. ! 

For Salmoneus, being impious and arrogant, mad 
it his practice to ridicule the divinity and to declare 
that his achievements excelled those of Zeus; 
consequently he used to make a tremendous noise. 
by means of a machine he contrived, and by imitating 
claps of thunder he would declare that he had 
thundered more loudly than Zeus. Speaking gener- 
ally, in his mockery of the gods he would celebrate 
neither sacrifices nor festivals in their honour, as 
the other rulers were accustomed to do.? And there 
was born to him an only daughter, Tyro, to whom he 


1 Cp. Book 4. 68. 
? rvpós means '' cheese." 
3 "This last clause may have been added by the excerptor. 


341 


Muemuemem rs 





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DIODORUS OF SICILY 


paAakórgra kal Tüv o0 xpoperos Aevkómw»Ta 
3 raórgs cfjs mpoomyoplas T"£iocev. TaóT)s Oé 
$ià& 70 kdÀXos épacOcis lloceidÓv, koi pwuyets 
abrfj maiBae éyévwmoe TleAiav kai NygAéa. | 2i9A- 
poweüs 9" dmworüwv el ILocei8dv *. ey ó Tasrus 
vi)v vapÜeviav  Xoas, kakovxóv OueréÀew  TT)v 
up, véAos 86 Bià àv áoéBewav Oíkas Tiv 
v Saíuovt kepavvoÜeis $mó roU Aus karéoTpebe 
vóv piov. v&v 8é ék IloceióGvos kai 'lvpots 
yevvciuévov sai8ov Tetas uév véos àv mavreAdGs 
ózó Mípavros é£émecev ék 7íjs varpidos Kai 
dvyàv perü TOv jiÀow ueràü ro)rov D' wjsous 
korekrioaro, Zkíaov kai ILezápngfÜov- oTepov 
88. Xeípewos abróv e)epyer!üjcavros xal TÍjs 
iBlas xdpas perabóvros àmíjpev ék TÓV mpoeuwmn- 
uévow víacv xal ríjs 'loAkGv ? 4óÀecs épaoi- 
Aevae.  ToUrq 86 Üvyarépes? éyévovro rÀetovs, 
ai kal viv éwcowvvpíav éoyov dmó o0 qro/rpós 
Ileud8es óvopaoÜeicai. xal «epi roUrcv ois 
prÜctow *. dpkeoÜnaópeÜo.. (Rhein. Museum, 34 
(1819), p. 619.) | 

8. "Orc "A8pxros. éri 9ucotootvy «ai eDcepeiq 
8wvéykas «pooduMs Ücois éyévero. éri ToGcoÜUTO 
8e Bí dper]v mTuimÜfva,, dore TOv * ÀAaróMAova. 
mpockójavra Au  So0fva Ünrejew  mapà  Tóv 
"A8ugrov. aoi 06 "AAkngorw Tiv ÍIleMov Ovya- 
cépa, uóvgv cíjs korà vÓv marépa ácepetas ov 

1 xal guyels . . . llooei8óy added by Vogel to fill à lacuna. 

2 Vogel suggests "LoAciv or "IoAxoD. 

3 Üyyarépes suggested by Vogel. 

& cois poU etow added by Oldfather. 


1 Or, better, of Iolous, in Thessaly. ^ ? Cp. Book 4. 50 ff. 
842 | "US | 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VI. ;. 2-8. 1 


thought this name was appropriate by reason of 
the softness of her body and the whiteness of her 
skin. Poseidon became enamoured of this maiden 
because of her beauty, and lying with her he begat 
Pelias and Neleus. And Salmoneus, not believing 
that it was Poseidon who had taken her virginity, 
would not leave off ill-treating Tyro; but in the end 
he paid the penalty to the deity for his impiety, 
ending his life when struck by lightning from the 
hand of Zeus. Of the sons born of Poseidon and 
Tyro, Pelias, when very young, was banished from his 
native land by Mimas, and going into exile together 
with his friends, he seized, with their aid, two islands, 
Seiathos and Peparethos; but at a later time, since 
Cheiron conferred benefactions upon him and shared 
his own country with him he departed from the islands 
we have mentioned, and became king of the city 
of Ioleij! And there were born to him a number of 
daughters who took their name from their father, 
being called the Peliades, regarding whom we shall 
rest content with what has been said.? 

8. Admetus was very dear to the gods because of 
his unusualrighteousness and piety. His uprightness 
brought him such honour that once, when Apollo 
had offended 3 Zeus, the command was given him 
that he should serve as a menial at the court of 
Admetus. Andwearetoldthat Alcestis, the daughter 
of Pelias, who was the only one of his daughters 
who had no part in the impiety ^ practised upon 

3 Zeus became annoyed at Asclepius, Ápollo's son, who 
had discovered the healing arb, because he was bringing the 
dead to life, and slew him with & thunderbolt. Apollo in 


revenge slew the Cyclopes, sons of Zeus, who, in their work- 
shop under Mt. Aetna, cud the thunderbolts of Zeus. 


* Qp. Book 4. 51 ff. 





Ie 0————— TW n Sica acts 
—V— ÁN Enn et ptc hein tet iinse ces 


pu 


CER 


bec ue 


xt 


E 





h 
h 
a 





343 


es 


— 





i — 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


peracyobcav, BoÜ$jva. yvvaika OV — e?oéBeiav 
"Aópsro. 

"Or. MeAdgurovs | e?oeBeía — Owveykow — dilos 
éyévero ' AxuóAAMvos. | (Const. Exc. 2 (1), p. 211.) 

9. "Oc dóvov ákosoiv deycv ó BeAAepodóvrns 
7A0e xpós lipotrov zraTpikÓv Ovra Éévov: Tj» Oé 
llpoérov yvvatka Oi TÓ KáÀÀos épaoOetoav Tob 
BeMepodóvrov xat p3) 8vvapévqy 7retoat OuaAety 
aDrÓv «pos TÓv &yOpa cs! iuoáuevov abrív. 
TOv O6 lÍpotrov àveÀAetv uév TOv £évov uz BovMg- 
Ófjvai, dxrooTetÀa, 06 abrÓv eis Avkiav ypáupuara 
dépovra após 'loBárgv róv BaciMéa. Óvra. sevOepóv. 
óv Kkopjucáuevov Tiv émwroÀWv eópetv év abr 
yeypaup.évov Ómes  dvéA]? 1v  Traxiorqv TOv 
BeAMepodóvrqv.  ó 8é u$ BovAóuevos a)TOv àm- 
oÀécau, Tf] Tvupmvóp Xupaipa ékéAevoe ovvdija 
péxuv. | (Const. Exc. 3, p. 191.) 


1 js added by Müller, ? So Müller: dveMj. 


344 


EM 


xu 


J 
Y 
f 
4 


j | 





FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VI. 8. r-9. 1 


their father, was given as wife to Admetus because 
of her piety. 

Melampus was a man of exceptional piety and 
became a friend of Apollo. 

9. Bellerophon, who was in exile because of a 
murder he had unwittingly committed, came to 
Proetus who exchanged hospitality with his father; 
and the wife of Proetus became enamoured of Beller- 
ophon because of his beauty, and since she was unable 
to win him by persuasion she aecused him to her 
husband of having offered violence to her. Now 
Proetus was unwilling to slay his guest, and so in- 
stead he sent him to Lycia, having a written message 
to lobates the king, who was his father-in-law, 
lobates received the letter and discovered that in 
it was written that he should slay Bellerophon with 
allspeed; but,being unwilling to put him to death, 
he commanded him instead to go join combat with 
the fire-breathing Chimaera.* 


1 (p. the Zliad, 6. 152 ff. 


345 


M ———— 


» cwm 














FRAGMENTA LIBRI VII 


['Ev rais perà TQÜTas €vÓeka Tüs dmó TÓV 
Tpcoudv Koi:wàs pd£ew àvayeypádapwev écs cíjs 
"AAe£ávüpov reÀevrís. (Diod. 1. 4. 6. Jl 

[Korà Tás mrpoeupp.évas é£& BiBAovs iveypaj- 
apuev Tás dxó TOV 'lpwowdv mwpá£ew és eis 
TOv imó vÓÀv 'AÜvaiov dmduo0évra. zróleuov éxi 
Zvpakoctovs. (Diod. 18, 1. 2.)] 

t. Ev rais «po raUT)s BiBAois ayeypdipaquev TÓS 
dO Tpoías &Àdoecs mpá£ew éwg émi rifv kará- 
Avow ToU T€ ILeAozrovvyotakoo moAépov kai Tfls 
" AOnvatcv Tyyepovias, OteAÜóvres érq émrakóoia 
éBóouijkovra évvéa. (Diod. 14. 2. 4.)] 


l. Kaló Ó "Opóeis i loóxpovos vo 'H pakÀet o7'fxe, 


mpó xpóvov üvres éxaróv o0  Tpouco0 


Tr'OÀUOU, 
cs 86 eue év AiDucois epi abroD poi 
Aéyet, 


"EAévov TL | Bpaxórepov à DoTepov etvat Aéyei, 
ToTOU pA O6 -yevea "Opmpos DoTepiLer, 

ó kar Auovóotov &yOpa, TOV KvkAoypádov 
éxi TÀv Ójo oTparewOv Aeyópevos Omápyew, 





i Seven to seventeen inclusive. 
? $.e, from 1184 ».c. to 323 5.c. 
$ Seven to twelve inclusive. 

* 4.e. from 1184 5.0. to 415 5.c. 


VEeePur 
LG 


usen 
l—Gpeesem 
CESEEMURI cod unies 


Cue 
ERROR 


Ree sephessuseht 


€———ÁSPRRRUN 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VII 


| [Ix the following eleven Books! we have written 
"c a universal history of events from the Trojan War 
'] to the death of Alexander.?] 

[In the preceding six Books ? we have set down a 
record of events from the Trojan War to the war 
which the Athenians decreed against the Syra- 
cusans.*] | 
Wc [In the preceding Books we have set down a record 
]: of events from the capture of Troy to the end of the 
T Peloponnesian War and of the Athenian Empire, 
covering a period of seven hundred and seventy- 
nine years.*| 





IUmeuacemce cree scm tetuer see i eet e 


i 
j 
í 
jJ 


1. Orpheus was contemporary with Heracles, both 
of them living one hundred years before the period 
of the Trojan War; and as I read in the work of 
Orpheus Oz Stones, where he speaks about himself, 
he says that he lived just a little after Helenus, and 
that Homer was one generation after Helenus. 
And Homer, aecording to Dionysius the writer of 
cycles,9 is said to have lived at the time of two 


$ 4e. from 1184 m.c. bo 405 s.c. Athens capibulated in 
April, 404 z.c., bub Diodorus' year is the Athenian arechon 
year, in this case July, 405 to July, 404. 

8 IThatb is, & composer of s collection of legends or poems. 
Dionysius Skytobrachion (('of the leathern arm ") of Alex- 
andria wrote & mythieal romance which told about the 
Amazons, the Atlantians, the Argonauts, and the libe On : 
his use by Diodorus see Book 3, 52. 3 &nd note. 

* nk 347 


VOL. III, M 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Onfatifs "EAMjvcov Te Tfs 9i 71v 'EAévnv. 
Auóócopós T€ oÓvrpoya. Aéyeu Awvvato, 
«aL érepou upto, €. 

(Tzetzes, Hist. 12. 179— 88.) 

2. Auó0cpos drroóeikvuot roDrov (Homerum) qpó 
Tífjs 'HpaxAei9Àv kalóGov rereAevrykóra. (Cramer, 
Anecd. Paris. 2, P: 221.) 

3. "Or AlyidAeta 7 TOÜ Nwogjóovus aUbvyos 
TeAécs dm orpuUn) Tíjs TOU cvutotvros evoias. 
fv o2 Oates TÓ gavvouo8vri mpocéepouéviy 8i 
TÓ pécos  mapakaMaas TOUS Ovyyevets Tpós TTV 


kar. aUTOÜ Tupucoptav. TOÜTOUS óc mpooAafop.évovs . 


AvyuoÜov zpoadáras kareoxnkóra. Tiv év Mvraj- 
Vas Baawetay emeveyke tv a)TO Davárov kpéow, 
karmyopovras Or. Éévov murpós dw ToUs pev 
€Uyevets ék ríjs móÀewos ékpaAetv BovAeverau, TÓV 
Ó6 ovyyeváv AirwÀdGv Twas karowtLew. Tfjs 8é 
Bux BoAfis TriOTLV AaBosons $oprévra TOv Awopsjonv 
Qevyew é£ "Apyovs uerà rv BovAouévov. s 
Ec. 3, p. p. 197.) 

4. "Ont Tfs '"Tpoías GAoUars Aiveias perd 
Twy karaAapójievos pépos Tíjs TóAecs TOUS 
émóvras Tjpivero. Tüv O6 "EXuajvow Ürocróv- 
Oovs roUrOUS ddévren, Kai Gvyxapaávrcov exar 
AaBeiv óc. 8óvavro óv i&iov, ot uév dAAot rávres 
&pyvpov 7 xpucóv 3j Two, Tfj GAAgS rrolreAe(as 
: AoBov, Aivetas 0€ TV TaTépo. yeynpa«óra. ie 
dopdpuevos eni ,ToUs dpovs e£Xveykev. | éd 

opacis DmTOÓ TÜV EAMjvev eAafiev dfouelay 
máAw ó ó BosAovro TÀYy otko0ev éxAé£actaz. dveÀo- 
pévov 86 ajroU T iepà Tà moTpáa, moo Ba Mor 
rae d 2 d TV &perijy, Kai sapà? soÀe- 
34 


COIEPSR edu esu méme c 


Eo aen 


i 


rupem 


——— A» 


ues 











FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIL rz. x4. 3 


expeditions, that against Thebes and the one which 
the Greeks undertook on behalf of Helen. And 
Diodorus agrees with Dionysius, as do countless others. 

2. Diodorus states that Homer died before the 
Return of the Heracleidae. 

3. Aegialeia, the wife of Diomedes, fell altogether 
from favour with her husband. And in her hatred she 
acted unjustly toward her husband and called upon 
her kinsmen to take vengeance upon him. And 
they, taking as their helper Aegisthus, who had 
lately possessed himself of the throne of Mycenae, 
passed judgment of death upon Diomedes, alleging 
that, although his father had been a foreigner, he 
was planning to banish the nobles from the state and 
to settle in their place some of his kinsmen from 
Áetolia. And since this false charge was generally 
believed, Diomedes became afraid and fled from 
Argos, together with any who wished to accompany 

im. 

4. When 'roy was taken, Aeneas, together with 

some other Trojans, seized a part of the city and held 


Off the attackers. And when the Greeks let them 


depart under a truce and agreed with them that each 
man might take with him as many of his possessions 
as he could, all the rest took silver or gold or some 
other costly article, whereas Áeneas lifted upon his 
shoulders his father, who was now grown quite old, 
and bore him away. For this deed he won the 


admiration of the Greeks and was again given 


permission to choose out what he would of his house- 
hold possessions. And when he bore off the house- 
hold gods, all the more was his virtue approved, 


1 Ed. Kiessling, Leipzig, 1826. 
? So Reiske: katrep o76ó. 








349 


Ics E: »€— 2 '»- - p 2 "Ti 
SrriSimsuswnteette set trmelücnnimeuisgmiieeeeresrecrer rever meremur pem -— 


TUMeuEERcRuAD peser 


USUS e moet e 









cc 


spit 





JE E ee 


d 





DEAGRaue 


— Pr AEÓ 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


* 
4 piov émwmpagiag cTvyyávovcav.  édatvero yàp 


ó àvi)p év rots ueylorois kiwOsvots mÀetoT» dpov- 
TiO «emowuévos Ts Te TpÓs yovets ÓcióTQTOS 
kai Tíjs Tpós Üeoós «Doepeías. Oumep daciv 
abrQ cvyycpuÜfgva. perà TOv  ÜnoÀewÜévraw 
Todov éxyopíoa. Tís '"lpqáóos perà máons 
doóaAc(as kal Ómov BosÀerat. (Const. Exc. 2 (V), 
p 211.) 

AÁge nunc ad alterum harum rerum testem trans- 
eamus, Diodorum, videlicet, qui omnes bibliothecas 
in unum idemque emporium summatim collegit: 
siquidem et Romanorum historiam septimo suo libro 
his verbis conscribit : P 

D. "E»ov nuév oóv rÀv ovyypaóéwov Àavg- 
Üévres DméAafov To)s epi vOv 'PopAov éx Tíjs 
Aiveiov  Üvyarpós  yevvnÜévras | ékrucévas — Tv 
"Póugv: T0 8 àA«Üés oDy oUvws €yew moÀÀOw 

p QBes ody oUrws xe, 
uev év TQ uera£ó ypóv« vo) T' Aiveiov kai 'Po- 
piÀov yeyovórav faociuéov, éxrwpuévqs O6 Tíjs 
vóÀews kavrà TÓ Oevrepov éros Tíjs éDGóuns "OÀvp- 
vuá8Oos: abcr: yàp *) kricts Dorepet TOv. lopoukcáv 
éregt Tpugi mÀeiogu. TÓ) Terpakociv Kai Tplà- 
Kovra.  Alveías yàp perà Tv áAow Tíjs Tpoías 
éràv  TrpiOv  mapsAÜóvrow  «apéAaBe Tiv  TÓv 
Aarívew Bacue(av, kat karaoxaov Tpverí] xpóvov 





1 'The Chronicle of Eusebius is preserved only in am Arme- 
nian version and tbe Latin text here given is the translation 
of this version by H. Petermann in the edition of Schóne 
(Berlin, 1875). But here and in the other passages from the 
Chronicle the English is drawn from the German translation 
of the Armenian by Karst in Die griechischen christlichen 
Schriftsteller der ersten. dre? Jahrhwunderie, vol. 5, pp. 136—39 
(Leipzig, 1911). Seant attention has been paid in the trans- 


459 


E n Ro 


Egregie 


GEmEnam ies 


roe 


gsnce e EE eth 


UT PUSH um eerta eert quee 


eus 


rEceteo- gs 


MEDHDU se D 


— 


mes 


SERESDESIUE 


Ae 








XE RIS 


VEQRVUUEESE 


more METUS LT 


Müpxccec oo ul 


—————— € 


Venice ee aene nor 


EORR 


p 


eeu eae 
muc ID i-— 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIL. 4. s-5. 2 


receiving the plaudits even of his enemies; for the 
man showed that in the midst of the greatest perils 
his first concern was piety toward parents and rever- 
ence for the gods.  Ánd this was the reason, we are 
told, why he, together with the Trojans who still 
survived, was allowed to leave the Troad in complete 
safety and to go to whatever land he wished. 


Eusebius, Chromcle 1 


Let us now turn to another witness to the same 
affairs, namely, to Diodorus, who gathered in sum- 
mary form all libraries into one and the same clearing- 


/.' house? of knowledge. For he writes of the history 
of the Romans in his seventh Book, in the following 


words : | 
D. Certain? historians have assumed, though in 


error, that the Romulus who was born of the daughter 
of Áeneas was the founder of Rome. But the truth 
is otherwise, since there were many kings in the 
period between Aeneas and Romulus, and the city 


was founded in the second year of the Seventh 


Olympiad, and the date of this founding falls after 
the Trojan War by four hundred and thirty-three 
years. For three years elapsed after the taking of 
Troy before Áeneas received the kingship over the 
Latins; this kingship he held for three years, and 


lation to the Armenian ortltography ; the proper names have, | 


therefore, unless the variation was marked, been given the 


familiar Roman form. | 

? Cp. the ypguariarpiov of Book 1. 1. 3. 

? 'This paragraph is found in Syncellus, whose version is 
preferred by editors, although ib is also given by Eusebius. 

* 4.e. in 75l B.C. Various dates for the founding of Rome 
were pen by ancient writers—814 s.0., 758, 152, 751, 749, 
and 729. : 


351 





—Á—L—— C 


ML 













LEE 


deu kciesu der 


PE 


cmd... c 
cuc euet 


p SUER 











DIODORUS OF SICILY 


5 5 / 5 , X ^ » * / 
e£ dvÜpdymov TjjavíoUn «at ruv. érvXev aBavá- 


3 rov. Tiv 8 ápyi» BuBetápevos "Aokávwos vios 
Li 


Zkroev "AMBav ijv vüv kaAovuévgs  Aóyyov, 
fv dvópacev ámwó ToÜ worapoD ToU TÓTe pv 


"AABa oAoupévov, vOv 86 TiBépews óvopa.Go- 


4 uévov.  mepi 0€ TÍjs mpooqyoptas ra)rns GáBios 


€ A Lj / / / x 

ó ràs "Popaíov m«páfews avaypddas &AÀcs ge- 
/ b * ? , / ? 

pvÜoAóygke.  dw«oi yàp Aiveta yevéaÜ0au Aóytov, 


» "^ 


rerpámove abr  kaÜy/joco0at * mpós  KTiOww 
/ 7 EI 5 e^ /, T » 

móÀecs:  uéMovros 9' abro0 ÜUew Uv €ykvov 
TQ xpópar. Aevwkjv, éxjvyciv éx« TÓYV Xxewóv, 


m 


xal GuoyÜgvo. mpós vwa, Àódov, mpós à kopuc- 


Lt 


^ ^ 7i / ki A ? / 

5 Üetcav vekeiv rpidkovra. xolpovs. TOv O€ Álvetav 
M A 

.TÓó Te mopáDof£ov Üavgácavra KaL TO Aóytov 


ávavoopevov ? émyeipfjoat p£v oikicac ? TÓv TÓTTOV, 
iBóvra, 8€ karà róv Ümvov Ójuv évapyds Owwkto- 
X/ovcav al ovpfovAevovoav  perà  Tpidkovra 
éry krifew, Ócoomep Ó TÓv vexÜévrow | ipi uós 
fjv, árrooríjva, rfjs mpoécecs. (Georgius Syncellus, 
pp.366-07.5) ————- 


6 Post Aeneam defunctum Askanius eiusdem filius 


regnum assumpsit: (dehine vero) annis XXX trans- 
actis collem aedifieavit (i. e. aedificiis coxplevit), 
et urbem Albam appellavit ad porcae colorem: nam 
Latini secundum suam linguam c5jv Aewucj Albam 
vocant. alteram quoque ei nomenclationem impo- 
suisse (sc. dicitur) Longam, quae translata vocatur 
Maxpáv, quoniam latitudine angusta erat et longi- 
tudine magna. 


! So Wesseling : kaÜmyjcao8a:. 
2 So Oldfather: draveoópevov. 
? So Wesseling : oLefjoo.. 


352 


dime 
Lom scc 


spen 


o 


Tuscis Sc SEPA eet AS 


Pese eara x een Pets 


II SEM ege RCTUSr me x 








FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VII. s. 2-6 


then he disappeared from among men and received 
immortal honours. Eis son Áscanius succeeded him 
on the throne and founded Alba Longa, as it is now 
called, naming it after the river which was then called 
Alba and now bears the name Tiber. . Àsforthe name 
of the city, however, Fabius,| who wrote a history 
of the Romans, presents a different story. This 
is what he says: An oracle was given to Aeneas, 
stating that a four-footed animal would lead him 
to the place where he should found a city. And 
once, when he was in the act of sacrificing a sow, 
white in colour, which was pregnant, it escaped from 
his hands and was pursued to a certain hill, where 
it dropped a farrow of thirty pigs. Aeneas was 
astounded at this strange happening, and then, calling 
to mind the oracle, he made preparations to found a 
city on thespot. Butinhissleep he saw a vision which 
strictly forbade him to do so and counselled him to 
found the city thirty years hence, corresponding to 
the number of the farrow of pigs, and so he gave up 
his design. | 
Upon the death of Aeneas his son Ascanius 
ascended the throne, and after thirty years he founded 
à settlement on the hill and gave the city the name 
of Alba after the colour of the sow; for the Latins 


call what is white alba. Ascanius also added another 


name, Longa, which translated means "the long," 
since the city was narrow in width and of great 


length. 


1 Quintus Fabius Pictor was the first Roman to compose à 
history of his ciby, writing it in Greek shortly before 200 s.c. 





4 Ed. Dindorf, Bonn, 1829. 
353 


Af EC mM 


pu 


REM CM lili ek LL a 


————— 


et urs eu tematici tete ertet 


lr oo 


MEUATCMNDGMMOUCIeNMNUIESEUTEnem UA gemA cC Me TUA S eme ette acetone 
: GeSemeA UEM uNmeUALAcect Np mee c Ar mere tette 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Iisdem addens dicit: 

7  Áskanius urbem regiam Albam fecit et non paucos 
e cireumiacentibus incolis prostravit. vir praeclarus 
factus est et obiit annis regnans XXXVIII. 

8  Postque eius obitum controversia orta est in 
m»edia multitudine duorum causa de regno inter se 
invicem contendentium. Iulius enim cum filius 
esset Áskani, dicebat: mihi convenit paternum 
imperium; et Silvius Áskani frater Aeneaeque et 
Silvae primae uxoris Latini filius dicebat: mihi com- 

' petit. Huic enim post Aeneae obitum insidiae factae 
suntab Áskano; namque dum adhuc infantulus esset, 
in monte a quibusdam armentariis educatus, Silvius 
est dictus ad nomen montis Latinorum, quem 
Silvam vocitabant. Ei utraque ergo parte disput- 
antibus, multitudinis electione regnum Silvius sus- 
cepit. lulius autem imperio privatus, pontifex 
maximus constitutus est et quasi secundus rex erat: . 
a quo ortam hucusque luliam familiam Romae 
perdurare aiunt. 

9 Silvius nihil dignum memoria in imperio egit 
et obiit, cum regnasset annis XLIX. Cuius impe- 
rium filius eiusdem Aenias accepit, qui cognominatus 
est Silvius; dominatusque plus quam triginta annos. 
Post quem Latinus regnavit, qui vocatus est Silvius, 
annis L. Hic in rebus gerendis et in bello validus 





E 


ei gsx 
— eee. e 
AU EIUS 
5 iuadecSsssrbufuciun i Rcesteetets 





1 Karst reads ''settlements'' for ''inhabitants'' of the 


* So Karst restores the Armenian texb which reads: '' And 
SHvius, the brother of Ascanius and son of Aeneas and of 
Silva, the first wite (1) of Latinus, maintained, eto." 

3 $.e. to the time of Diodorus, nob of Eusebius. 


354 


Ide Sal e 


n 


Cutec SU Se Un HANG UR UEt ta cd dn iR aca 


tss , 


Sedegpis 


UU. 


zm 





i 
hi 
] 

| 


x cac 
IET 


mecs 
de o 


ER. iced 


ES SRR qs 
tage 


SEHEN 
m 


eum 


ur 





CC RM 
m cM 


p d 


hdiugs4de pae cinis 
CEST 


Ere 
3375 


EX 
GNEKLCeEEUN ST LEES se 


E SPPUENENS 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VII. s. 6-9 


And he (Diodorus) goes on to say, " Áscanius 
made Alba the capital of his kingdom and subdued 
no small number of the settlements! round about; 
and he became a famous man and died after a reign 
of thirty-eight years." 

At the end of this period there arose a division 
among the people, because of two men who were 
contending with each other for the throne. For 
Iulius, since he was the son of Ascanius, maintained, 
"'The rule which my father had belongs to me." 
And Silvius, the brother of Ascanius and, further- 


more, à son of Áeneas by Lavinia, the daughter of 


Latinus, whereas Ascanius was a son of Aeneas by 
his first wife, who had been a woman of Ilium, 
maintained,? " The rule belongs to me." Indeed, 
after Áeneas' death Ascanius had plotted against 
the life of Silvius; and it was while the latter as a 
child was being reared, because of this plot, by 
certain herdsmen on a mountain that he came to be 
called Silvius, after the name of the mountain, which 
the Latins called Silva. In this struggle of the two 


groups Silvius finally received the. vote of the people: 


and gained the throne. Iulius, however, though he 
lost the supreme power, was made ponüfexz maximus 
and became a kind of second king; and from him 


. we are told, was sprung the Julian gens which exists 


in Rome even to this day.? 

Silvius accomplished nothing of note during his 
reign and died after a rule of forty-nine years. 
He was followed in the kingship by his son Aeneas, 
who was given the surname of Silvius and reigned 


over thirty years. After him Latinus, who was also 


called. Silvius, reigned for fifty years. He was a 
vigorous ruler both in internal administration and in 


355. 








— 


ex 


T ÁÀ— 


Mn 


ME 








fecum 


gum 
c 


DES 


| 

| 

r 
I 


10 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


repertus finitimam regionem evertit atque urbes 
antiquas, quae antea Latinorum vocabantur, XVIII 
condidit: Tiburam, Praenestum, Kabios, Tiskalum, 
Koram, Kometiam, Lanuvium, Labikam, Skaptiam, 
Satrikum, Árkiam, Telenam, Okostomeriam, Kaeni- 
num, Phlegenam, Komerium, Mediplum, Boilum, 
quam nonnulli Bolam vocant. 

Defuncto autem Latino rex electus est filius 
eiusdem Albas Silvius, qui annis XXXVIII imperi- 
tavit. Post quem Epitus Silvas annis XXVI. Quo 
defuncto in regnum suffectus est Apis, qui annis 
regnavit duodetriginta. Et post eum Kalpet eius- 
dem filius; dominatusque est annis XIII, Tiberius 
Sylvius vero annis VIII. Hic adversus Tyrenos 
exercitum movens cum per Albam amnem copias 
traduceret, in gurgitem lapsus obiit, unde et fluvius 
appellatus est Tiberis. At post eius obitum Agripas 
in Latinos regnavit unum supra quadraginta annos. 
Postque hunc suscepit (regnum) Axramulius Silvius 
undeviginti annis. | 

De hoc dieunt quod cunctis vitae diebus super- 


"bus fuerit, adeoque se efferebat et adversabatur 


contra vim lovis (Aramazdi): quin etiam quum 
interdum tempore fructuum (autumni) tonitrua as- 
sidua ingentiaque fierent, mandabat exercitibus, ut 
(universi) ex uno edicto unanimiter gladiis clipeos 
concuterent, quo (atque) existimabat sonum ex his 
editum superare posse vel ipsa tonitrua; propterea- 
que poenas dedit suae in deos arrogantiae, fulminis 
ictu exstinctus, totaque domus eius in Albano stagno 
immergebatur. Ostendunt hucusque rerum vestigia 
Romani iuxta stagnum habitantes, columnas subter 





1 The Ármenian text has '! Aramazd," 


356 


"semen uem s eu 


dà 


CASS tue xzcr E Tas 


Wee 


Ju E] 
Hi 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VII 5. g-r: 


MAU ac eene mecnm dest 


war, laying waste the neighbouring territory and 
founding the eighteen ancient cities which were | 
formerly known as the " Latin cities": Tibur, | 
Praeneste, Gabii, Tusculum, Cora, Pometia, Lanu- 
vium, Labici, Scaptia, Satricum, Axicia, Tellenae, | 
Crustumerium, —Caenina,  Fregellae, Cameria, | 
Medullia, and Boilum, which some men also write 
Bola. i 
After Latinus died, his son Alba Silvius was chosen | 
king, and he reigned for thirty-eight years; and 
after him Epitus Silva ruled for twenty-six years. | 
At his death Capys replaced him in the kingship and | 
reigned twenty-eight years. After him his son | 
Calpetus reigned for thirteen years, and then Tiberius | 
Silvius for eight years. The latter undertook a | 
campaign against the Etruscans; but while leading | 
his army across the Alba river he fell into the flood | 
and met his death, whence the name of the river - | 
was made Tiber. And after his death Agrippa | 
i reigned over the Latins for forty-one years, and after | 
. him Aramulius Silvius for nineteen years. | 
"i — Of Aramulius the story is told that he carried him- | 
self haughtily during his entire life and opposed the | 
might of Jupiter! in obstinate strife. Indeed, when 
—— at harvest time there would come incessant peals of 
f heavy thunder, he used to order his soldiers, at the 
? word of command, with one accord to strike their 
t shields with the swords; and he would claim that the 
noise made in this fashion surpassed that of thunder. 
But he paid the penalty of his arrogance toward the 
gods, since he was slain by a stroke of lightning and 
his entire house was submerged in the Alban lake. 
And to this day the Romans who dwell near the lake 
point to evidences of this event in the forma of columns 


35] 








meme 





| 
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12 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


aquis in altum visas, quae inibi in profunditate 
regiae domus exstant. 

Post hune Aventius electus fuit, qui cum VII 
supra XXX annos potitus esset, in quodam proelio 
cum suburbanis in angustiam actus juxta Aventium 
collem cecidit, unde collis Aventius dicebatur. De- 
mortui in locum suffectus est filius eiusdem Prokas 
Silvius regnavitque annis III supra viginti. Quo 
mortuo iunior filius Amolius per vim regnum tenuit; 
eo quod in regiones longinquas profectus erat 
Numitor, eiusdem frater maior natu ac germanus. 
Amolius paulo plus annis XLIII regnavit atque a 
Remo et Romilo, qui Romam condiderunt, inter- 
fieitur. (Eusebius, Chromicle, l, pp. 284-90, ed. 
Schóne-) 

6. "On nerà, Tv Aivetov ,reAevriv 34Àostos 
éreBovAeUOn. bó "Ackaviov vijmios cv.  Tpadeis 
8é év mots ópeaw Dmó Twv , BovkóAaov 24Àovtos 
cvouácOn, rÀv Aarivov TO Ópos cwo/av óvopa- 
Cóvrov. (Const. Exc. 8, p. 19.) 

7T. "Orc 'PoAos ^ 2uAovtos  ap' OAov Tóv 
Biov | DmeprjQavos yevópevos TpiAATO. Tipós TOv 
Ücóv- Bpovr&vros yàp abro KeAeóew TOUS rper 
TOS TOS omátous TÜmTé Tás domióas áj €vós 
cvvÜfuaros, kat Aéyew «s O sap! éavrOv ywó- 
pevos Wó$os «iq pueibov. 91  kepavvoOsvas. 
Cede Ea. 2 (1), pp. 211-12.) 

ju pérqv ete MeoxéAav, peytovq obcav, Qiua- 
pérqv Oé TÓ saAniv jo TÓv eK Tpoías ávaKo- 
paLopévcyy "EAXjvcv, epi. dv. év vfj rpéry BiBie) 
zpoew")kauev. (Diod. 20. 57. 6.)] 


: So Dindorf: 29". 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIL s. zr-7. : 


which stand up in the lake from the ruins of the royal 
palace lying in its depths. 

After Áramulius the next king to be chosen was 
Aventius, who ruled thirty-seven years. Once, when 
pressed back in a war with some neighbours, he with- 
drew for protection to the Aventine hill, and for this 
reason the hillreceived the name Aventine. Upon 
his death he was succeeded in the kingship by his son 
Proca Silvius, who reigned twenty-three years. At 
his death his younger son Amulius seized the king- 
ship by violence, since Numitor, who as his elder 
brother and his full-brother as well, was away in à 
distant region. Amulius reigned a little more than 
forty-three years and was slain by Remus and 
Romulus, who were the founders of Rome. 

6. After the death of Aeneas a plot was formed by 
Ascanius against Silvius, who was stilla child. He 
had been reared in the mountains by certain herdsmen 
and was given the name Silvius, because the Latins 
called the mountain Silva. 

7. Romulus Silvius was an arrogant man throughout 
his entire life and dared to contend with God. For 
example, when God would thunder he used to order 

his soldiers at a single signal to strike their shields 
j with their blades, and he would then say that the 
j noise they raised was greater than the thunder. 
| 7 It was for this reason that he was struck by lightning. 

[The tbird city he seized was Meschela, which was 
a very large place and had been settled in ancient 
times by Greek refugees from 'Trey, about whom 
we have already spoken in the third Book.!] 


í i 'There is nothing about this incident in the third Book, 
: and chronologically it should have fallen in this, the seventh, 


» Book. : 
: | 359 


EN 


emos 


EU anesf ema cec tt e cs 


sc i 


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e — 


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i 










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MAASURescU RDUe DUM Um Le ceti sectt eres 


Eee hes 


won. CER ERA uyess see Metrs 


cir Mu cl 


RR E 
Miis c NN 


mme 


Ra 


wi 


RI 


[ 
| 
i 
i 
| 
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, 


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T f cskteeeem uotum 


AST 
d 
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Hupeccup es 


SECDAE 


SEES Se INST entem mo cs 





Qm Pe 





deoa 


iR eet ue 
OSA MSAN 


ees VReusqecnepxten 
URPépequpragseddruf 


EECEGUceRES 

























ipe mes 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


[Daoi GerraAóv perà -Tab)ra émaveAÜet» eis 
"IwAxóv, év 4 karaAaBóvra vpooóárws "Aracrov 
vÓv lleAtov rereAevrqkóra sapaAapeiv karà. yévos 
mpoockovcav T] BaciAeiav, kai roUs UÓ' éavróv 
Teraüypévous d$' éavroü spocayopeüca. Oerra- 
Aoss. ok dàyvoód) 06 Gurt mrepi 7Tfjs Tv OerraAÓv 
vpooqyopias o)  raUrqv  uóvqv  T)v  ioTopüav, 
GÀÀà kai Oua$evovs érépas mapaócOóoÜaw cvp- 
BéBuke, mepi Gv év oikewrépow | uvo0noópeÜa 
«atpots. (Diod. 4. 55. 2.) 

[Oi 'HpaxAetóa, xarà às ÓpoAoy(as dmé- 
oTqcar ríjs kaÜó8ov kai r)jv eis TpucópuÜov ésávo- 
Oov émoujcavro. uer 0é rwas ypóvovs Aukiuvtos 
pév pierü, TÓv maiocv kai TAqmroAéuov roO 'Hpax- 
Aéovs, ékovaios TOv 'Apyeiov aDro)Ug rpoc- 
Oefauévow, éy "Apyew karQknoav: ot 89 &ÀAot 
vzávres  év "TpucopíÜ« — karoucjoavres, cs Ó 
vevrqKovraer?s  xpóvos OwjAUe, —koíjAÜov eis 
IleAozóvvgcov: àv às Tpáées  àveypdopev, 
Órav eis ékeivous ToUs xpóvovs sapayevnÜduev, 


(Diod. 4. 58. 4-5.)] 


Lakedemoniorum reges ex Diodori voluminibus 


8. Nos vero, quoniam ita evenit, ut a Troianorum 
rebus usque ad primam olompiadem tempus difficile 
reperiatur, cum necdum iis temporibus neque 
Athenis neque alia in urbe annui principes fieri 
solerent, Lakedemoniorum reges pro exemplo usur- 
pabimus. A Troianorum eversione usque ad primam 
olompiadem, prout Apolodorus Atheniensis ait, 





1 Karst, pp. 105-06, 
360 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VII ;. r8. 1 


[Thessalus, they say, after this removed to Iolcus; 
and finding on his arrival that Ácastus, the son of 
Pelias, had recently died, he took over the throne | 
which had belonged to him by inheritance and j 
called the people who were subject to him Thessal- | 
ians after his own name. Í am not unaware that this 
is not the only explanation given of the name the 
'Thessalians bear, but the fact is that the other 
accounts which have been handed down to us are 
likewise at variance with one another, and concerning 
these we shall speak on a more appropriate occasion.] 

[The Heracleidae gave up, as they had promised, 
their effort to return and made their way back to 
Tricorythus. Some time later Licymmius and his 
sons and Tlepolemus, the son of Heracles, made their 
home in Árgos, the Árgives admitting them to citizen- 
ship of their own accord; but all the rest who had 
made their homes in Trieorythus, when the fifty- 
year period had expired, returned to the Pelopon- 

nesus. Their deeds we shall record when we have 


come to those times.] 





Dc aee cei NSR A Rr qoa c 
Am RIO RSC SRIAR NE 
Bscoscléu ee SE c M NNNM 








mette me 


ume 


CEEUVASUTGR. uem roue cemere 


Eusebius, Chroniclet 


Kings of Lacedaemon from the Books of Diodorus 


8. Since it so happens that the interval is difficult to 
determine from the time of the events which gather 
around Troy to the first Olympiad,? since there 
were no annual magistrates in this period either in 
Athens or in any other city, we shall use for our pur- 
pose the kings of Lacedaemon. From the Destruction 
of Troy to the First Olympiad, as Apollodorus of 


M ur MAC 


| 





3 1184 5.c. to 776 5.0. 





] 
[. 
5 


2 à 

i 

UT 
s 


D ees 


ug 





CoNESSCMUUI 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


anni octo supra trecentos sunt. Ex illis octoginta 
(defluxerunt) usque ad Herakleorum excursionem ; 
reliquos vero (annos) Lakedemoniorum reges, Prokles, 
Eurrystheus et ab iis prognati occuparunt; quorum i 
singularum familiarum nos seorsum numerum ex- 
ponemus usque ad primam olompiadem. 

2  REurristheus initium regni sumpsit anno octo- 
gesimo a Troadum rebus, dominatusque est annis II 
supra XL. Post hunc Agis anno I. Ekhestratus 
anno uno supra XXX. Átque post eum Labotas 
annis VII supra triginta. Doristhus uno anno 
minus quam.itriginta. EIHorum vero successor Ágesi- 
laus IV annis supra XL.  Arkhelaus annis LX. Et 
Teleklus annis XL. Alkamenes autem annis VIII 
supra triginta. Eiuius regni anno X contigit con- 
stitutio olompiadis primae, qua vincebat in stadio in 
Kurribus Helius. Verum ex altera familia primus In 
dominatus est Prokles annis undequinquaginta. Ac ils 
post ipsum Pritanis annis undequinquaginta. Atque 
Eunomius annis V supra XL. Et post hos Khari- i 
klus annis LX. Post illum autem Nikandrus annis 
duodequadraginta. Theopompus annos VII supra 
quadraginta. Item huius quoque regni anno decimo 
prima olompias contigit. Sunt autem simul] a Tro- 
ianorum captivitate usque ad Herakleorum excur- 
sionem anni LXXX. (Euseb. Chron. I, p. 221, ed. 
Schóne.) | | 

9. Toórev 2uiv Owvkpwnuévev Aeómeraw srepi 
Tfs KopwÜ(ias kai Iuwwwias eimeiv Óv Tpósvov 
DzO A«cpwécwv korqkioÜncav.  Tà yàp kerà TT 





|| 
, "EIE 
Ee UE MAT ETC 





E 


WImée isUgcueUmENS 
x (esci am 


LE 


————A— 4 


NoDce e 


—— Áo: 








1 From the Fall of Troy. 
* This should be ''thirty-five," as the Table of kings 
which follows in Eusebius has the number. 


362 





- 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VII. 8. 1-9. x 


Athens says, is a period of four hundred and eight 
years. lt was eighty years! to the Return of the 
Heracleidae, and the remaining years were included 
in the reigns of the Lacedaemonian kings, Procles 
and Eurystheus, and their descendants; we shall 
now enumerate the individual kings by the two 
houses down to the First Olympiad. 

Eurystheus began to reign in the eightieth year 
after the events which gather around Troy, and he 
ruled forty-two years; after him Agis ruled one 
year; Echestratus thirty-one ;? Labotas thirty-seven; 
Doristhus twenty-nine;  Agesilaüs, his successor, 
forty-four; Archelaüs sixty; Teleclus forty; and 
Alcamenes thirty-eight. 1n the tenth year of the 
last reign fell the beginning of the First Olympiad, 
that in which Curibus of Elea won the " stadion." 

Of the other house Procles was the first ruler and 
reigned forty-nine years;? after him  Pritanis 
reigned forty-nine years;  Eunomius forty-five; 
after him Chariclus sixty; after him Nicandrus 
thirty-eight; and Theopompus forty-seven. And 
in the tenth year also of the last reign begins the 
First Olympiad. . And the total length of time from 
the taking of Troy to the Return of the Heracleidae 
is eighty years. Nu 

9. Now that we have examined into these matters, 
it remains for us to speak of Corinth and of Sicyon, 
and of the manner in which the territories of these 
cities were settled by the Dorians. For it came to 


* Tt would appear that there was à lacuna in the text of 
Diodorus which Eusebius had before him and it should be 
restored : '' Procles 41 years, Soüs 34, Eurypon 51." "Then 
the reigns yield the necessary total of 328 years; cp. Book 


Veo. 
363 


E — ETE 


Ren eem e ce seas s age mate 


En 


I E— 


— E EN MC E EL LH MC ML ONE CN MN 







































——— 
— 


Add 





- pue 


CNGROSENE 


E 
e 


Dem 


RES 


x 


*- 
NT 


d En — 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


IleAonóvvqoov. &yy axc8óv arávra. aXijv ! Apkáócv 
àváarara, ovvéfi yevéoÜo, xarà iv káÜo8ov TÓV 
'HpaxAeóv. ot Totvwr *"HoaxAe(Bas korà Tiv 
Ouaipeciww | é£aiperov sowcápevoi Tv Kopw0tav 
Kal rjv TaÓTüQs TÀyowxcopov,. Siesréjujavro pos 
cóv 'AM$rqv, mapaidóvres aUTO civ apoetp7- 
uévqy xópav.  émdavijs 82 áv)p yevópevos koi 
Tjv Kópw0ov av£jcas éfaciAevaev | &ry n. 
peràü 8é mv ToUrov TeÀevri]v óÓ mpeopUraros 
del vGv ékyóvow éfac(evce uéxpt Tíjs KuéAov 


^wpavvioos, Typis TÍjs kafó8Sov T&v 'HpaxAÀeQv 


Sorepet éreow vpL/. kal mpóyros uev map" abrois 
8:8é£aro c1v. PaoiAetav 'IÉéov ép Mq"  pe8 
8v fp£ev " AyéAas &r MJ, uerà 86 rovrovs llpóp- 
wg érg Àe', ka& Bákyis. ópolcos TÓv lcov xpóvov, 
yevópevos émjavéovraros vóv mpó ajroU: 910 kai 
cvvéfm To)s perà Taóra Baciue/cavras oUkér 
*HpaxAei8as, àAAà Baxyióas mpocayopeseoDa. 
* A^ 5 / k! » / » V vy 
perà. ToUrov 'AyéAas pev erm A, E$óquos 9€ érQ 
,) 9? / Á/ 3 4 X / 
«e', "Apworopijóns €' kal A. — obros 6 reAevr)aas 
3 /, €^ ; ^ ^ t H m X 
dméAurev vióv TeAéorqv «aita 77» 7tav, o0 Tfjv 
* / L4 3 J ^ ^ A 
xarà yévos facUiav ádellaro Üctos cw kat 
émírpomos 'Aynpwow, ós Spfev érg w'. per 
To0rov korécyev "AAétavüpos érg ke'.  ToDrov 
dveÀAàv 'TeMoargs ó ovepyfeis Tis warpqas ápxfjs 
fp£ev érq i'. moórov 9 Dxó TÓv Ovyycvüv 
32 Ü L4 Á , L4 M ^ * / M 
dvaipeÜévros Arouévgs pév Tjp&£ev éwwavróv, ot 
8' ^ dmó '"HpaxAéovs Baxyí8c. mAetovs  Óvres 


364. 


ESSO 


"ET 
XEM. OE 


ss ose Er os crues eme 


———————— 
RYE TN E E NE ERR -: 





—— Ó—— ——— B 





T MP EE mt mem 
mm VES Tu co ee -—4 SE 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIL. o. 1-6 


pass that practically all the peoples throughout the 
Peloponnesus, except the Arcadians, were driven 
out on the occasion of the Return of the Heracleidae. 
Now when the Heracleidae divided up the land they 
made an exception of the territory of Corinth and 
the country lying about it, and sending word to 
Aletes they handed this territory over to him. 
Aletes, becoming a notable man, increased the city 
of Corinth in power and reigned as king over it 
thirty-eight years. After his death the kingship 
was assumed from time to time by the eldest son 
of his descendants, until the tyranny of Cypselus, 
which falls four hundred and forty-seven years after 


657 B.O, 


the Return of the Heracleidae. The first of the 


Heracleidae to succeed to the kingship was Ixion, 
who reigned thirty-eight years; after him Agelas 
ruled for thirty-seven years, and then Prymnis for 
thirty-five. And Bacchis, who ruled for an equal 
number of years, became a more famous man than any 
of his predecessors, and this was the reason why the 
kings who followed him came to be called no longer 
Heracleidae, but  Bacchidae.  Agelas followed 
Bacchis and reigned for thirty years, Eudemus for 
twenty-five, and Aristomedes for thirty-five. At 
his death Aristomedes left à son Telestes, who was 
still a child in years, and Telestes was deprived of the 
kingship he had inherited by Agemon, his father's 
brother and his own guardian, who reigned sixteen 
years. After him Alexander held the royal power 
for twenty-five years. Alexander was slain by 
that Telestes who had been deprived of the an- 
cestral rule, and he then reigned for twelve years; 
, and Telestes was slain by his kinsmen and Automenes 
reigned for a year. And the Bacchidae, who wete 


365 





REUMERSSUSETREUEN Ree mee s SS RUNURSSY GPS qe 


VES qiiae e erespideten e dere da z 


pp 


urupeum 


dibieteetue teme enam yeu 


SSASSU 


mess 


nis 


DESSEN ne ARR 


numen 
cc 


SRERT 


um 
TU 


E S c 
re fe 






























DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Srakocicov korécyov Tv px", xai kowf pev 
mpoewoT(kecav Tíjs wóAecs dravres, é£ arów 
$2 fva kar! éwavróv fjpobvro mpUravw, óg TTv 

p^ / Ey / 35 t x / ^ 
vo faocuéus elye vá£w, émi €T d péxpi Ts 
KujéAov rvpawvi8os, $^ 7js kareAUÜncav. | (Geor- 
gius Syncellus, pp. 336-38.) 

7 , 


10. "Ovv éyévero Tvpavvos korà Tv Kop 
M ? »y ^ « , ^ N 
viv móAw. óvopa MáAakos, 0s eDOokwuuÓv opa 


vois «AwÜeoi kal voUs OvvamovrároUs áei Ow BáA-. 


Àew wepiemovjocaTo  TÜv BvvacTe(av, KaL TOUS 
pév ebmopuorárovs TÓV zoÀwráv dméodabev, às 
8e ojclas dvoAaBOw  puo8odópovs érpeóe kai 
doflepós T mois Kupatow. (Const. Exc. 2 (1), 
p. 212.) 

[Tó veAevratov erà Tv áÜoBov ràv ' HpakAet- 
SGy 'Apyetou kat AakeBauuóviot — Trépsrovres 
&wowuas dÀÀae Té vwas víjcovs ékTiwsaw Kai TQU- 

, 


vqs Tíjs vwüjoov (sc. Koírgs) orarrQoápevor 


» ? 


^ T x 
4róÀeig Twàs deoav év abra(s: epi cw T kovrà 


pépos év rots iOiots xpóvois ávarypdalopev. — (Diod. 
5. 80. 3.)] mi 
[Merà cv 'Tpoías dÀcow Kápes ad£v0évres 
9 ^ ? / S Le / 
éni mÀetov éÜoAarrokpármoav, kat TOV KvkAdóov 
vücwv kporüoovres Tws. uév (Big karéoxyov kai 
zo9e dy adraís karowoÜvras Kpfjras é£éDaAov, 
Twwüs 86 kowij perà. TÓv mpoevowodvrov. Kpuyráv 
^ (o : 3 "Hn Li / * 
kardumsav. — ÜDorepoy 8€ TÓV EXjvov e)£9- 


Ocvrcv, ocvvéBg vàs Àetovs TÓv KuxAdOcv | 
/ » NM S LNETTED 0] x / ^ Y 
váocv oikwcÜfva. kai TOUS Bapfépovs Küpas e£ 


366 


DAR zcmoeu 


caa 





ME MM IE EM dM C MEM ERE 





FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIL 9. 6—1o. zx 


descendants of FHeracles, were two hundred in 
number when they seized the rule, and they all 
maintained control over the state as a body ; out of 
their own number they annually chose one man to 
be chief magistrate, who held the position of the 
king, this form of government continuing for ninety 
years until it was destroyed by the tyranny which 
Cypselus established. 

10. In the city of Cymé there was a tyrant by the 
name of Malacus. He established his domination 
by ingratiating himself with the masses and by 
constantly calumniating the most influential citi- 
zens, and he continually put to the sword the 
wealthiest citizens, seized their possessions and thus 
maintained mereenaries, and was a terror to the 
Cymeans. | | 

[And last of all, after the Return of the Hera- 
cleidae, Argives and Lacedaemonians sent forth 
colonies which they established on certain other 
islands and likewise took possession of Crete, and 
on these islands they took certain cities for their 
homes; but with regard to these cities we shall 
give a detailed account in connection with the period 
of time to which they belong.] 

[After Troy was taken the Carians steadily in- 
creased their power and became masters of the sea; 
and taking possession of the Cyclades, some of the 
islands they appropriated to themselves, expelling 
the Cretans who inhabited them, but in some 
islands they settled jointly with the  Cretans, 
who had been the first to dwell there. And at a 
later time, when the power of the Greeks increased, 
the major number of the Cyclades came to be 
inhabited by them, and the Carians, who were non- 





Moss MEM E i LR RR 


VeéssTSPONeSRAT Tyro omes an e aet, ster 


— 





Mond Lac aM tenis 


USUNDGNUNOmI ues ovn pn eU qns temet eim te ERU s nA ee reete 





RCOOCNEUSNUNQUAUQDENIUREMERE ENT MAC rte 
nce T s" P AGER T 


cs 


SD 


r-: 


c 


ESOGGESUS 


erg UR 


Eu Mecum 





rd 
ESCPeT 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


La] »^ *N * , $? ^ 
aDTÓv ékmeoetv- srepi cv TY kaTQ pépos €v mois 


oiketots xpóvows dvaypdabojev. — (Diod. 5. 84. 4.)] 


11. Ex Diodori scriptis breviter de temporibus 
Thalassoeratorum, qui maria tenebant. 
Post bellum Troianum mare obtinuerunt : 


I. Lidi et Maeones annos XCII 


II. Pelasgi » LXXXV 
III. Thrakii » LXXIX 
IV. Rhodii s; ul 
V. Phrygii 259 0AAV 
VI. Kiprii 34: AMORE bu 
VII. Phynikii » XLV 
VIII. Egiptii —— 
IX. Melesii » (XVIIT) 
X. (Cares) » (XD 
XI. Lesbii » (LXVIII) 
XII. Phokaei sc AMIBLV 
XIII. Samii Ned 
XIV. Lakedemonii 5," Il 
XV. Naxii y; 29 
XVI. Eretrii » XV 
XVII. Eginenses TE.d 


usque ad Alexandri [ve] Xerxis] transfretationem. 
(Euseb. Chron. 1, p. 225.) 





1 Karst, pp. 106-7. 

? A defence of the general accuracy of the following list, 
together with a parallel table of similar lists from the Chrono- 
logies of Syncellus, of Eusebius! Canon, and of Jerome, is to 
be found in J. L. Myres, '' On the ' List of Thalassocracies 
in Eusebius," Journ. Hell. Studies, 20 (1906), 84—130. 

? For ''Carians," found here in the Canon of Eusebius, 
368 


QT 





osi. a 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIL ro. x-rr. z E 


Greeks, were driven out by them. But of these 
matters we shall give a detailed account in connection | 
with the appropriate period of time.] 


1l. Eusebius, Chronicle! 


The Periods when Certain Peoples were Masters 
of the Sea, Excerpted from the Writings of Diodorus.? 
After the Trojan War the mastery of the sea was 


held by: 


1. Lydians and Maeonians 92 years 
2. Pelasgians Rn es 85  , 
3. Thracians .. 2n $4 TO a 
4. Rhodians .. " " 7: ES 
5. Phrygians.. s $s 205 
6. Cyprians .. s 23 dÀ s 
7T. Phoenicians N Me i5 ., 
8 
9 

10 


———————'ÁÁÁÓÉ» 


—— 


E PAM 


Emmeness 


i A—— 


. Egyptians.. js e — o» 


. Milesians .. i A — s 
E e 








WeSUSUR UON SAMO E recu RECTUS MAS Ea Aere rw I Gere e e cepe 


11. Lesbians .. A: E — ^» 
12. Phocians .. m i5. 44í 
183. Samians "- " . cc ,9 
]4. Lacedaemonians .. - 2: 


15. Naxians .. x "i MY. 
16. Eretrians .. DICE NE I3 
17. Aeginetans EC NO lO |, 


down to the time when in * crossed over to the 
other side.? 


Burn would read '' Moped "7 (Journ. Hell. Studies, 4'l 


(19277), 167). 
à In 480 B.C. ; the Ármenian text reads ** Alexander." 


5 £e. into Europe. 


TETUUU T AURAUATANUTONTI m eI DG e use 


emm 


369 











.DIODORUS OF SICILY 


12. "Orc vgÀkoÜürov epi vóv Avkobüpyov v 
Tjs pers TO péysÜos, dore mapoyevüÜEvros 
5 , en X , / 5 / 
eis AeAdo)s abDro80 Tijv llvÜiav &moó0éy&ao0o. 
émy ráOe- 





TUSOROSONOPU OUR OMM 


r1 
H E : / 
i 7kew, à Avukóopye, éuóv srori miova vnóv, 
* ASA (A * Pel *'OA / 8 /, * v 
V Zi dios kai v&ücw "Opa ócpar. éxovot. 
»y 
Gic 1] oe Üeóv pavreicopau 7] ávÜpexrrov: 
» *? X X »^ 0 3 EA ó ÁA / 
GAN. éri kal jGÀAov Ücóv &Xrropau, co Avkooprye. 
Tkews 9^ eüvopíav aireUjevos: adràp &yorye 
4 M * dAÀX ? Ü Hi )A [4 9 
6c0« Tijv oDk dAX émxÜovin «óAs &&«. 


Em 















— 


2 "Or: ó adrós djpórnoe 77» Iv0iav, soto vóuuua 
karaoTócas páAcT dv dQQeXjcaw Toós 2wraprid- 
vus. Tíjs Óé eimodos ? éàv voos uév kaÀÓs Tyyet- 
oOa«, rods 8e reÜapyetv vouoDerijan, rdv fjparqae 
ví voioÜvres kaÀds Tynoovraw.kat Ti Teapyj- 
covcw. 7| 06 dvetÀe roÜrov TÓv ypropuóv: 





HM I mI M cl 


emus 


Ep 


Ese! 


* 8 € 3 d ^ * ? 95 / 2 / 
eloiv ó8oi 8Uo mrÀetorov dx" GAXjAcv dmréxovaa:, 
3j iév éAevÜep(as és r(uov otkov dyovoaa, 
€ 5 *? V 8 À / A 8 / € , 
7) 9. émi GovAetas devkróv Óópov vjueptovot. 
«ai Tijv jév 8u& &" áv8pooívus éparfjs 0^ Ópovotas 
&ort mepav, Tfjv 91) Aaotis yyeto0e kéAevÜov: 
Tijv 06 Bà oTvyepfjs épiQos kat àváAkiDos Gmys 
eicaducávovaw, T7jv 07 vediAa£o udMora. 
1 To this point from Const. Exc. 2 (1), p. 212. 
? Ll. 1-4 of the oracle are taken irom Herodotus, l. 65. 
'The collection of excerpts entitled De senteni$s (Const. Exc, 
4, pp. 272 ff.), commonly known as Excerpta Vaticana, opens 


with the middle of 1. 4 of the oracle. 
* ebmoVogs added by Dindorf. 


RE RERRERE 


Sese oae 


L^ - 
DNNEPUCX(T n7 










! The firs& four lines of the oracle are given also in 
Herodotus, 1. 65. 


379 


AUS mne 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIL ra. 1-2 


DecEesetes eva ami p sse 


12. Such was the magnitude of the qualities of 
virtue possessed by Lycurgus that once, when he 
went to Delphi, the Pythian priestess delivered to 
him this utterance:!- 


Lycurgus, loved of Zeus and all whose homes 
Axe on Olympus, thou art come unto 

My wealthy shrine. I wonder how I shall 
Reveal myself to thee, as god or man; 

Yet more a god, Lycurgus, hold I thee. 

Thou com'st in search of goodly laws; and such 
À system of fair laws shall I now give 

To thee as never city upon earth 

Shall e'er possess. 


The same Lycurgus inquired of the Pythian priest- 
ess what sort of customs he should establish for the 
Lacedaemonians whereby they might receive the 
greatest advantage. And when she replied that 
he should legislate in such fashion that the one group 
should govern fairly and the other group should 
obey those in authority, he inquired of her again, 
what should be done by those who were to govern 
fairly and by those who were to be obedient to men 
in authority. Whereupon the priestess delivered 


the following oracle: 


Two paths there be which farthest parted are, 
One leading on to freedom's honoured halls, 
The other to the house of slavery which 
All mortals shun. The former path is irod 
By those of manly soul and concord sweet ; Pur/r 
And on this way I charge you lead the folk ; cow] 
The latter is the path of loathsome strife — vn 
And. weak delusion: "This the way which thou 6^ 
Must guard against most carefully. 

. SH 


SUIUE ANUS UiU Kc EPUUENS, Ete cr dpete test eA. tuts 


] 
l| 
i 
j 


em 





petiit deumoNueMDdE e umeteadodemern 


— 


PURUS 


-— 


pl asupdspem icone 






Segre 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


3 To 8é kedáAauov Tv n peytorqy arpóvotav 
TrovnTéov éoqiv óptovotas kat àvOpelas, cos Ou& póvaw 
TOUTOV fis éAevÜepías $vAMrreota. Svvapévrs, 
7s. xcpis oj80év ódeAos ov0. GAÀAo vi! TÀv mapà 
Toís vroMotis ÜmeUmppévov dya0óv * exew érépois 
Ümjkoov Óvra- qávra yàp. TÓ roi Dra Ty Tyov- 
pévow, o) TÓÀv Ürroreravpévov éorív- dT eUrep 
TuS éavTÓ BovAera. Ka HE) vois dAÀAoLs krijaaata. 
và dyalá, mpóróv éor karackevaoTéov jw 

4 cAevÜepíay. ápdorépov OÓé ékéAevae mroueiaUo. 
mpóvouav, ÓTL 0drepa 3 ajráv kar. ioiav o) Ovvarat 
TÓV meprroviodpuevov expeMjcau- ob8€v yàp OQeAos 
dvpetous óvras oracuáLew 1) Ópovoeiv Depatos 
Oe.ÀoUs Ó óvras. 

5. "Or ó arg Avkoüpyos. Tveyke Xpnopóv ek 
AcMàv Trepi Tíjs duAapyvpías TOv év sapoiías 
pépeu uvpovevópevov, 

à duoxypquaría Ziráprav 0Àet,* dÀAAo O6 ovOév. 


6 'H Ilv0ia éypgoe v Avko)pyq Trepi rÓv so- 
Avrucáiv oUTOS, 


*Q8e yàp dpyvpóro£os &va£ ékáepyos ' AaóAav 
Xpvookópa]s éypn) 7rtovos é£ à8/rov, 

&pyew pev BovA$s 9 Ücoriuiz;rovs Bacwfjas, 
otat i.éÀet 2wrápras iuepóeaca mróAs, 


1 5, added by Krebs. 

? So Krebs: &yatóv. 

? Bárepov, the emendation of Dindorf and Vogel, is rejected 
by Boissevain. 

* So Dindorf: éAou. 

5 So Dindorf: BovA. 





! i.e, both the *' good things of life ' and ** freedom." 
372 | 


Mumoo cuu cem. a ee m. mde AI - 





FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VII. r2. 3-6 


The sum and substance of the oracle was that the 
greatest attention should be devoted to concord 
and manly spirit, since it is by these alone that free- 
dom can be maintained, and unless à man possesses 
freedom nothing he has is of use to him, nor 
indeed any goods which the majority of mankind 
consider of value, seeing that he is the subject of 
other men. For all such things belong to those 
who hold authority, not to subjects; and so, if any 
man wishes to lay up the good things of life for 
himself, and not for others, to use, he must first 
of all win freedom. And the oracle commanded 
that both possessions * should be the concern of men, 
since neither one of them, without the other, can 
be of advantage to him who has won it; for there is 
no advantage to men to be brave, if they are at 
odds among themselves, or to be wholly of one mind, 
if they are cowards. 

The same Lycurgus received from Delphi an 
oracle with regard to covetousness, which is handed 
down to memory in the form of a proverb: 


Covetousness, and it alone, will work 
The ruin of Sparta. 

The Pythian priestess delivered to Lycurgus an 
oracle regarding a political constitution in these 
words : ? 

Thus Lord Apollo, he of silver bow, 

Far-darter, golden baired, has made response 

From out his wealthy shrine: Let kings, to whom 

Is honour 'mongst the gods, and in whose hearts 

Is care for Sparta's lovely city, hold 


? This sentence is a marginal note; but the following 
oracle, which is also attributed to Tyrtaeus (4, Bergk), clearly 
is no6 à par6 of what immediately precedes it in the MS. 

| 373 





VLANIDAmy semet unl genet Bec 


C — ums 
P [OO——— 












7 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


erpeaBvyevets O6 yépovras, émevra 86 Óquóras 
| dv pas, | 
eU eLaus p'jr pass dvrozrapieiBopévovs zi 

uuÜetoÜat rc? và kaÀà kai épOew qrávra Otcata, 
pneé vt BovAeóew Tfjoe TrÓAét OKoALÓv,? 

ó"cuov T€ "ret vien kat Kápros émeoÜlac- 
(oifos yàp vepi rÀv 9. àvédyve mróA«. 


"Or. Tos um) Bua dvAdrrovras Tiv "pós TÓ 
Üetov eooépetav zoÀD náÀAov ur TQpetv và cpós 
ToUs üvÜpcvmovs Oikoia. (Const. Exc. 4, pp. 
919714.) | 

"Om. ot Aakebasidytoi Xpnodpievou Tols 00 
Avkodpyou vópots ék Tamewóv Dvvadyrovrot € éyév- 
ovro TÓÀV "EAMjvo, Tv oé jyyepoviay Oe Qó- 
Aa£av érr er) qÀeio TOV v'. pera. é raóra 
ek Tob KüT óAtyov karaAÓovres ékaoTOv TÓw 
vouijuov, KaL mpós Tpvj"]v kai paOvpav drrokAtv- 
oves, érL, 8€ DuadDapévres vopAoq.ort xpfjoau 
kai vÀo)rovus GÜpoiLew, àméBaAov. r)v T"yego- 
víav. (Const. Ezc. 2 (1), p. 212.) 

13. "Ort Tojpsevos Tv "Apyetav Aaxycv év- 
eBaAe pera vfjs oTpamiüs eis TT)v TÓV mroAejcov 
Xxdpav. . XpoviZovros 9€ ToO zroÀépov TOUS pev 
vioUs o? mrpof)yev émi TÀs Tyeuovías, TÓv 8€ 

Tíjs Üvyorrpós dvOpa, Amijóvrgy O.adepóvros ármo- 
Muri éraacev émi- Tüs émijaveoráras qpá- 


k T3. 5-8 of the oracle may É interpolated; ep. Sehwartz 
in E.-E.5,p.678. 

* Bo Dindorf: 8é. 

* oxoAy added by Wurm. 


374 


MÍLESOQURHE M VRSudinthi denancusesisssesssd xdi eeqersurdsse me iei oeilE lemen mere ERR le eo ^ 


sse 


amqPedEaBQEp 


asit 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIL z2. 6—13. 1 


In Council the first place; and let old men, 
Of ancient worth, and after them from out 
The folk the warriors, all in turn yielding | 
Obedience to straight rhetrae,! speak fair and hold 
| To justice in their ev'ry deed; nor let 
d Them profer erooked counsel to this state ; | 
d And in the body of the folk let there. | 
d Reside decision and the power. "Tis thus | 
| That Phoebus hath appointed for the city. 
|J They who do not cherish piety toward the divinity — | 
] show all the less concern to observe justice toward | 
[ men. | 
h The Lacedaemonians, by observing the laws of 
| LoEurg ue from a lowly people grew to be the most i 
| powerful among the Greeks and maintained the 
| leadership among the Greek states for over four | 
hundred years.? But after that time, as they little | 
by little began to xelax each one of the institutions 
and to turn to luxury and indifferenee, and as ! 
they grew so corrupted as to use coined money and to 
amass wealth, they lost the leadership. | 
.. 183. Temenus;? who obtained the territory of Argos | 
as his portion, together with his army invaded the | 
land of his enemies, And in the course of the war, 
which was a long one, he did not advance his sons 3 
| 





ees EL S 






Esto ots entier vas nere isi epuugica d tiere icqm 
esesdEi m. 


to positions of command, but he assigned to Dei- 
phontes, his daughter's husband whom he especially 
favoured, the undertakings which carried with them 


1 ** (lovenants'' ; but the word is almost a technical term 
for the laws of Lycurgus which were considered to be 
** covenants'' between the Spartans and the lawgiver. —— 

2 lo the battle of Leuctra in 371. "There appears to be 
good evidence from what is known of Diodorus' chronology 
that the number should be ** five hundred." 

3 One of the Heraeleidae. 


—— 


3 


" 
: 1 
1 * [| 
| 
| 
1 
5824 
| 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


fes. é$' ole oi rro Bes ajTob OuoryavakroDvres 
Kiacos kai QdAkgs kai Kepivns emfovAyv. KQ/rà 
roD 7'OTpós cvveaTijoavro Oud TiVCOV Kakopycv- 
oL meu évres ó ÓmO TOÓTOQV évijüpevoav TOv lüuevov 
vapá wa orav, kai $oveüca. pév o)k 78vvi- 
ncav, kararpavpuarioavres 86 eis duynv o cppoav. 

"On MpyetoL ToÀÀà. kakorrabioarres €v TÓ 
vOÀÉUQ TÓ Tpós AaxceBaupoviovs perà Tof cavrdv 
BacvMéuos, «ai Tots '"Apkáoci Tás sra Tpióas diro- 
karaoTijaavres , épépdovro TÓV Baca Ou TÓ 
TV xdpav aDTÓv ümoOcOcKéva, Tolg $vydow, 
dAAà po adito: karakAnpovyfjaaa. cvorávros 8. 
em a)rOv ToÜ Oc)uov, kai ràs xeipas dmovevon- 
p.éveos mpoodépovros, &vyev eis Teyéav | kàket 
OLeréAege  Tuicuevos zo TOv c9 mcaÜóvrov. 
(Const. Exc. 2, pp. 191-98.) 

14. Karéoyer oóv 5) PaociAcia 1 TÓYy ' Apyeltov 
érg dpu0', kaÜcs kai Awüwpos 0 ocojovroros 
cvveypdiaro.  (Malalas, p. 68.) 


15. Cessante Assyriorum dynastia, post Sardana- 
palli ultimi regis Assyriorum mortem, Makedonio- 
rum tempora succedunt. 

Karanus ante primam olompiadem rerum cupi- 
ditate motus copias collegit ab Argivis et ab altera 
(regione) Peloponesiaca, et cum exercitu expeditio- 
nem in partes Makedoniorum suscepit. Eodem 
tempore Orestarum regi bellum erat cum vicinis 


| 4rot roma pxía. after BactAela is probably a gloss. 





* Karst, pp. 107-108. ^ * On this king see Book 2. 23. ff. 
376 | 


Vans aseiPhos US RITU Ier est 





FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIL zs. i-r5. : 


the most renown. For thisreason his sons, Cissus and 
Phalees and Cerynes, became wroth with him and 
formed a plot against their father by the hands of 
certain villains; and the latter, at the instigation 
of the sons, lay in wait for Temenus beside a certain 
river. But they did not succeed in slaying him, and 
took to flight after only wounding him. : 

The Argives, since they had suffered serious re- 
verses in the war which they together with their king 
had undertaken against the Lacedaemonians, and 
had been forced to hand over their ancestral homes 
to the Arcadians, laid the blame for this upon their 
king, on the ground that he had given over their 
land to the exiles and had not divided it in lots among 
them.  Ánd the mass of citizens rose up against him 
and in their despair laid violent hands upon him, 
whereupon he fled to Tegea, where he spent his 
days in the enjoyment of honours at the hands of 
those who had received his favours. 

14. The kingship among the Argives lasted for 


five hundred and forty-nine years, as the most 


learned Diodorus has stated in his history. 


15. Eusebius, Chronicle! 


p 


E 


i — 


MÁS Ax mus mias 


mene 


xRUeman ceu ean 


— 


After the rule of the Assyrians came to an end 612 s.c. 


with the death of their last king, Sardanapallus;? 
there followed the period of the Macedonians. 
Caranus, who was covetous of possessions, before 
the First Olympiad gathered forces from the Argives 
and from the rest of the Peloponnesus, and with this 
army he advanced against the territory of the Mace- 
donians. It happened that at the same time the 
king of the Orestae was at war with his neighbours, 


371 





TENET. 

ty de d 
tH i e UE 
"S b 


& ES 


Renbmdkettieae ees n ecuneuessemcene ees 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


suis, qui vocantur Eordaei, rogavit Karanum, ut ipsi 
auxilio esset: suaeque regionis mediam partem ei 
se daturum pollicitus est Orestarum rebus compo- 
sitis; et rege fidem exsolvente Karanus regionem 
obtinuit regnavitque in ea annis XXX, tempore 
senectutis e vita excessus (excedebat); cuius princi- 
patum filius eius, qui Kojinus nominatus est, excepit 
et dominatus est annis XXVIII. Post eum regnavit 
Tirimmus annis XLIII. Perdikas annis XLII. Hie 
regnum suum adaugere volebat (ac propterea) Del- 
phos misit. 
2 Et post pauca verba iisdem addens dicit: 
Perdikas annis regnavit XLVIII imperiumque 
Árgaeo reliquit. Huic uno supra XXX annos 
regnanti Philippus in imperio suffectus est; qui annos 
triginta tres regnavit et potestatem  Ajeropae 
reliquit. Hie vero cum annis XX dominatus esset, 
regni successionem excepit Alketas, qui annis XVIII 
imperavit, reliquitque potestatem .Amintae. Reg- 
nante hoec annis IX supra XL imperium excepit 
Alexandrus, qui annos tenuit XLIV. Post hune 
regnavit Perdikas annis XXII. Arkhelaus annis 
XVIL  Ajeorpus annis VI. Post quem Pausanias 
anno uno dominatus est. Ptlomaeus annis III. 
Post hune Perdikas annis.V. Philippus annis XXIV. 
Alexandrus cum Persis plus duodecim annis certavit. 
3  Makedonici regni generationem hoc pacto histo- 
ricorum fideles ad Heraklem referunt. A Karano, 
qui primus in unum conflatam tenuit Makedonio- . 
rum potestatem, usque ad Alexandrum, qui Asia- 
norum terram subegit, viginti quatuor reges re- 
censentur, anni CCCCLIII. (Euseb. Chron. 1, p.221.) 





* Diodorus. ! 
378 1 














FRAGMENTS OF. BOOK VII. zz. I-3 


who were known as Eordaei. He asked Caranus 
to come to his assistánce and promised to give him 
half of his land, when he had established peace among 
the Orestae. The king was as good as his word, 
and Caranus received the land and ruled as king over 
it for thirty years. He died in his old age and was 
succeeded on the throne by his son who was known 
as Coenus, who reigned twenty-eight years. After 
him Tirimmus reigned for forty-three years, and 
Perdicas for forty-eight years. Perdicas wished to 
enlarge his kingdom and so made inquiry of Delphi. 

And a little further on he! writes on the same 
matters: ; | 

Perdicas reigned forty-eight years and left the 
kingship to Árgaeus.. And after a reign of thirty-one 
years Árgaeus was succeeded on the throne by 
Philip, who reigned thirty-three years and left the 
rule to Aeeropas. He ruled for twenty years, and 
then Alcetas sueceeded to the throne and reigned 
eighteen years, leaving the kingship to Amintas. 
And after his rule of forty-nine years Alexander 
followed on the throne, which he held for forty-four 
years. After him Perdicas reigned for twenty-two 
years, then Archelaüs for seventeen, and A&éorpus 
for six. After him Pausanias for one year, Ptole- 
maeus for three, then Perdicas for five, and Philip 
for twenty-four. And Alexander spent over twelve 
years warring with the Persians. 


.By such a genealogy trustworthy historians trace 


the line of the kings of Macedonia back to Heracles. 
From Caranus, who was the first to unite the power of 
Macedon and to hold it, to Alexander, who subdued 


the land of Asia, there are reckóned twenty-four | 


kings and four hundred and eighty years. 


- S819 
VOL. I1I. 5 


——— UN 


WUMTMESR uie D SN ANGUS teet remanere ecao 








LL 


M e ud 


x 


2: 
-— xc Anges : 


j 
b 
S 
ja 
H 
j 
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exte CUAL Yee 


(Sca 


S 
——————— M 


sumet men E 


z cm - 


Phe 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


16. "0m ILep8ickas Tv ioíav Bacietay av£foat 
BovAópevos Tpedrqocv eis NeAMjo)s. 7) 06 édn, 


eor kpáros BaotAewov à dryawols Taboo 
yas zrovroQópot* Ot8coot yàp aiytoxos Zeis. 
dAÀ (10' émevyópevos Borrgióa! «póg m«oA- 
"Xov 
€v0a, 8' àv Gpytképarras fps Xtovc9 eas abyas 
eovgÜévras jw 719,  keivgs xÜovos év Oamé- 
Ootct 
08e Üeoig pnaxápeosi kai áoTv kTiíe móÓAos. 


(Const. Ezc. 4, p. 214.) 


Dr. l'eveaAoyo$0t Ó. aUTÓv oUTOS, cg uou 

ó AuóBcopos KaL? oi moAÀÀol TÓV cvyypadéov, Gv 
eis kai Ocómroumos. Kdpavos *eiwvos ToO 
"Apto robajuo. TOU Méponos TOUÜ (Osoríov ToU. 
Kioiov -To0 'Touévov o0 Apuroudxov .To0 
KAeo8aíov * ro8 "YAAov Tob 'HpakAéovs.  évtoi 
66 dAÀÀws, dmnoi, yeveaAoyoóot, dáakovres etvat 
Kápavov IIoíavros o6 Kpoícov ToO KAcoGaíov 
TOÜ EZpvBudBa. To9 AeBáAMov. TOU  Aaxápovs 


ToU lauévov, 0s kai karífjAÜev eis IleAomóvvqoov. 
(Georgius Syncellus, p. 499.) 


1 So Dindorf : Bovrijia. 

2 . Um Herwerden (by error ?), Vogel for ov 9à. 
«oi omitted by Vogel. 

: T Wesseling : rax 


380 


MERIT 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIL. 1:6. 1-17. 1 


MU GAME SEES I rne! PS a 


16. Perdiccas, wishing to increase the strength 
of his kingdom, sent to Delphi to consult the oracle. 
And the Pythian priestess replied to him: 


Stands o'er a wealthy land a might of kings 

Of Temenus' right noble line, 

Of Áegis-bearing Zeus. But swiftly go 

To Bottiais, rich in locks; and then 

Where thou shalt see white-horned goats,! with 
fleece 

Like snow, resting at dawn, make sacrifice 

Unto the blessed gods upon that spot. 

And raise the chief city of a state. 


17. The genealogy of Caranus is given in this wise, 
as Diodorus reports, as well as the majority of his- 
torians, one of whom is also Theopompus.  Caranus 
was the son of Pheidon, the son of Aristodamis, 
the son of Merops, the son of Thestius, the son of 
Cissius, the son of Temenus, the son of Aristomachus, 
the son of Cleodaeus, the son of Hyllus, the son of 
Heracles. But there are some, he says, who adduce 
a& different genealogy, saying that Caranus was the 
son of Poeas, the son of Croesus, the son of Cleodaeus 
the son of Eurybiades, the son of Deballus, the son 
of Lachares, the son of Temenus, who likewise 
returned into the Peloponnesus. 


1 A reference to Aegae ('' city of goats"), the early capital 
of the Macedonians. | di | 


TRU most sme m 


Rcescsutenssmssescmeemee etie eot eepActmeit csset iE ee s dem 


E RE ONE 


I ru 


Ü 


ER 


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7 


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Meme mens 


EE AI 


AMENSNIWIR RES pot mt rcNDM Te 2s -— 31 
— pc LR 


ge 








docu Sese dass e ciam sERENIIdd RE 


pce are cip Tad ete icd Rises io 



















FRAGMENTA LIBRI VIII 


l."Owm «àv ^HAÀeüov soAwavüpovuévaw kat 
vop4eos vroAwrevopévav ódop&cÜn. roós AakeOaa- 
povíovs «jv Tojrov abbgow, Gvykarackevácau 
Tóv kowóv Blov, tv! eiprjvgs. àmoAasovres uajoepiav 
em » 
Éycooiw  épmewiav  Tív xarà  TÓÀeuov  épyov. 
xal kalwpocav abjrobs rà Ü«Q, Ovyxcpnoávrov 
A. 2 oye0óv dmávrcw TÓV "ExMjwcv. Kol obre émwi 
"^ qp- 5 5 
vfs Eép£ov orparetas cvveorpárevoav, GÀAà dd- 
elUgcav 8uà và émueAetoUn. Tfjs ToU Üco0 Tiufjs, 
y 1 oé hi ? 7:1 5 ^ ^ *"EAA , 
ir.1 8é kal kar iOíav €év TOWs TOV Ylvoov 
E , / *$ 3 * 3 / 
: dudvMow  coAéuow  oD0eis aUTOUS sapvóxAet 
: & 
| Suà có mávrag rjv xyópav kal T?» mÓAw oTreUOetv 
e * $ xv "i v A ^ 
Íepàv kal dovAov $vAdrrew. voTepov 6e sroAAats 
yeveats koi cvarpareÜca? ro rovs ka (eig, roAé- 
3 : [ 
uovs émaveAéo0au. (Const. Ezxc. 2. (1), pp- 212-13.) | 
3. "Om ot 'HÀetot r&v kowóv soÀépcov o0 peret- 
yov: kai yàp óre &épems rais TogaUTQig |UpiA OU! | 
éorpárevoev émi roos "EAmvas, &delÜncav vro 
HS ; PITE / ; 
TÓv cvupáxow Ts OTpareias, arpoga£ávrav |] 
p e / i E : 1 
rÓv dyyeuóvew mov abroós mowjcew, éàv ém- 
/ p^ 5^ ^ Ld 
péXovroa Tíjs T&v edv ruis. | (Const. Exc. 4, p. 2/4.) 
: So Reiske: ór.. 
? So Dindorf: orparebUca. 


ok | | 








Gent ede c 


ie 


$c à 
E 


1 Zeus. 


392 


1 
l 
Í 
| 
| 
dd 








TXCONSNSe 


D ircee e dA LE E D. dis p Ls 


T 
ist see uec 


DOW We 





FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIII 


Sixcg the Eleans were becoming a numerous 

eople and were governing themselves in accordance 
with law, the Lacedaemonians viewed their growing 
power with suspicion and assisted them in establishing 
a settled mode of life for the community, in order 
that they might enjoy the benefits of peace and never 
experience the activities of war. And they made the 
Rleans sacred to the god, with the concurrence of 
practically the whole Greek world. As a conse- 
quence the Eleans took no part in the campaign 
against Xerxes, but they were relieved of service 


because of their responsibility for the honour due 
to the god, and further, in local struggles, when the - 


Greeks were warring among themselves, no state 
caused them any annoyance, since all Greek states 
were zealous to preserve the sanctity and inviolability 
of the land and city. Manysgenerations later, how- 
ever, the Eleans also began to join in campaigns 
and to enter upon wars of their own choosing. , 
. The Eleans took no part in the wars in which all 
the rest of the Greeks shared. In fact, when 


Xerxes advanced against the Greeks with so many 


myriads of soldiers, the allies relieved them of service 
in the field, the leaders instructing them that they 
would be returning a greater service if they should 


undertake responsibility for the honour due to the 


gods. : 
383 





$ 


—— C SNR 


Ma M 1l LLLA t ata MM 


EE 


— 


GUMun Um SimMANectce ecc esses mittes 


1 
1 





eue. 










Se 


ENSNS 
— 


dykds 









DIODORUS OF SICILY 


9. Kol pij cvyycopnÜcions pm9€ AaÜpaías cvp- 
zAokífjs «pós dvbpa:  pmoéva yàp oUro T0pa- 
dpowjcew dore éjmpuépov xápiv 7j8ovfjs rà paka- 
p.lópeva ToU Biov szavrós ávrucaraAAd£acOa. 
(Const. Exc. 4, p. 214.) - 

3. "Ov. Neuérop mo  ToÜ  iOtov GOeAdo0 
orepqÜels Tfje BaciAetas, Ós "AuóXos ékaÀetro, 
éfaciÀevoe ó6 'AMBavóv, ToUs iOiovs vicvous! 
map! éAniBas ávayvcepícas '"Péuov kai "PopiAov, 
éxefloAevoe xarà vob itov d8eAdoD vepi àvotpé- 
cens. & koi yéyove: perameibápevow yàp TOUS 
voue(s dppycav émi rà Baca, kal évrós vüv 
vpów eloeBiácavro kal ros? Ódworapévovs dv- 
jov, Üorepov 8é kal abróv Óv "AuóAov. (Const. 
Fac. 3, p. 198.) 

4. "Om vosrow. éreÜévrow, ére) voU. xpóvov 
mpoiódvros TjvüpdóUnoav, oA Guéepov vv GAAcv 
KdÀAe, kal pex. .Otó kai mci rois TrOLAVUOUS 
dojdAe apeiyovro, poOios ToUs Àgocesew 
eloÜóras dxokpovópevo, Kal moÀXoUg pév àv- 
aipoDvres Tv ésvrieuévov, éviovs 86 kai COvras 
ovAAapflávovres. xepis 96 Tfjs év roUr« .juAori- 
pias jmfpyov daaci mois mÀqoíov vojeOct mrpoo- 
ducis, rais Te OjuAous ovvóvres kai TOV éQvTÓV 
vpóxov uérpuov kal kowóv Tos Ócopévots áva8ew- 
vivres. 840 kal rfjs sávrov dcóaActas &v rovro 
keuiévns, ol mAÀetoro, ToUrow Dwerdrrovro Kai 
TÓ mapayyeAAópevov  émoíovv, cvvrpéxovres eis 
ojs npoorá£oeuev rómovs. (Const. Exc. 2 (1), p. 218.) 

5. "Ort óprilevogévow "Pépov kai 'Pepiov 

. 1 So Feder: woods. 
? To)S added by Müller. 


384 








FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIIL 2. 1-5. 1 


2. Nor was she! allowed the embraces of a man, 
even in secret; for no one (Aemulius thought) would 
ever be so foolish as to exchange the felicities of an 
entire life for the pleasure of à moment. 

3. Numitor? had been deprived of the kingship 
by his own brother, whose name was Amulius and 
who was king of the Albans, but when, contrary to 
his hopes, Numitor recognized his own grandsomns, 
Remus and Romulus, he laid a plot against this same 
brother to work his death. And the plot worked 
out: Summoning the herdsmen they marched against 
the palace, forced their way inside the entrance and 
slew all who opposed them, and later also Amulius 
himself. | 

4. When these children, Romulus and Remus, 
who had been exposed in infancy, had attained in the 


course of time to manhood, they far surpassed all the - 


restin beauty ofbody andinstrength. Consequently 
they provided protection for all the herds and flocks, 


easily repelling those who practised robbery, slaying . 


many of them in their raids and even taking some 
alive. Inaddition to the zeal they displayed in these 
matters, they were friendly towards all the herdsmen 
of the region, joining in their gatherings and proving 
their character, to any who needed their aid, to be 
modest and sociable. Consequently, since the safety 
of all hung upon Remus and Romulus, the majority 
of the people subjected themselves to them and 
carried out their commands, assembling in whatever 


place they ordered. | 
5. When Remus and Romulus were observing the 


1 'T'he reference is to the Vestal Rhea Silvia, the mother of 


Romulus and Remus. . n 
? Diodorus gives the name as x Nemetor.'" 


385 


M n 


m " 





MM e 


* 
i — 


MEME 1l tct 


UR mm am mibett 


MEE LA AA 




































cd 


penas 


uper 


ceseceEe 


A o IESUSE 


ECCE 


Reed 


cmd coEEER 


eia e ngiciuEm 


t2 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


mepi oikuap.o sróÀecos, kai ék rÀv Sefuv uepóv 
Gioonpuetav — yevéotat jací, karomAuyévra O6? 
càv "Pépov émuÜüeyfápevov eimrety TQ  a9eAQÓ, 
ín asrg fj mOÀe  moAMikus érapioTé- 
pou BovAeópacw émiBécvos  ákoAovÜÓoe. róyn? 
mpomer&s yàp aUroU TOV dyyeXov dmocretÀavros 
kai TO ka" abróv pépos OÀcs ?uaprqkóros bó 


.radrouárov OSwuopÜGoÜa.* Tiv &yvoway. (Const. 


Eac. 4, p. 214.) 
6. "Or: ó "PopiAos xriGov riv "Pop TáÓpov 


sepiéaAe 7. TlaAario karà omovOXv, p?) Twes 


rív «epwoikov  émfdAcvrat kcXjew  aUroD civ 
apoaípegw.  ó 8é "Pépuos Bapécs dépov éri v 
S.eoddABat rÀv apareiev, $Üovàv 6e raís eÜrvxL- 
ais ToU dBcA$o09 cpocwov ois épyyaCopévous 
éBAacdnjpev | dredriivaro yàp creviv «tva TT 
rádpov, kdl émud$aA, dgeoÜa,. cljv «Mw, TÓYV 
moÀeuiev pa8&os av Omepfauvóvrcw.  ó O€ 
'"PegiAos dpywpévos$ 6$, IIapayycAÓÀ  ráot 
rois «oAMraus ápóvacÜa, róv )mepBaivew  ériyet- 
ofvra. kal máMv ó '"Pépos mois épyailouévow 


dveBlLav. éd ovevijy. karaakeváLew T)v TáÓpov: 


.1 Boissevain suggests xai should follow $ací; Meij suggests 
a lacuna a£ter 7óAecs and another after yevécta. 
2 5é added by Oldfather. 
* So Dindorf: 8i. 
5 &o Dindorf: $up8dcaota. 
$ So the MSS. : rfjs e9rvylas v G6eA9Q Krebs, Vogel. ' 
€ So Dindorf: ópytadq.evos. - j 
! | 


1 Literally, **on the right." "The play upon *'on the left 


(clumsy) '* and ** on the right: favourable), in the following 


lines cannot be reproduced in the translation. . 
386 Rer SP e end 











FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIII. 5. 1-6. 2 - 


flight of birds for divination with a view to founding 
a city, there appeared (to Romulus), as we axe told, 
à favourable * omen, and Remus, amazed, said to his 
brother, " In this city it will happen many a time 
that clumsy counsels will be followed by a favourable 
turn of fortune." The fact was that, although 
Romulus had been too hasty in dispatching the 
messenger and, on his own part, had been altogether 
wrong, yet his ignorance had been made right by 
mere chance? 
6. Romulus, in connection with his founding of 
Rome, was. hastily throwing a ditch about it, to 
prevent any of his neighbours from attempting to 
hinder his undertaking. And Remus, angered at 
his failure to gain the chief place and jealous of the 
.good fortune of his brother, came up to the labourers 
and belittled their work; for he declared that the 


ditch was too narrow and that the city would easily . 
fall, since enemies would have no difficulty in getting - 


over it. But Romulus replied in anger, "I give 
orders to all citizens to exact vengeance of any 
man who attempts to get over thé ditch." And a 
second time Remus cast insults at the labourers, and 
said they were making the ditch too narrow. ' Why, 


? Diodorus' account of this incident must have followed 
closely that of Dionysius of Halicarnassus, 1. 86: "The 
brothers agree to watch in different places for an omen from 
the flight of birds, that one, to whom the omen first appeared, 
to.be ycom of the city. Romulus, * in eagerness and envy," 
sends false word to Eermus that he has already seen the birds 
óf omen; before the messengers reach Remus the latter has 
seen six vultures ón the right. Remus rushes to Romulus 
and asks him what kind of birds he had been the first to see. 


While Romulus hesitates to reply, suddenly twelve vultures  |' E | 


appear to him, arid be asks Kemnus how he can raise the 
question when he can see for himself the very birds. 212 





à 


381. 


Ensersepue ese cE ue remeare, 4 
VRGUMNECHUENESEI S escis e eresteiscete- Xmm eere estie ug - 


VRUHEAGeN eant mettere, esce eese 


- * 
Uuesctgüsaesossumects ere seetsrserg ee pre ceduem e 


f onheuumanEimue ee etii eri et m cS - 
MEL M RENI 








Dussecseemienm 






























Eee 


E. 


qs 
REIS 


quce: 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


eOxepós. yàp brepBrjoeotau TOUS mroAepovs kai 
yàp aorós pa* ícos Tofro cpárTew* kai dpa. rara. 


3 Aéycov rep aro. jv 0é mis KéAepos, ets TOV 


cpyalopéva», ós OmnoAapow, Eyo 0é, dmoiv, 

&pvvobuat TÓV Ümeprrioóvra KüTÓ TO mpóororyua 
TOU Baowécs, KaL OUO, rara. Aéycv ávérewe TO 
okadetov xai vará£as Tv kejaX)v ümékrewe 
TOv "Péuov. (Const. Exc. 4, pp. 214-15.) 

4. "Ov HoAvyápn Mecojvtov mÀoUro kai 
yéve Oadépovra, ovvÜéaÜa. ueBopia 1 xotweoviav 
TpÓs Edauvov 2maoprirqv. óv eis emuiéAveua 
kai uai rapaAaBóvra. Táís T€ dQyéAas koi 
TOUS vopeis émuyewfjoau pev mrÀcovekreiv, Kama- 


2 $aváj 9é wyevéo0a. ma Xjoavra. yàp épmrÓpots 


TÀv Te DoÀv kal TÓÀv vouéov -vwàs ém &£- 
aycyf zrpoomowÜfivax TTV Greta aov O7 
Age róv yeyovéva, acs.?  To)s 9é éprópovs 
eis 2ukeAiav mÀcovras Kopiteo0at vapà Tv 
IeAozróvvyoov: yevopévov 0€ XeutOvos srpocoppaa- 
0fva. 7f yf) Kai ToOs Vop.ets vukrós amopávras 
OvaOpGvar. Tj TÓYV TÓTTQV épmreupig. mworeócavras. 


3 mapo;yevnÜévrav 0c aordv eis Meoorfeny, Kal 


TÓ KUpiq mácay Tv àABeuav einóvrov, Tóv 
IoAvyáp" Toórovs pév kpojau, rÓv O6 kowowóv 


4 ek Tíjs Zaáprgs peramépiaotas. OvaBeBauov- 


[iévov óc ab)roÜ kai Aéyovros TÀv volécv TOUS 
pev ózó AyorÓv á$npsdoÜa,, robs O6 TereAevrg- 
Kévat,  TÓV Il. oÀvyápm  mpodyetv  ToUs &v8pas. 
oóg iOóvra TOv  Evawvov  karomAayfvaw, kal 


! So Jpotiy, &yeÀdv Krebs Vogel: pe8dv. 
* So Dindorf: Biakeov, : 


NT 





FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIII. 6. 27. 4 


enemies wil get over it with no trouble. See, I 
can do it myself, easily." And with these words 
he leaped over it. And a certain Celer, one of the 
labourers, answered him, " I will exact vengeance of 
the man who jumps over the ditch, even as the king 
commanded; and with these words he raised his 
spade, and striking Remus on the head, slew him. 

7. Polychares,| & Messenian of great wealth and 
conspicuous ancestry, agreed with Euaephnus, a 
Spartan, to share together the border land.? And 
when Euaephnus took over the oversight and pro- 
tection of the flocks and herdsmen, he tried to take 
advantage of Polychares, but he was found out. The 
way of it was this: He sold some of the cattle and 
herdsmen to merchants, on the understanding that 
they would be taken out of the country, and then 
alleged that the loss was due to the violent attack 
of robbers. The merchants, who were going by 
ship to Sicily, were making their way along the 
Peloponnesus; and when a storm arose they dropped 
anchor near the land, whereupon the herdsmen 
slipped off the boat at night and made their escape, 
feeling safe in their knowledge of the region. They 
then made their way to Messené and revealed to 
their master all the facts; and Polychares concealed 
the slaves and then asked,his partner to come to him 
from Sparta. And when Euaephnus held to his 
story that some of the herdsmen had been carried. 
off by the robbers and the rest had been killed by 
them, Polychares produced the men. When Euaeph- 


nus saw the men he was struck with constemnation, . 


1 ds story, with many differences, is also. in Pausanias, 
4. 4. A f. id" adero qs , 
* Between Sparta-snd Messenia, un 


— 





NR NERA d 


REGIS, PRI peue eem etc es mpi, me Ua Stem isis 


mecs ecpntetaeemst eie 


mucus meneereitcemepmertesctes eensrasemece teme sese " 
—— 


toccwe. UNUM oL NL DEUS 


; 
i " j 
mn 
; Là 
- | 


4 

:| 

d 

(OP 

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j 

T^ E 

à 1 4 [t 

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] 





| DIODORUS OF SICILY. 


Qavepós éAeyyópevov apamfva, vpos 8égaw, kai 
Tás Te Doüs ámokaraerijoet érayyyeAéo0a, kai 
5 m&cav mpoéoOa. jov? eis TÓ coÜ0fva. Tóv 
0€ IoAvydpn. évrpamrévra, T)V £evíav kpUa, Tv 
mp&&w, kai TOv viov ovvasooTetÀau T) Zmaprirm 
Tpós TÓ Tuyelv TÓv Owatov. Edcudvov 06 kai 
TÓV ÉmGyyeAuv ema eoa, TOV Oé eis 2uráprqv 
6 cwvekrepQÜévra, veaviakov áveAet (v. o9 avvreAe- 
oÜévros. TÓV IIoAvydpn Ós émi vr9Àucobrots &vopj- 
pact óyavakrety KaL 7Óv atrio égawreiv. TOUS 
86 Aake8Gauuoviovus ToDTQ UT) zpooéxe, TOv Oé 
vióv Ejaídvov per! émworoMjs cis Meaenjyov 
árooTeiAaL OvAobvra, SiL ILoAvydpms eis 2aráp- 
TQ karmyopetro. Tepi 4v éraÜev émi T€ TÓYV 
édópcv kai. rdv Baca. TÓV óc IIoAvxdpn - 
TUXÓvTa 1 TÀv iocv Tóv T€ veaviokov dveÀetv 
kai Tv TOÀw pvoidLew. (Const. Exc. 2 (Ll), pp. 
213-14.) | 
,9. "Ort rv kvváv opvopévov kai rv Meoog- 
viov | àmeXmióvrov vpoceAUcv Tis. TÓV mpeo- 
Burépow sapekdAeu TÀ "8n pa mrpoaéxeuw TOÍS 
pávreau axeO.áLovot- Kai yàp kai émi TÀv iOitov 
Biov aDTOUS "rÀetoTOUS ápapryjuaot mepurémrew, 
pn Svvapiévous mrpoióéoDa TÓ peMov, «ai vüv 
jmép dv eikOs póvovs. ToUs Deos jyweokew 
2 àOvvarety ? &vÜpdymrovs Óvras entorac0oa. Tap- 
ekeAeyero otv méparew eis. AeMojs.. ? 8€ IIv0ta. 
dvelÀev oUrts. €x roD AirvribOv yévovs 090a. 


! Jacoby adds ui after ,TUXÓvra. 
* So Dindorf, Vogel, G8svaroy MS., Jacoby. 


1 Sparta. - 





399 








FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIII. ». 4-8. 2 


and, since his refutation was patent, he turned to 
entreaties, promising that he would restore the 
cattle and leaving no word unsaid whereby he might 
be spared. And Polychares, in reverence for the 
obligations of hospitality, made no mention of what 
the Spartan had done, and sent his son along with 
him, to receive his duesat híshands. But Euaephnus 
not only forgot the promises he had made but even 
slew the youth who had been along with him to 
Sparta. At this deed Polychares was so enraged 
at such acts of lawlessness that he demanded the 
person of the criminal. The Lacedaemonians, how- 
ever, paid no attention to his démand, but sent the 
son of Euaephnus to Messené with a reply, to the 
effect that Polychares should come to Sparta and 
prefer charges before the eplors and the kings for 


the wtongs he had suffered. But Polychares, now. . 
that he had the opportunity to return like for like, - 
slew the. youth and in reprisal plundered the city. |... 
8. While the dogs were howling and the Messen- |. 
ians were in despair? one of the elders advanced and... 


urged the people to pay no heed to the off-chand 
pronouncements of the seers. For even in their 


private affairs, he said, they fall into many errors, 
by reason of their inability to foresee the future, and . 
in this case, when matters were so involved as only. 


the gods could be expected to know, they, being but 
men, could not understand them. He urged the 
people, therefore, to send a messenger to Delphi. 


And the Pythian priestess gave them the following ' .. 
answer: They should offer up in sacrifice a maiden. 


JEMAT, 


.? According to the account of Pausanias (4. 9. f. 


M as 
"Ln 


took place after the Messenians had withdrawn before the 


Spartans into Ithomé. oca 








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DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Kópqv TV rvyoDicay- cày Óé 1 Aaxoboa d8vvarfj 
kaBoavoÜfjvau, Üüoo Tóre vrapÜcvov Tiv ToD Oi 
Bóvros éxovatcos éx ToU abroÜ yévovs. kai Tora. 
apáéavres eere vüenv TOD moÀAénov ka kpáros. 
n oU8epaGs yàp Tuxfjs peyeos i icópporrov édavero 
rois yovetot mpós civ TÀYy Tékvav owry)ptar, à 
dpa pév ó Tfjis owyyevetas cAeos ékdoq ÜrreBUero 
TpÓ óQaAu v AauBávovri TV cjayj», d duo, Oé 
éverpésero mpo8ór)s yevécÜau. rékvov wpós Opo- 
Aoyodp.evov óAcÜpov. (Const. Exc. 4, p. 21 5.) 

9. IHpoémuzrev eis àvá£ia Tíjs mepi aDTOV 
8óems ápapripaa Oeivóg yàp oO épos odfjaL 
TOUS véovs, kai páXora. TOUS p.eyaAodpovotvras 
eni Tf Tob od;p.oros pópp. OU kai Tapeia- 
jjya/yov oi vaAÀatoi TÓV pÜoypádoov TÓy ÜrO TÓV 

Qv dvicyrov "HpakAéa $-0 Tfs TroUTov Ovvá- 
peos vucdpevov. (Const. Exc. 4, p. 216.) 

10. "Oz. "Apxías Ó Kop6y8tos épaoris àv 
"Ákratuvos TÓ pév mpórov mpooéreparé TWO TÓ 
Tra48i, Üavpacrás émravyyeAMas TroLoULLevos o? 
Bvvdpievos 0€ aTOv &voAaBeiv ,mapà T) TOÜ 
corpos kaÀokdyaÜiav kai Tv aoroO ToU Tra40g 
guépoar, Tjüpowre TÓV cvvijUcv TOUS erAela rovs, 
cs Buacópevos TÓv3 xydpuri kat Serjaet p?) omakoó- 
ovra. TéAos 8e peÜvoÜeis. perà TÓv cvpmapa- 
KÀngÜévrov | éni rogobrov dvoias Tpoémeocv vm 


1 dy after Tóv deleted by Herwerden, retained by other 
editors. 





! 'The los part probably described how the fathers avoided 
offering their children. Pausanias describes the affair rather 


fully. 
392 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIIL 8. 2-1. 2 


from the house of the Aepytidae, any one at all; 
and if the one on whom the lot fell could not be 
devoted to the gods, they should sacrifice whatever 
maiden any father from the same family might | 
freely offer. '"' If you will do this," the oracle con- | 
tinued, " you will gain the victory in the war and | 
power." ...! For no honour, great as it might be, | 
appeared in the eyes of the parents of equal weight | 
with the life of their children, since compassion for | 
one of his own blood stole into each man's heart as 
he pictured to his mind's eye the slaughter, while ] 
j at the same time he was filled with misgivings [ 
T that he should, like a traitor, deliver up his child | 





to certain death. | A 
9. He? rushed headlong into errors unworthy of ] 


his fame; for the power of love is mighty to trip m 
| up youth, especially such youth as are proud of the M] 
] strength of their bodies. And tbis is the xeason ^ — | 
i why the ancient writers of myths have represented . z 
1 Heracles, him who was unconquerable by any others, | . | 
j4 as being conquered by the might of love. Ut. E 
: 10. Archias the Corinthian, being seized with love D 
for Actaeon, first of all dispatched a messenger ^ . | 
to the youth, making him marvellouus promises; ^ | 
and when he was unable to win him over to act. . - d 
' contrary to the honourahle principles of bis father. — | 
and to the modesty of the youth himself, he gathered |. . | 
together the greater number of his associates, with 
the intention of using force on the youth who would 
not yield to favour or entreaty. nd finally once, 
when Archias had become drunken in the company ^. 
of the men he had called together, his passion drove .. 


? Perhaps the reference is to the Archias of the following |... 
chapter. | eM uos WA px rJ don 





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DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ToO mráovs, doTe eis Tv oikiay epereocov TOÜ 
3 MeAMoaov TOV vraiba. Braicos Garijyoryev.  Gvrexo- 
pévou óc TOU TOTpós KaL TrÓv GÀÀcv TÓV kar 

TÜV oixíay, map dpQorépows duoruitas Bwuorépas 

yevopéris é afev ó o mais €v raís Xepct TÓV ávrexo- 

Lévaov ádeis T)v jvy)v. core TO mapá&o£ov Tfjs 

arpá£ecs ávaAoyiLopévovs éAeetv pa Tiv ;ro0 

zraBóvros cvpdopàv «al PavudLew TÜ Ts TÓX"S 
mepuréreua- Q yàp ó mais Tfjs abTís eketvrs 
éruxe mrpocyyopías, TOUTQ Tv .óuotav Tob fov 
karacTpody éoxev, ékarrépcov )xzó TÓv uáAura 

dv BonÜncdvrow * ToO Lv mapazAgoip Tpómq 
: drop aut 

à "On "AyaÜokMjs émioTáTrZs aipeÜeis Tfs 

f. vrÓv veOov Tíjs "A8gvás oikoGopías, TOUS 

kaAAMorovs TÓV Tepyopévao AtÜcv émieyópuevos 

jw giév Somávy ék Tfjs totas odotas émroLetro, 

TOig Oé AiBoiws Koraypuaáp.evog oikiav doBóumoe 

mroXwreM,. éó' ots $acw à éridavijvas ? TÓ 8a4- 

póviov: kepauvaÜévra yàp TOv AyalokAéa perà 
2 Tfjs oikías KG. AexÜsivas. ot Oé yecuópot ékpiay 

T)v ojotav abro Oquoocíav etvat, kaómep TÓv 

xAnpovóucov OcucvvóvTov jov eidéra TÓV 

íepév 7) * Onuoctcv Xpmudrcv. T óc olíay 
kaÜiepdicavres &Barov Totg «ioiobowv émotnoav, 
dis érv kal vóv dvouátera, "Eufpovratov. (Const. 


Eze. 2 (1), pp. 214-15.) 






Lem 


SEC SIS Bes ps € 
GECDOTUMECMNUESUIOIENESOMÉ 


ET 
x Ed 








DI ISESERE 


1 So Scháfer : Boxfqeóvro. 

? So Wurm : müot. — 

: So the MBS., ézispiva. We. eling, Dindorf, Vogel. 
* 1 added by Reiske. 


394. 





FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIII zio. 2-11. 2 


him to such madness that he broke into the house of 
Melissus and began to carry off the boy by force. 
But the father and the other inmates of the house 
held fast to him, and in the violent struggle which 


ensued between the two groups the boy was found, . 


without any knowing it, to have given up the ghost 
while in the arms of his defenders. Consequently, 
when we reflect upon the strange turn of the affair, 
we are forced both to pity the fate of the victim and 
to wonder at the unexpected reversal of fortune. 
For the boy came to the same manner of death as 
did be! whose very name he bore, since they both 
lost their lives in similar manner at the hands of 
those who had aided them most. 

11. Agathocles ?. was chosen to be superintendent 
of the building of the temple of Athena, and picking 
out the finest blocks of the hewn stone, he paid for 


i 


them out of his own means, but making an improper | 


use of the stones he built with them a costly house. 


Ánd at this act of his, we are told, the deity made 


itself manifest to men; for Agathocles was struck 


by lightning and he together with his house was 
consumed in flames. "The Geomori ? ruled that his 
property should be confiscated to the state, although 
his heirs offered evidence that he had taken no money 
which belonged to either the sanctuary or the state. 
The house they consecrated to the goddess and 
forbade that anyone should enter it, and to this day 
itis called the House Struck by Lightning. ^ 
.! Actaeon, the hunter, who was killed by his dogs; cp. 


Book4.81.31. . .. | . La 
? This Agathocles is otherwise unknown. 


? The Geomori (''land-owners'') in Syracuse and Samos 
were the nobility; precisely what their class was in Athens: ^ : 


is nob yet established. 
| 395 








ew Undnsecn CON eem. 


MORS etta 


UR SERUMDMU A GUT aEuerpmeEce Se ETNEDA RES Scena 
€ Ves tomis nensvtsseet aequ ONsgeeecm mu elec um eme cte eR e. ces 


i 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


19. Merà. «a0 ó puév Baoe)s ávaAaBov 
cavzóv  é« mv vpavpámcv —cpoé8nke Kpioty 
dpiorelov. karépusav pév oóv émgi TÓv dyówa 
SVo, KAéovvis ve kai ' Apwrropévns, dv ékárepos 

2 efyev iBióv v.  mpós Oófav. ó yàp KAéovws 
ómepaomicas TÓv Baca cemrokóra TÓV ÉmV- 
depopévcov. 2iraprtaráv ókrà) vekpobs émeroujkev 
kal roórcav $oav 8Uo Tyyepóves émubavets: mávrov 
86 TOv dvaweÜévrov Om a)T09 Tüe «avomA(as 
doxvÀevxüe éBeBdikeet mois Dmaomworals, iva ym 
oqueta. rfjs (Blas áperfjs mrpós Tijv kpiow. — rroAAots 
8é mepureoóv Tpajpacu dzavr' éoyev évavría, 
uéywrov qapexópevos vekpijpiov ToÜ jwoevi TÓY 
3 voAeuiew eio. Ó 9 "Apwropévgs év vQ epi 
roB fous dy&ww mévre pév  Avppükeu TÓv 
AakeBauioviov, kai TÓs cavomAMag éakvAeUket 
TÀv «oÀeulew émweuuévev. — kai vrÓ pév éavroD 
c&pa BSwjóAa£ev drpovrov, ék 66 Tfs pdx"s 
&wepyópevos eis Tv aóÀw épyov émouvoUpevov 
4 émpabev. ó puév yàp KAéovws ácÜevüs éx TÓv 
rpavuárcv Owkeljievos. oUre Ba8itew ka" abróv 
ojre xetparyoryeto0a, Ovvamós jv: ó 9 'Apuro- 
uévqs ápápevos abróv éni Tos ajuovs ! dmjveykev 
els T)» móAw, oj8év 86 fjrrov kopibow Tl iO0av 
zavomAlav, kai rara ToU KAeóvwióos Tpoéxovros 
5 rv dÀXov ueyéÜew re kai py ocoparos. TOLO.D- 
rag 9^ éyóvrav ddoppás cis rijv onép vÀv GptoTelv 
kpiaw, ó BacwAeUs ékáÜuce perà Óv TaÉ d pxcv 
xarà Tóv vóuov. mpoAaflóv o$v cóv Aóyov ó 


KAéovius Toto?Tow éypjoaro Aóyots. 









Pitseus 


ccm e e 


ula 






DEA 





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1 So Herwerden: émi o) ocparos. 


396 


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LORERKUN UN Ec acutus Gel rvilielu cssc s qtii s mec E: Mes ads: Fees iiie cus um pss E 





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CUMEI HÉcgOm S. 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIIL zz. i5 


19. After this the king,! when he had recovered 
fromm his wounds, proposed that they hold a trial for 
the meed of valour. And two men entered the con- 
test, Cleonnis and Aristomenes, each of whom 
possessed his own peculiar claim to fame. For 
Cleonnis had covered the king with his shield when 
he had fallen and had aecounted for the death of 
eight Spartans who charged against him—two of them 
were distinguished chieftains—and he had stripped 
the complete armour from all whom he had slain and. 
given it to his shield-bearers, in order that he might 
have it as evidence of his valour for the trial. And 
though he had received many wounds, he had got 
them all in front, thus providing the fullest proof 
that he had given way before no one of his foes. 
And as for Áristomenes, he had slain five Lacedae- 
monians in the struggle over the body of the king 
and had stripped their complete armour from the 
foemen who je set upon him. He had also kept 
his body free from any wound, and on his way back 
to the city from the battle he had performed a deed 
whioh was deserving of praise. For Cleonnis lay so 
weakened by his wounds that he could neither walk 
without support nor be led by the hand; and Aristo- 
menes, raising him on his shoulders, brought him back 
to the city, notwithstanding that he was also carrying 
his own complete armour and that Cleonnis surpassed 
all other men in size and strength of body. Such 
were their resources as they came to the trial for 
the meed of valour, and the king together with bis 
chief captains took his seat as the law prescribed. 
Thereupon Cleonnis spoke first and addressed them 
with the following words : 


1 Euphaés of Messené; op. Pausanias, 4. 10. 5. 
| yu 397 





Senensi 


Mee 


Henn RR 


SERES RT Ry 


SLSSeneumgtcmusnANTUN ASSNUNUeTOTuecenroemeecemcceccesmpeteocecmcmguseuemsetet etui race eet 





6 


1 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Bpay?s uév éorw Ó mepi TÓv dpioTeUtov Aóyos: 
kpurai Yáp eiguv reÜeaqiévot TÓS ékdoraw &perás- 
jmopvíjoau. 8é Get gue, OióTr( pos TOUS abroUs 
ávüpas ékarrépov Owvycov.oapiéveov )$' €va Kkaupov 
Kai TÓmOV eyo mrÀelovs azrékrewa.. OfjAov otv cs 
Karà Teo aDT)P mepioraaiw ó mrpórepos i ev 
pupa TÓV AvatpeÜevrow mpporepet Kai ros eis 


TÓ mporeiov Oucalow. | àAAd un Kai Tà odpora. 


ékarrépto épóaveoráras daroBei£eis € exet Tfjs Dmrep- 
oxfjs" ó uév yàp mjpus ev Tpavprav évavricoy 
&meAsero Ts páyngs, ó 9  comep ék mavmyópecos, 
GAÀÀ' o) rrÀwcadirgs mrapará£ecs é£wv d émet- 
pá£, T Bóvarras groAepitcov c(ó1pos. eorvyéo- 
repos uev obv LOCUS "Apwrropévns, &yaÜdrepos 
9 fp. QUK àv Sukalcos kp.üetn. mrpóonAos yàp 
ó DrojLetvas rocaras Dwupécets TOÜ od puavros 
ds des éaUTOv ÉqéOckev Dnép Tfs qrorpi&os" 
ó 8 év mroAepicov cvpmÀokf kai TowDrcv kiy- 
OUvcv Tüpjoas cavróy &rpoyrov cXAa feta." ToU 
TaÜUetv T« ToUT. évipynaev. droTov ov ei vro pà, 
Toig écpakóc. TV Máy óÓ TÓV voÀepnitv uév 
éAdmrrovs àveAov, TQ O' iO copo kwüvvesaas 
jrTov, mpokpibiaerat TOÜ rporrejovros év üpdoré- 
pots. dàAÀÀà gwrv kai TÓ unj8evós éTL kw vov 
Ümrdpyorros Bacráca, TO capa karozemovypiévoy 
)zO TÓv TpOvpüTmv &yBpelav pév oJ8euíav Xe 
odporos 9 ous loxov émBeicvv raa. bkavá 
po. raóra etpryrat mpós Üpás- qpókevraL yàp 
Gycv o) Aóyenr, &AX' pou 


* So Bekker: óvórepos. 





ccmemes 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIIL rz. 6-9 


E E 


** Only a brief speech is necessary regarding the 
meed of valour, since the judges are men who them- 
selves have witnessed the exploits of each of us; 
and I need only to remind you that, as we both fought 
against the same foemen on this single occasion and 
in this single place, it was I who killed the greater 
number. It is obvious, therefore, that he who, | 
under identical circumstances, was first in the | 
number of foemen he slew is also first in his just claim 
to the meed of valour. Furthermore, the bodies of | 
the two of us supply the most manifest proofs where. 
is the superiority, for the one came out of the battle 
covered with wounds which are in front, while the | 
other, returning as from a festive gathering and not 
from so fierce à pitched battle as that was, did not 
experience the might of an enemy's sword. More . : 
fortunate Áristomenes may well be, but he may not — | 
justly be judged to be the braver of us two. For | - 
itis manifest that the man who endured such lacera- ^ . | 
tions of his body offered himself unsparingly for his 
T fatherland; whereas the man who, in close grips 
|^ ^ with the enemy and amidst such perils, kept himself 
1 unwounded was able to do that only because he ' 
shunned hurt to his person. And so it would be 
absurd if, before judges who have themselves 
witnessed the battle, that man shall have the prefer- 
ence who slew a smaller number of the foe and ex- 
posed his own body to less danger, before the man 
who holds first. place on both these counts. Further- 
more, his carrying a body all worn out by its wounds, - 
and when no further peril threatens, is no indication 
of bravery, though it does perhaps betoken strength . 
of body. What I have said to you is suffieient; | 
for the contest which you are to decide is one, not. . 


meret esperes 


ceste socii 





- 





eT 











ode 


IWupsctnesoRR ane. 





p xeu ed 





of words, but ofdeeds." — VOTRE 
| 399 











cxebedeotoiw cer mapu mque 
Ll cec d EI MEE Lo PSSRCSESSSS 


EEIe 







c 


Wegen o e er 
ISUGMTCORUETeS 


e 





USSENSRUEPN V ERStTLAMSGaSce eene ere e o 


Tm 


10 


11 Aeurópevos, GAÀà kai TeÀés dAxdpuoros. 


12 dyaÜós yevéoOa. 


13 póvov, àÀÀà kot àyaOóv. 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


| : ; 
IlapaAaBóv 8' év uépew vÓv Aóyov 'Apiw-o- 
Ld » ; 5 /ÀAA I » 7 
pévrqs, Gavuáto, dqotv, et néAAe Trepi üpvoTeiov 
^ Ó ^ 3 ^ 
&udwwretv Ó o«Üeis T odooavrw | àvoykatov 
yàp 3) rÀv GukaLóvrcov a)rÓv Qvoiav kaTaywe«- 
] ) ^ ^ ^ 7 
okeiw 7) r?v kpliotw Ookety éx TÀv vOv Aeyouévow, 
GÀÀ o)k ék TÓv -TÓTe wempoypuévowv éaeoÓat. 
* M 
o) puóvov 86 KAéovwus OewÜQceraw xaT  peryv 
ddeis 
A N X ; e » 3 ^ À ^ 8 , 
yàp 70 rà avvreAecaÜévra o^ aToÜ kaAÓs Ówropev- 
/ / 
ecÜau, Oiéavpe Tàs éuàs mpd£ew, duAoTwkóTepos 
] * / / 
Gv 7) Otkaiov: d) yàp kai ióias oc«TTpias TÓs 
/ z 1 5 t ^ 
peyioras OÓde(Àe: xyápvras, Tro/rov TOv émi «cos 
m^ ^ » * / , / 
KaÀüs mpaxÜetaww émouwov Ouà óOóvov àjppyra. 
^ ^ / / 
éyo G6 OpnoAoyÓ év év vois TÓT€ yeyevnuévoiws 
KüvOUvows «ÜrvyTs Dmrápéaw dw«ui 96 mpórepov 
7 ^ 
ci uév yàp ékkAvag TT? TÓYV 
voAepcov émibopàv drpwros éyevóurv, ok. e)rvyij 
»^ * / 1AA M à À / )8" e X 
pe Tpoofkev óvouáLew, àÀÀà Oeuóv, o)0Ó'  Umép 
&puoTelov Aéyew kpiow, àÀÀà rais ék cv vov 
X 
Tu&cpicis cepuremroKévav | émet 0. év mporrois 
poxópevos kai To)s ÜDdwrauévovs üvawpüv oUk 
éraÜov d&mep émpaé£a, g«réov o)k eÜrvyá ue 
eire 'yàp oL aroÀépuot 
£ ? i1 3 M ?, 3 7 » Á 
karamÀayévres T3v àperijv oók éróÀAugoav ápó- 
/ ? ?, »y -* 3 Á/ 
vac0ou, neyáAov émaivewv d£ws 6v édofhjÜnoav, 
»»5 » EA 0.4 37 9S / 
eir. ékeivov üycopévov e0Üoycos éyo) dovesov 
x i ^ 
Toug dvÜeornkóras kai ToÜ coparos émow)pnmgv 


14 spóvoiay, vOpetos ga kal ovverós. Ó yàp 


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medt csesim abes 


UAE 





FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIII. r2. ro—14 


It was now the turn of Aristomenes to speak, and 
he addressed the judges as follows: '* I &m astonished 
that the man who has been saved thinks to strive 
with his saviour for the meed of valour; forthenecess- 
ary conclusion is, either that he charges the judges 
with folly, or that he thinks that the decision will 
be rendered on the basis of the words spoken now, 
not of the deeds done then. But it will be shown 
that Cleonnis is not only inferior to me in bravery, 
but wholly ungrateful as well For, omitting to 
recount his own brave achievements, he set about 
disparaging my deeds, thus showing himself to be 
more grasping for honour than is just; for from the 
man to whom he owed the greatest gratitude for 


saving his life, from him he in his envy has taken 


away the praise earned by his own noble deeds. 
I am ready to concede that in the perils encountered 
in the battle I was fortunate, but I maintain that I 
showed myself his superior in bravery. If, indeed, 
I had come off unwounded because I avoided the 
onslaught of the foe, it would have been more fitting 
for me to call myself, not. fortunate, but cowardly, 
and not even to plead for the meed of valour, but 
to have suffered the punishments prescribed by the 
law. However, since it was while fighting in the 
front of battle and slaying those who opposed me 
that I did not suffer what I inflicted. on others, the 
necessary conclusion is that I was not only fortunate 
but also brave. For if the enemy, in terror, did not 
dare to face my valour, then am I, whom they feared, 
deserving of great praise ; or else, if they fought with 
spirit, and yet I slaughtered them as they came on, 
taking thought at the same time for my body, then 
am I both courageous and cunning. For the man 


401. 


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2 - - : 
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HL, UASY Uo. SUDeeIuT CRENUPNSUanp maU s eere ver eene. 


WCDMENANUNSS Ue AUREOS m nee ccUMEiNemaims e cesset meceemetene ieu 


— I 





memes 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


éy ajrQ v Üvuopaxeiv épópóvos Ómonévov TÓ 
! Sewóv éxarépas éyet ràüs dperás, odparós Te 
| xai Wyfüs. "Kairo. ye vara và? Oikata, TrpOS 
érépous Tjv pot puréov djetvous ToUrov. Ore 
yàp KAMéovrw apaAeAvpuévov ék Tfs páyms eis 
viv «óAw dmüjveyka ràüpavToU cd Lov ÓmÀa, kai 
15 $m" aDroU kekpioUai voile TÓ Oükawov. KQUTOL 
ye sapopaleis vó0* 3d" 3ju.v lacs o)k àv vjptGe vüv 
mép dpworeicv, od0€ Oaaüpoov vuALkobrov uéyeÜos | 
ejepyeoías &Aeye pmÜütv eivai péya TÓ spaxÜév | 
$ià ró kar! éketvov TÓv kaipóv ümoxcpetv ék cfjs | 
páygs ToUs oAepiovus. Tis yàp  oók  oióev, | 
GL molis oi BiAvÜévres dk mífs páxus 6i | 
jmoorpodüjs eió0aow émvriDeoÜa, kai crpoTwylq : 
cadry xpuodpevou rvyyávew cíjs vius; (kavá pot | 

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rà guÜévra: Aóycw yàp mÀeióvow oik otpa. ops 
|. . mpocóetoÜa. | 
16 To?rev juüévrov oi BucáLovres. Ópoyvayioves 
yevópevow zpoékpwa» TOv "Apwrouévqv. — (Cod. | 
Vatic. 1354; cp. Jacoby, F. Gr. Hist. 9B, pp. 
513-14) | | 

. 18. Kai rats mrpoUvjiaus émeppooÜncav: -oUs 


yàp ék mac àyOpelav kat kaprepiav 
Küv.4$ Tx ov cvamewdoy, Bpax)s 
8 Bet «apíorgow. o) pv ob0é oi 
rovrov dmeAeómovro Tas mpoÜvpims, 
aóóv áperats moTe/oavrés. .. - 


1 5$ &dded by Dindorf. 
? 7à added by Dindorf. . 


402 





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Mecojviot 

2? X ^ 
dAÀà TOS 


2 "Om oi AakeBauutóvtot  koramovoUpevoi  Dmó 
Mecovicv érejujav eis AcAdovs. qj 96 éypyoev, 


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lens istis sen reis Pe somete 


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Westecme- 


Sexe tr 











FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIIL zz. 14-13. 2 


who, while fighting desperately, meets the threaten- 
ing danger with calm mind, has a double claim to 
bravery, that of body and that of soul. And yet 
these just claims of mine I should plead against other 
men who are better than my opponent. For when 
I carried the disabled Cleonnis from the scene of 
battle to the city, keeping my arms the while, he 
himself, in my judgment, had. acknowledged the 
justice of my claim. Yet quite possibly, if I had 
paid no attention to him at that time, he would not 
now be striving with me for the meed of valour, 
nor would he be disparaging that great kindness I 
showed him, by claiming that. the great deed I 
performed was nothing, because by that time the 
enemy had withdrawn from the field. Who, indeed, 
does not know that many times armies which have 


left the battlefield have made it their practice to 


wheel about and renew the attack, and to win the 
victory by the use of strategy of this kind? But I 


have said enough; for I cannot think you have need - 


of further words." 

After these speeches the judges with one accord 
gave their votes for Aristomenes. 

13. The Lacedaemonians recovered their zeal; 


for if men have practised manly virtue and bravery . 


from their youth, even though some turn of fortune 


has humbled them, yet a brief speech will recall ts. 
them to their sense of duty. On the other hand ^ ^| 
the Messenians were not second to them in 


their zeal; nay' rather, confiding in their own 


galour 
Since the Lacedaemonians were being worsted 


by the Messenians, they sent to inquire of nee ac 


And the priestess made answer to therá: 


i Ne . hm m 
j : MAS i 
D E l " " 4 i4 
TUS O ^. Pr ux NU 
A - Y ? wol 
2 p 
CM 
^ n 
N 
D J ^ 
*. . 4 ! 
1 

















DIODORUS OF SICILY 


oU ce uáyns póvov épy édémew xepi GDotBos 
avdyyet, 

aAA &márg pev exei yatav Meconvióa Aaós, 

TGís O' abrats Téyvawiw  dÀóoerau.  atomep 


€ LA 

omífjp£ev. 
€ort. 0€ TÓ vooUuevov qu) uóvov Tois ék! ías 
épyyots, GAÀAÀ, kai rots ék OÓÀov. . . . (Const. Exc. 4, 
p.26) 


"On HoprAtos Ó ;Pepalov BaciAcUs 
vávra TÓv ToU Lv xpóvov év eip*üvg OwréAeoe. 
Aéyovot óé TUVES dKovoi]v yevópevoy IvBayópov 
Tap. éketvov AaBeiv cá Te epi Ue vopoleri- 
para, kai ToAA Ol8ayÜvau, Ov dv emujavis 
dv)p éyévero xai Bacue)bs TpéÜn uerámeprTos. 
(Const. Eac. 2 (1), P. 215.) 

15. "Ove. kocr& T aéiav ov0€ ÜeArjcavres 
óvvápeOa, Tuujoav TÓ Doupóvuov dore et p?) kar 
Ósvapav BovÀnBeiquev e)yapwocetv, rivas. v eArrióas 
Tob p.éAYovros Btov Aapfávousev, els TOUTOUS 
e£apaprdvovres. os dOukoÜvras OUK &y etn Ovva.Tóv 
oUre AaÜetv ore Oo dvyeiv; TÓ Lév yàp óAov, 
map' o fs GÜdvarov etvaL ovpBaltveu kai TV cóepye- 
cíuy kai TTV KóÀaow, Qavepór s ev roUTOLS 
mapaakevábew mpocjie T)V pv ópyv dyévirov, 
T)v 0€ evouay GLOVLOV. — T1) iKaTqY yàp exe 
TapaAAayTy» O0 TÓV áceBóv Bos "pós. TOV TÓYV 
eóceBáv, coe mrpoaboiy € €karrépovs abro fs BeBau- 
cew TÓ Üetov TOlg pev Tàs Blas eàxds, Tois Oé 
Tás 7rapà Tv éxÜpdv. eoxás. 2. TÓ Oe OXov, 
ei rois uév éyÜpots Órav «pós ro) Bwpo)s kara- 
$Uycci BonÜoünev, rois O6 moAegiow Ou TÓv 


404 





FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIIL z5. z-:5. 3 


"Tis not alone the deeds of battle thou 
Should ply at Phoebus' order. Guile it is 
Whereby the folk doth hold Messené's land, 
And by the same device as it was gained 
Shall it be won. | 


The thought is that it is not alone by deeds of strength 
but by those of craft as well. ... 

14. Pompilius, the Roman king, lived at peace 
for his entire life. And certain writers state that he 
was a pupil of Pythagoras, and that he received from 
him the ordinances he laid down regarding the worship 
of the gods and was instructed in many other matters ; 
and it was because of this that he became a man of 
renown and was summoned by the Romans to be 


their king. 


15. Itisnot within our power, much as we may wish | 


it, to honour the deity in a worthy manner. QCon- 
sequently, if we were not ready, according to our 
ability, to show ourselves grateful, what hope should 
we have of the life to come, seeing that we transgress 


against those whom evil-doers may neither elude nor. 


escape? For, to sum up all, it is evident that, with 
respect to those in whose power are both unending 
reward and unending punishment, we should see 
to it that their anger is not aroused and that their 
favour is everlasting.—For so great is the difference 
between the life of the impious and the life of the 
pious, that though both expect of the deity the fulfil- 
ment of their prayers, the former expect the fulfilment 
of their own, the latter those of their enemies. ... 
In fine, if we give aid to enemies when they 
flee for refuge to altars, and if we pledge with oaths 





1 à Bíos MSS.; Vogeladds js before fas. 


" ELO E 
WUTUAUNUEZUNNMUMERERKCRURVTNCUMNEMSUT densius emper eme anscntt stems AEn deste e rumes idt errequeiterpesset terum 


























| DIODORUS OF SICILY 


er / T b! 2 P ? 
Opkcw míorew OiQojuev uyj8óév dOucjoew, vouw 
Xp") mpós abroUs vrotetaÜ os robs Ücobs omovojv, 
of o9 góvov roDs eDoepets €v TO Cv eO motobow, 
àÀA&. kal puer àv Üdvorov, ei 8€ kai rais reÀerais 
"murreUopuev, OSuwyeylv per eüdupías jOeiar! 
els &mavro, rÓv al&va, grapackevábovow;: O.0 kal 
apoojkew p8éy oro TÓV éy v Bp avovódLew 
ds mepi v rv Üedv rwv. 

"Qr. d»Bpelav kai 8ucatooóvqv xai rüs GAÀAas 
áperàs ávÜpcmaw kai rà Aovrrà, Tv dv eópfjoQa 
cuufléBke, Tijv 9& eooéBetav TocoóTq TÀv GÀÀcov 
áper&v mpoéyew ócov kal ro?s Ücoos rÀv Üvgràv 
dy a&ow mrporreiew. : 

"Qr. LoAcrrijs oDogs eüoepetas ? cols iBuvraus ,? 
moÀ) u&AAov olkeíav eiva Tas vóÀecv Tfj T€ 
yàp áÜavacías éyyUrepov ofc. vpocqkewopuérmv 
rois Üeots Ti» dWow éxyovow kai moÀOv xpóvov . 
B.auévovaau mpoo8okü a T1]V ódeUouévq» àpohiv, 
rás piv eDoeBelas Tv j$yeuovíav, ríjs 86 eis TÓ 
Üctov óAwytoplas jv ruucoptav. — (Const. Exc. 4, pp. 
916-11.) | GN di 

16. *Or. Aqókgs ó Maujóew aotweUs ToÀÀ v 
ávojjuárow yevopgévew "joke GucatogUvQv — kai 
&AAas dperás. (Const. Eac. 2 (1), p. 213.) 

Vi. "O«c MiokeMós Tis " Axatós dv TO yévos €k 
*Péómqs* korüvrgecv eis AeAMjoUs kai TOv Üeóv 
émppórroe epi Tékvaw yevécecs* 7, oe Ilv0ia 
&vetAev oUroQs* 

1 atoredopev (mtorevet» Krebs) added by Oldfather, 9uvyery)v 
Mai, j8elay Dindorf: reAeroís 8ef dyes» ... . vjoeías. The 


passage has been variously emended. 
? ejaefle(as added by Mai. : 


406 











FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIIL zs. 3-17. r 


to hostile foes that we will do them no wrong, what 
sort of zeal should we show towards the gods them- 
selves, who show kindnesses to the pious not only 
in this life, but also after death, and who, if we place 
confidence in the Mysteries, also have ready for them 
a happy existence and good fame for all eternity? 
Consequently there is nothing in this life about 
which we should be so in earnest as concerning the 
honour due to the gods. 

Our conclusion is that bravery and justice and all 
the other virtues of mankind the other animals also 
have acquired, but that reverence for the deity in 
so far transcends all the other virtues as the gods 
themselves are in all respects superior to mortals.! 


While reverence for the deity is a desirable thing 


for men in private life, far more is it appropriate to 


states; for states, by reason of their nearer approach. 


to immortality, enjoy a nature akin to that of the gods 
and, in the considerable length of time they endure, 
they may expect the reward they merit—sovereignty 
as the reward for reverence, punishment for slighting 
the divinity. | Ur ON US : 

16. Deioees, the king of the Medes, despite the 
great lawlessness which prevailed, practised justice 
and the other virtues. nd 

.1T. Myscellus, an Achaean by birth, went from 
Rhypé ? to Delphi and inquired of the god concerning 


the begettingofchildren. Andthe Pythian priestess 


gave him the following answer: 

- t Phe thought appears to be hab reverence for god is the 
single virtue fougd only in man and not in other animals. . 
.* In Achaea. PE. OMS 





saucius, 


p 


? go Dindorf: iMos. . . * So Bekker: Kgírgs. . 
| | 407 























DIODORUS OF SICILY 


, e 7 
MsokeAAe  Bpaxóvcre,  duAct o0!  ékdepyos 
* AaróAAcov, 
M 1 / z jo o b Ld , A Pd 
kai yeveàv Ocaev 7Ó0€ 0€ rpórepóv 0€ keAevei, 
^ ^ ? 2 Á/ 
oikfjcat ae Kpórova. uéyav kaAats év üpospas. 


ToU 8é Kpórcwva dyvooüvros «imetv «áÀw o»V 
IIv0iav, | 
aXrós co. ópáLe écargBóAos:. àMà ovwvie. 
ooros uev 'Táduós rov àvíjporos, 10e 86 XaA«is, 
58e 0€ Kovpryrew .. .7) tepà xOcv, 
aiàe 8 '"EyiváOes eio(- moÀos 9' ém àpirepá 
|| móvTOS. 
ojro c^ oük &v dqua Aakwiov ákpov üpapretv 
o28' tepás Kputons o90. Atadpov moragoto. 
2 "Om o0 xpgouoü mpoorárrovros Kpómwva 
kriLew ó MyokeAMos Tijv sept vzjv 2:0Bopw. xyeopav 


: 3 » 
Üavuácas éfoóAero rkricot, kaí é£émeoe ypuopuós 


aDT( obros, 
MyioxeMe Bpaxivorre, srapék 0co00 dÀÀAa uareicv 
kAÀadpara pQaoTeUew:  OÀpov O' ó OQ Ücós 
aive. (Const. Exc. 4, pp. 211-18.) 


18. "Or oí Xwflap?ra: yacTpióovÀot clot xai 
Tpvjqra(. Tocobrog Oé Tv Ü5Aos map  a)rois 
Tpvódjs, c&xoTe kaL TOv é£cwÜev éÜviÀv uáMora 
qydmcov "Lovas kai "lvppmvovs, Or( ovvéBauwev 
a)óro0s TOUS pév TÓv 'EAjvov, ro)s O6 Tv 


BapPápov «poéyew Tj karà TO Lv oÀvreActa. 


(Const. Exc. 2 (1), p. 215.) 


^ * Á, 


2 "Ost. d$aoí Ttwva TOv eomópov 2wBapvwróv, 





* He is reputed to have been a hunchback. 
408 | 











ages 


pics 


ue. 


Rees 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIII ij. r-:8. 2 


Myscellus, too short of back,! beloved art thou 
Of him, even Apollo, who works afar, 

And he will give thee children; yet this first 
Is his command, Croton the great to found 
Amidst fair fields. 


And since he did not understand the reference to 
Croton, the Pythian priestess gave answer a second 
time: 
To thee the Far-darter in person now doth speak, 
And give thou heed. Here lieth the Taphian land, 
Untouched by plow, and Chalcis there, and there 
The home of the Curetes, sacred soil, — 
And there the isles of the Echinades: 
And on the islands' left à mighty sea. 
This way thou cans't not miss the Lacinian Head, 
Nor sacred Crimisé, nor Áesarus' stream. 


Although the.oracle thus commanded Myscellus 


to found Croton, he, because of his admiration of the - 


territory of Sybaris, wished to found a city there; 

whereupon the following oracle was delivered to 

him: | | 
Myscellus, too short of back, in searching things 
Other than god commands, thou seekest naught 
But tears. Approve the gift the god doth give. 


18. The Sybarites are slaves to their belly and 
lovers of luxury. And so great was their devotion 
to luxury that of the peoples elsewhere their prefer- 
ence was above all for the imm and the Tyrrhenians, 
because they found that the former surpassed the 
other Greeks, and the latter the other barbarians, 
in the extravagance of their manner of life. - 

We are told that a wealthy Sybarite, on hearing 


409. 





j 


s 











DIODORUS OF SICILY 


dkoócavra mapá mwaov Ón Ücaodpevós Tus! 
robs épyáras eipdóss em píypara,? vapakaAé- 
ca, Tóv elmóvra jw Üavpdoaw KQi yàp dkoU- 
cavra TÓ yeyovós sremovn]kévoi viv arÀeupdy. 


érepov 8é Aéyerai aapapaAóvra is $aráprmv. 


eimety rv mrpórepov uv Üavpábo: Tv Tv 2araprua- 
rv ávüpeiav, róre O€ Üeacápevov ebreAQs Kai 
perà moÀMs akozaÜelas Pioüvras eimeiv Ort 
TOv éoydrov  oU0€v Suxjépovow — TÓv yàp év 
XwBapíraus  ávavÓpórarov 3 uáAAov éAéc0o. àv 
vpis dmoÜavetv 1j roioDrov Biov Làvra kaprepeiw. 
uA ro, 8 sap* aros srepiovoiáaau Aéyerot pdf) 
róv óvopalóuevov Mwóvpiómv. (Coust, Exc. 4, p. 
218.) j 
—. 19. "O«  Mu8vpióqs | Aéyerat reptovoudoot 
vpvdfj mapà Xwfapiraw.  roUrov 4 yáp, KAew- 
| Bévovs vo8 Xukvcvicv vvpávrov vucjcavros &pp.aTt 
&al xwpüfavros mapayevéoU0. TOUS srpoctpou- 
pévovs yapet» Tv ajro0 Üvyarépa, Ookobcav 
kdAAei 8tadépew, ávaxOfjvol daciw 5 éc ZwBdpews 
év mevrqkovrópp | ToUs  épéras éxovra — iOlovs 
olkéras, dv eva, 9 rods pv &Acets, ToUs 06 ópviOo- 
Üfpas. mapayevópevov | 68 eig Xukvóva Trois 
xarà Tijv ojaíav «apaockevots oü jóvov TOUS 
ávruuvqarevovras, àÀA& kai róv rÜpavvov aOTOv 
dmepápai, kaímep Tíjs móÀecs abTÓ Táoc)s Cuj- 
diAovutovpévgs. ev 96 TÓ perà Tv  dduiw 
Beim arpootóvros cwós, Ómcs kamakAUf vrpós 
aróv, ebmetv Óvw korà TÓ kuüpvypa vápeorw 1| 
qerà Tfjg yvvowKOs 7) quóvos KorakAnaópevos. 
(Const. Exc. 9. (1), pp. 215-16.) 3d; 
1 ng added by Capps.- ../? So Krebs: mpáypara. | 
410 EN 


EE. LE ELS m 
I4 cut VIGHERUSEREOI 








FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIII. :8. 2-19. 2 


some persons say that a man had suffered a rupture 
at the sight of some men working, begged the speaker 
not to be astounded at that. ^" For I," he said, "^ at 
the mere hearing of it, have suffered a stitch in 
my side." Of another Sybarite it is told that he 
remarked after a visit to Sparta that he used to 
wonder at the bravery of the Spartans, but that now, 
after witnessing what a frugal and utterly miserable 
life they led, he could only conclude that they were no 
better than the lowest of men. ''For the most 
cowardly Sybarite," he said, ' would choose to die 
thrice rather than to endure a life like theirs." The 
man among them who, we are told, indulged in the 
greatest luxury was known as Mindyrides. | 
.. 18. Mindyrides, men say, surpassed the other 
Sybarites in luxury. For when Cleisthenes, the 
tyrant of Sicyon, after winning the chariot-race 
made proclamation that any who purposed to marry 
his daughter, who was considered a girl of surpassing 
beauty, should gather at his home, Mindyrides, we 


are told, set sail from Sybaris in a ship of fifty oars, - 


.the rowers being slaves of his own household, some 
of them fishermen and others fowlers. And upon his 
arrival in Sicyon he surpassed, in the equipage his 
fortune afforded him, not only the rival suitors but 
also the tyrant himself, although. the whole city 
was participating eagerly intheoccasion. And atthe 
dinner which was held after his arrival, when a certain 


man approached Mindyrides to recline beside him - 


at the table, the latter remarked that he was here in 
accordance with the proclamation and intended to 
recline either with the lady or by himself. 





* So Geel: ávBpeórorov. —. * ro0rov Reiske: obros. 
5 duoi» Krebs: viva. 5 jy «iva, Valesius: dwetra. 
M d 411 


VOL. III. ug o 


F3 
Risse esce NU Dae a Beate sait ri ir tee d 


E M adi i T - 
Ru l1iíiíLÉ ÉL Me 


c s - z a ci 
d nM MEME Lac 


gem c 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


20. "Or. MiAgotew — rpvóovrowv | $aci  «pós 
a)To)s àzoOnuxcavrá wa TOv 2:wBapvráóv, erreur) 
/ A 1 8 ^0 / 1ÀÀ 
máAw mpós Tv «warpión sapeyevíOn, rd ve dÀAa 

- A " 1 1 
TOis sroÀéraus é£wyetoÜa, kai OT) kai! o&okew 

n n S TOS ; 09 i »evÜ£ 

karà 7)» dmoOnuiav giav?  móMw  éAevÜfbpay 
écopakévaa r1)v rv MuXgotcov. (Const. Exc. 4, p. 278.) 

21. "Or. ovvrafauévev T&v | émevvairáv TÓ 
QaAdvÜc Tóre Tkew mpós Tv ováow karà mv 
, / L *8 » 8i AI n " $ / 
Gyopay, Órav ó? abrOs émi TÓ uércmov édeAucion 
Tiv kwvíjv, perà TOv OmAcv:* éwüvvoe 8é cg 
1 / ; ^ * Z ^ X /, 
TO uéÀÀov yiveoÜat rots édópots. — civ 8é TrÀetocv 
olouévav Oetv ümokretva, róv OdAavOov, ' Ayati- 
Oas épaoT?s a)ToD yeyovos etmev, cs ToÜro Tipá- 

: * ^ 

£avres eis ueytornv oráow éufaAotot Ti|v 3ymrdprmv, 
év jj kpor5cavres àÀvowreM mowjcovrau vüenv, 

4 / y ? / X / 
kai coaÀévres dp8wv dmoAécovoi T?)v srarpíioa. 
cvveBovAevaev oüv TÓv kfpvka dvayopeÜcooi civ 
Kvvíjv é&v ds éye. GOáAavÜov. o$ yevoj.évov 
ToUs pév mapÜevias dmoorücacÜa Tís ém«ioMjs 
ka vrpos OudAvow ópp.fjoat. 

L4 . e 15 ? 1 0 M 7 

Ort ot avroi 9 érzrevvarrat ecpovs séubavres 

, 1 , / , ^H 3 ^ A 
eis AeÀdo)s émypovcvw, ei Oiücow aros TV 
Zukvoviav. 7 0 édm, 

1 kai added by Hertlein. 

? nia» &dded by Dindorf. 

* ó omitted (without mention) by Mai. 

* For perà r&v ózAv Wurm suggests uéypi ràv ódflaMuów. 

? So Boissevain : [[ll|ro:.. 
412. «Wi S RM 





FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIII zo. z-21. 3 


20. The Milesians lived in luxury. And we are - 


told that a Sybarite who had paid them a visit, after 
he returned to his native city remarked, among 
other things which he recounted to his fellow- 
citizens, that in his absence from home he had seen 
but one free city and that was the city of the 
Milesians. 

21. The Epeunactae ! had agreed with Phalanthus 
that they would rise in revolt in the market-place, 
as soon as Phalanthus, in full armour,? should pull 
his helmet over his forehead ; but a certain man dis- 
closed to the ephors what was going to take place. 
The majority of the ephors believed that they should 
put Phalanthus to death, but Agathiadas, who had 
become a lover of his, stated that if they did this they 
would plunge Sparta into the greatest civil strife, 
in which, if they were victorious, they would win a 
profitless victory, and, if they lost, they would 
utterly destroy their fatherland. He gave as his 
advice, therefore, that the herald should publicly 
proclaim that Phalanthus should let his helmet 
rest as it was. This was done, and the Partheniae 
gave up the undertaking and began to seek a 
reconciliation. | 

The Epeunactae sent envoys to Delphi and in- 
quired of the god if he would give them the territory 
of Sicyon. And the priestess replied : 


! À group of Spartan helots which was formed during the 
Messenian Wars. Because of the heavy loss of Spartan 
citizens helots were ''assigned to the nuptial beds"' of the 
dead husbands; cp. Áthenaeus, 271 c. "They are identified 
below with the Partheniae, a slightly different group of helots 
formed at the same time. | 

? Or ''as soon as Phalanthus should pull his helmet over 
his forehead as far as the eyes '' (Wurm; see critical note). 


413 | 


































DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ka Aóv TOL 176 pera£ó Kopív8ov kai Yukvávos- 

GAÀ' o) oicijaeus oU0 eL | roy x deos euns. 

Zorópioy dpáLov c) Tápavrós T 5 àyÀaóv D6cp 

Kai Autéva akatóv iaí Ómov Tpáyos GAÀpvpóv? 
otópa. 

ápdoyama TÉyytv pov sroAuoto. 'yevetov: 

évÜa. ''ápavra. grow émi Xiarvptov BeBaóyra. 


3 


dkoUcayres 06 dT)yvóovv-. 7j 96 Qaveporepor £n, 


Zoróptór TOL cca Tápavrá Te sriova, 8sguov 
oikíjoat kal mjuaT. "lariyeaou yevéoQa. 


(Const. Exc. 4, pp. 278-19.) 


22. "Ont Imopuérns Ó TÜV "A8rvalv &pxcv, 
TÍjs Üvyo;rpós aDTob $Uapelons 9 nó TLVOS, TLACODLAy 
cae. vap' abríjs avi keorov Kai mrapyAaypéviv 
peO* Urmov yàp aDTr)v eis oikiokov Tw, c ykAet- 
cas, kal TÜV Tpojrv mapeAópievos émí Tag 
jp épas, Tjváykae TO Lov Oi T1)v évOeuav ávaAQ- 
ca. TÓ aÓua, Tfjs sapo AnÜelons. (Const. Exc. 2 (1), 
p. 216.) 

28. "Om Avri$mpuos kai "Evrusos ot l'éAav 
kricavres 7pcrqoav rrj» 1dv8iav, kal éypnoe raóra, 


"Evrqy! 506 Kpdárwovos dyaucAéos vie Oaióporv, 
eAÜóvres. XukeMv kay ? x0óva. vaierov dp, 
Beuidquevo mroAMeÜpov ó Opo6 Kpyráv "Po8tov T€ 
Tr&.p Trpoxoàs srorauoto I'éAa ovvop.vvgov áyvo. 


l g) Tápavrós r' Hermann : xoi Tápavros. 
* So Dindorf: &yAaóv. 
* So Wurm, Dindorf reading réyycv» for Wurm's Bárre 7': 
dpdayama T. " dkpóroAuv &yevetov. 
... * fo Mai: p su 
: 414 E. 


ij 
x 





Mu en ecce eee qe cL 


us 


— 


Get 


ELE 


estu MR. 


SESS 


SS 


E EE 


dnd 


"Tq e 
4c oC E EC 
Y 5 NE 


MET 


Rum e e opos ERN Ed 
Ex Vd om dm — t2 
Tee CS yop Me Mr) das td 


funes 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIIL ei. 3-23. x 


Fair is the plain 'twixt Corinth and Sicyon ; 

But not a home for thee, though thou wert clad 
Throughout in bronze. Mark thou Satyrion 

And Taras' gleaming flood, the harbour on 

The left, and where the goat catches with joy 
The salt smell of the sea, wetting the tip 

Of his gray beard. "There build thou Taras firm 
Within Satyrion's land. 


When they heard this reply they could not under- 
stand it; whereupon the priestess spoke more 
plainly : ' 


Satyrion is my gift to thee wherein 
To dwell, and the fat land of Taras too, 
A. bane to be to the Tapygian folk. 


22. Hippomenes, the Áthenian archon, exacted of 
his daughter, who had been violated by an unknown 
person, a punishment which was cruel and extra- 
ordinary. He shut her up together with a horse in a 
small stall, and by keeping the beast without food 
for some days he forced it, through hunger, to eat the 
body of the girl who had been thrown to it. 

23. Ántiphemus and Entimus, who founded Gela, 
made inquiry of the Pythian priestess, who gave 
them the following answer: | 


Entimus and thou, illustrious Craton's son 
Sagacious, fare ye two forth to Sicelé, | 
On her fair soil to dwell, where ye shall build 
À city, home for men of Crete and Rhodes, 
E/'en Gela, at that sacred river's mouth 
Whose name it too shall bear. 


5 kaXjv added by Wurm. 
| 415 


mmis c uere eee co ls 


— € SE 


SES 


ITWTGUNIMELiIT MUT ENUNUASUNEESDRSL pss eI Ht eMs eec 





eU EeesenE ue urge ug We qt Vous, 

















g 
fiy 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


2 — "Om ot ék Tíjs 9exárys àvareÜévres ! XoAióets 
i5 ^ 
7A0ov ypqoópevot sep &mouctas, kai àvetàe, 


' Auiía, 7j rorag.Gv tepoyravros eis &Àa, srimreu,? 
&vÜ' etow fáAAovrt TOv üpoeva. 0fjÀvs ómv(et, 
&vÜa, eróluv otktlLe, 9/001 0é cov Ávoova xyopav. 


oí 06 xarà Tóv 'Axbiav movapuóv eDpóvres dyusreAov 
sepuremAeyuérqv épweQ ? écrwoav mówv. 

3  Ilapamopevóuevov peyáàg Tfj $ovíf AMéyew, 
dvri ÜvqroU Bíov 8ófav àÜávarov mepvrowjcacÜat 
BosAera. Tís; Tís* épet spó Tos, émiióc us TOV 
épuavroU Diov eis T1]v kowr)v àcQdAeuav; 

4 "Ost vv eis dypóv sropevouévow is é£dns 
&mavrOv9 vjodyrqoe p Tv vecorepov etn kaTO, Tiv 
vÓÀw. kai ébnuiccav a)rOv oi T'|jv üpy?yv apá 
Aokpots éyovres: TocoÜrov Sicav epi rÓ Olkauov 
7joxoAqkóres. ! 

24. "Or« Xukvcviow éypgoev 7) Ilv0ía ékaróv 
€ry  pacrvyovopmÜQoeoÜa, — a)ToUs. ^ émepcoma- 
cávrcv 06 aóTrÓOv Tis Ó caÜTa cowjocv, áAw 
QmekpiUn, à àv koramAeócavres TpoTQ 'yeyevg- 
pévov viov dkovacow. | éróyyave 8é rots Üecpots 
7KkoAovÜgkcos  Tís Üvoias évexa  udyewos, Ós 


1 Vogel reads àvariÜévres. 

? So Dindorf: ài8ín morapóv ieporárqv els dÀa mimrew. 
? 70 Aeyópevov ápoevótAvy after épweQ is clearly a gloss. 
* r(s added by Vogel. 


5 éfcigs dmavrüv Wurm : épórgcas émavr||]. 





* According to Strabo (6. 1. 6), every tenth Chalcidian 
had been dedicated '* because of & failure of crops."' 

* "The gender of ''grape-vine'' is feminine, of '' fig-tree "' 
masculine. x E: ! 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIIL 25. 2-24. 1 


The Chaleidians, a tenth of whom had been 
dedicated! to Apollo, came to the god .to inquire 
about sending forth a colony, and they received the 
reply: 

Where Apsia, most sacred river, falls 

Into the sea, and as one enters it 

The female weds the male, a city found 

Thou there, the land of Auson is thy gift. 


And they, finding on the banks of the river Apsia a 


grape-vine entwined about a wild fig-tree,? founded 
there a city.8 

As he passed by he cried with a loud voice, " Is 
there anyone who is ready to win immortal glory in 
exchange for à mortal life? Who will be the first 
to say, lI give my life for the safety of the common- 
wealth? ' " | 

Once a worthless fellow, meeting a man on his way 
to the countryside, asked him whether there was 
anything unusual taking place in the city. And the 
fellow was fined by the Locrian magistrates, so intent 
were they upon the maintenance of justice. 

24. The inhabitants of Sicyon received from the 
Pythian priestess the oracle that they would be 
* governed by the scourge " for one hundred years. 


And when they inquired further who would ply the. 


scourge, she answered the second time that it would 
be the first man to whom they should hear, after they 
put ashore, a son had been born. Now itso happened 
that a cook by the name of Andreas * had accompanied 
* Rhegium. 
* Andreas was the father of Myron, who became tyrent of 


Sicyon, handing down his power to his son Áristonymus and 
to his grandson Cleisthenes (Herodotus 6. 126). 


417 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


^"^ ^ ^ » ; ij 
ékaAetro 'Avüpéas.  uuoÜo0 Toís &pxovow uacri- 


yoóopáv Vupére.. — (Const. Exc. 4, pp. 219-80.) 

25. "Occ éri. "OoriAMov TUAAov 708 *"Pepaiov 
BaoiMéces '"AMBavol Trjv aj£gow TOv 'Popnatov 
jóopopevo. kat Tazewóoa, ToUrovs DovAÓuevot, 
vrpocerovíjcavro émi Tíjs éavrQv xópas yeyovéva 
Àgorüs '"Popaiovs, xai émeubhav eis 'Péyumv 


, / ? 
mpeoBeurás ToÜs TO Oixatov aircovras, ci 9€, 


pi] rpoaéycot, zóAepov karayyeAotvras. | 'Oori- 
vog 06 ó 7Àv 'P«opatcv DBaciue)s vÜOuevos os 
ixroboi. pójacw  soÀéuov, Tots gév iios 
vaphyystÀe Tro)s mpéoBeus éxOé£acÜa, kal capa- 
kaAÀetv éri fevíav: a)rO0s 0€ ékkAivas m?jv mpg 
Tojvrous évrevfÍw émejbev eis '" AMjavots ToOs ! TÓ 
Tapamotov rois ékeivow  Tovjcovras.  Tobro 
0€ ovveréAeoev dpyaikQ Twv mpoaxÜeis dew, Bu 
TO TOÜs TaGÀO400s u«Ocv ovTc oTovOdiew ds TÓ 
Oukatovus évicraoÜa,. -oAéuovs:  e)Àae?ro yáp, 
p! To)s airiovs Tíjs Àgoreias ov0' e)petv OBwvá- 


pevos oUTre 7apaóu0oUs rois éfavroto, BóÉn qóAe-. 


Mov &Oukov éravatpetoÜot. — ebrvyosvrcw O6 mpó- 
repov rÀv eis "AAfav sreudÜévrow v0 wu) Aauá- 
vew TO Oikauov, eis Tuépav TpiakooT)v mÓAeuov 
kariyyeav. ot uév otv? vróv 'AAMBavóv «peo- 
Bevrai xarà 5v éfaírgow  dmókpww | &Aafov, 
OT. mpórepov ékeive o0 Oióvrcw TÓ Oíkaiov oL 
"Popuato: móÀeuov adrois korwQyyeAkóres eiqcav. 
oí 0€ Ofuow vpós &AXjAovs émwyap(as Éyovres 
kai diMav, à«o raóros. Tíjs airías eis Oiadopàv 
karéaTqcav. (Const. Exc. 1, pp. 396-97.) 


Wy 


000-3 mobs added by Krebs. 





C ME: 


Bhce | 0 0 ll 


rw 
E 


ES AENE EE 


Rm 


22 


zs "3 


EUR 


3 4 


EE 


er 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIII. 24. 1-25. 4 


the envoys, to have charge of the sacrifices. He was 
a hired servant of the magistrates, charged with 
bearing the scourges. 

25. While Tullus Hostilius was king of the Romans, 
the Albans, viewing with suspicion the rising power 
of the Romans and wishing to humble them, claimed 
that the Romans had robbed their territory and sent 
ambassadors to Rome to demand justice, and, in case 
the Romans should give them no heed, to declare 
war. But Hostilius, the Roman king, learning that 
the Albans were only seeking a pretext for war, gave 
orders that his friends should receive the ambassadors 
and invite them to be their guests; while as for him- 
self, avoiding any meeting with the ambassadors, 
he sent men to the Albans to make similar demands 
of them. This he did in pursuance of an ancient 
custom, because men of ancient times were concerned 
about nothing else so much as that the wars they 
waged should be just ones; for he was cautious lest, 
if he were unable to discover the men responsible for 
the robbery and to hand them over to those who de- 
manded them, it should be thought that he was enter- 


ing uponan unjust war. But by good fortune his am- 


bassadors to Alba were the first to be refused justice, 


and they therefore declared war for the thirtieth | | 


day following. And the ambassadors of the Albans, 
therefore, when they presented their demands, 
received the answer that, since the Albans had been 


the first to refuse justice, the Romans had declared | 


war upon them. Such, then, was the reason why 
these two peoples, who enjoyed mutual rights of 
marriage and of friendship, got at variance with each 
other. aM LI 





..— * So ed. Bip. : óv oi uéy. | 
- 419 


L1 e : ——R RE s CREER 
FÉ" 


FOIE 





zi 


- 






Sacaxdoens 


Ses 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


m— 
Sent UR. 


DESCRI 


— 
P 


DM 


26. To «pórepov TÓ yévos vÀv 'Popnatov Tàv 
— Aarivov 

oDyL ovvíymre TróAepov dknpukreL Trpós &Büvos, 

GAA& TÍj Xopq mpórepov &Üvovs Tob moAepov 

Sópu ovnpetov eppurrev, exÜpas pynv o"aotvor. 

emevra OÉ kar)pyero moAépov vpós TO &Üvos. 

robUTÓ dot AuóOwpos, srás re Aartva ypádov. 
(Tzetzes, Hist. 5. 555—060.) 


"On oL Zaapriáro TO Meaorvicov fyrTy- 
T de eis , AeÀdoos aépijavres jpdyreov Trepi 
zoAépov. expe 06 a)rots mvapà 'AÜnvaiv 
AaBeiv Tryenóva. 

2 "Ort oí AauceBauuóviot mrporpazrévres jzo Tvp- 
raíov oUrc) poÜUpcos  eixov mrpós , rap&ra£w, 
dore p.éAovres maporárreoUau TÓ óvóp.ora coóv | 
aDTÓV éypáijavro eis. okvraABa kat e&fjav ék 
Tfjs xewpós, tva. TeAevrávres H2) dxyvodwvra bmró TÓV 
oikelav. obrco Tapéornaav ,raís Vvxais € éTOULOL 
Tpós TÓ Tfjs vis &TOTUyxydvovres érotuos émi- 


Ocyeo0a« vÓv évrutov Ü&vacov. (Const. Exc. 4, p. 280.) 


28. K«0apqu80s 0 Tépravópos TQ yéve. MoOv- 
pvatos. 

oraouodvrav 0€ rore TÓV AascebBauptovícov, 
Xenouós aDTots éfémeoe sáAw $oÜfjvat, 

àv é« My0spuvgs Tépmavópos é éketvous kia.piom. 
kai à TL éÀoS Tépmavópos € evréxves. kiÜapíoas 

adroUs máu cvvijpuooe, Aucücopos cos ypádet, 
víjs àpuovías Tfj QOf. kai yàp uerarpazrévres 
dicus sepuéBaAAov, zomváLovro 9akp)ors. 
(Tzetzes, Hist. 1. 385-92.) . 


42Q 


MEL c 


XoWE.E 


Ws 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIII. 26. 1-28. x 


26. In former times the Romans, who were by 
origin Latins, never waged war upon a people without 
formal announcement; but they would first hurl a 
spear, as a signal, into the territory of the opposing 
people, the spear denoting the beginning of hostilities. 
After doing this they commenced war upon the people. 
This is what Diodorus says, as well as every other 
writer on Latin affairs. 

21. The Spartans, having suffered defeat at the 
hands of the Messenians, sent to Delphi and asked 
the god for advice concerning the war. And they 
were told to get a commander from the Athenians. 

The Lacedaemonians, under the inspiration of 
Tyrtaeus, became so eager for battle that, when 
about to enter the conflict, they wrote their names 


on little sticks which they fastened to their arms, : 


in order that, if they died, they would not be unidenti- 
fied by their kinsmen. So ready were they in spirit 
to accept gladly an honourable death, if victory were 
beyond their grasp. ie | 

28. Terpander, who sang to the cithara, was a 
native of Methymna. And once, when the Lace- 
daemonians were embroiled in civil strife, an oracle 
came to them, that they would again be reconciled 
among themselves if Terpander of Methymna should 
sing to them to the accompaniment of the cithara. 
And Terpander did in fact so sing a song to them 
with an artist's skill, and by his harmonious lay, as 
Diodorus writes, brought harmony again into their 
midst. In fact they were entirely changed, and fell 


to embracing and tearfully kissing one another. 


i The lyric poet, sent to the Spartans by the Athenians to 
be their '' commander." | 


A42I 


Ts 


- € — s: goutgeseeecuneseemo moe uumsise mne imas emeeeinesepems 
pe—'  —————— OCCAECARE cem 


PeGsesesm. semen mersa pete tese, TUE 





DIODORUS OF SICILY 


29. "Ov ' Ap.ororéAns ó kai Bárros KTLOQL 
BovAóuevos Kvpryjvqv éAaBe xpuopuov ovrcws, 


Bárr, éri $wviv ZA0es dvaf£ 8é ce QDotfos 
"AqróAAcov 

eis Auffóny mréparet kaXuorédavov Kuprjvns 

eOpeins &pyew KaL éyew aout a Tuv. 

&vÜa, a€ BápBapo: &yOpes , € énàv AuBons emis, 
awrodópou. émíaou- o2 8' ebyÓpevos Kpovicovt 

IIaAAdot T éypeudxn yÀavkdmó kai Aus vij 

DoiBo à dkepaekópg viov oroyetptov é£eus, 

kal pákapos Aifógs KaAoredávov BaoctAesvoeuws 

aDTOs kal yévos DOpóv: dyew Oé ce Cboífos 


* AgróÀAcov. 


Tats yàp eonpepíaus $ucuds &vrwa D puevos 
ó $Oóvos kaÜatpet rovs raís Oófaus mporevovras. 
(Const. Exc. 4, pp. 280-81.) S 

30. "Ort "ApkeoDaos ó TÓYV Kvpnvatcv Bao:- 
Aes Seworra£ijoas érri rais cvudopats emparra 
eis AeMposs. éypyoe O6 óri Üedv eot uns? 
ToUs yüp VoTepov BaciMis OU óptolcos Gpyew TÓ 
"porre Bárro. éke tvov ' pev yàp aorf) Tfj npooyyo- 
pía ToU Baouéws dpkouevov émweucós &p at kai 
Onporucás, kai TÓ péywrrov, Tüpobvra TS Trpós 
TOUS Ücods rus: To)s 0€ Dorepov dei rupavvud- 
T€epov OvvaocTeUovras S&ibvorrovjaacÜas uev Tás 
ÓnLocias TpocóO0vs, OÀvycpijca,. 86 Tfjs mpós TÓ 
Üctov ejoepetas. 


! So Dindorf: Borrodiópo: € émiobot . . . qpavíioto. 
? So Valesius: óvt Ücós éovw pins. 





1 '"The Stutterer.' See Herodotus 4. 15. 5. 
422 


Rie deside 


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AE MELUMr c E ME E c Mc RM d E OR uu Co MEER iS de eo - nier Meet am E: seas 


Bist ncs EAT 
IUNENPEIueR 


m mne BEI 
BN O* T Ue 
A ers ph pcd 
pipa z 


YS is 
Cc LE 
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m 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIII z9. r-3o. : 


29. Aristotle, who was also called Battus,! wishing 
to found the city of Cyrené, received an oracle to 
the following effect: 


O Battus, thou did'st come about a voice; 

But Phoebus, even Lord Apollo, sends 

Thee forth to fair-erowned Libya, there to rule 
' O'er broad Cyrené and enjoy the place 

Reserved to kings. Barbarian warriors there, 

Clad in the skins of beasts, will rush against 

Thee, when thou settest foot on Libyan soil. 

But pray to Cronus' son, to Pallas who 

Stirs up the fight, of flashing eye, withal 

To Phoebus, ever-young, the son of Zeus, 

And in thy hand shall lie the victory. 

And over fair-crowned Libya shalt thou rule 

Blessed, thou and thy house: Thy guide thereto | 

Is Phoebus Apollo. : 


For envy by its nature lies in wait for success, and 
therefore works the destruction of those who are 
pre-eminent in fame. : 

90. Arcesilaüs, the king of the Cyrenians, bitterly 
complaining of his misfortunes,madeinquiry of Delphi, 
and received this reply: The gods were wroth; for 
the later kings were not ruling after the manner 
of Battus, the first king. For Battus had contented 
himself with the appellation alone of king, and had 
been an equitable ruler, friendly to the people, 
maintaining the while—the most important thing— 
the honours due to the gods. But the rule of the 
later kings had taken on more and more the character 
of tyranny, and they had appropriated to themselves 
the publie revenues and had neglected reverence 
toward the deity. | 


423 














DIODORUS OF SICILY 


"Om. Tfjs rÀv Kvpqvaiov oráceos OuwrQris 
éyévero Anud&va£ Mavrweis, ovvécew kai 9ucouo- 
cóvy Ooküv Ouajépew.  o)ros oiv srÀeUcas eis 
KpcXvqv kai mapà mávrov Aofkov Tj» émvrpomriyv, 
OLéÀvoe ràs sróAets éri robrois. 

31. "Om Aejxios Tapkóvtos ó 7Àv 'Popaicv 
Baeoue?s omovóaías érvyev ayovyís, kai yevó- 
pevos LbqÀevrü)s «oaióelas o) perpics Ov perm 
éÜavudálero.  àv8OpeÜeis yàp ovveoráUn rQ DaocuA«t 
TÀv 'Popateov "Ayxo Mapkip, kai $iÀos aDTo0 
péywros éyévero, kai moAÀÀà cv korà jw 
Beocu(av  ovvüwu)ke. TQ  Daoiet. kai ueyaló- 
vÀovros Ov  soÀAois TOv  ámópov  éBoc0üe« 
xp'&era OG0íe, kal «Got cpocdiÀOs  OpuAQv 
&peusros "jv kai évOofos émi oodíg. (Consi. Emc. 
0, pp. 216-17. 

"Orc ot Aokpot érejijav eis. Zmráprqv mepi 
Uu ond Oeópevoi. oi 8€ AakeOoiuóviot TÓ 
péysÜos Tíjs Kporwwiwróv GSvvápecs kovovres, 
co rep àóootoUjevow kal. uóvos àv oUrc owÜcvrov 
Aokpáv, dmekpiüncav a)Tois cvupdyous 8i80vai 
roUs TuvOap(óas. ot O6 mpéofew ere mpovoíg 
0co0 «ivre TO pqÜev oiwwwoáuevow mpoae8é£avro 
Tiv Bo9Üeav map abrOv kal xaAMeprücavres 
€orpccav Toís Awokópow kAiqv émi cífjs vQOs 
KaL AémAevcav émi rjv varpíia. 





i : Referring to the Epizephyrian Locrians of Southern 
aly. 
* Castor and Polydeuces. But the Spartans also claimed 


424 


n 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIII. 3o. 2—32. 2 


For the civil strife which arose among the Cyren- 
ians an arbitrator appeared in the person of Demonax 
of Mantinea, who was considered to be a man of 
unusual sagacity and justice. Accordingly he sailed 
to Cyrené, and receiving from all the stewardship 
of publie affairs, he reconciled the cities on the 
following conditions. 

31. Lucius Tarquinius, the king of the Romans, 
received a careful rearing, and since he proved to 
be an eager seeker after knowledge, his virtue made 
him the object of no little admiration. For when he 
had attained to manhood, he became associated with 
the Roman king Ancus Marcius, grew to be à most 
intimate friend of his, and aided the king in the 
administration of many affairs of the kingdom. 
And growing very wealthy, he aided by gifts of 
money many who were in need, and mingling as 
he did in friendly fashion with all men, he lived 
without reproach and was famed for his wisdom. 

32. The Locrians ! sent to Sparta asking her aid in 
war. The Lacedaemonians, however, hearing of 


the great military strength of the inhabitants of | 


Croton, replied, as if responding in a perfunctory 
manner, and as though the Locrians could be saved 
only in the way they suggested, that they were 
giving the Locrians for allies the sons of Tyndareüs.? 
And the ambassadors, whether under the guidance 
of the providence of God or because they took the 
reply as an omen, accepted the aid they proffered, 
and after they had received favourable signs in a 
sacrifice, they prepared a couch on their ship for 
the Dioscori and sailed back. to their native land... 


. descent from their former king 'l'yndareüs, and so their 


answer had the appearance of granting the request. 


425 








DIODORUS OF SICILY 


3 IIoramás óé xs. e£etv ToUs ovv KoAovOs Kó- 
ras maTépas, óray ópvres TOUS éavTÓV vioos jT 


TÓYy BapPápev appro ovudopü mepurisrrovras 
pa) Dsvcnrrau BonÜciv, GÀÀà Tàs cavrdv TrOÀLAS 
orapáocovres mrpos kcojv ó0)pcovra rUXv ;. (Const. 


Exc. 4. p. 281.) ! 


y» 


y Ue. ! ' 














FRAGMENTS OF BOOK VIII. a2. 3 


How (he asked) wil the fathers who have 
accompanied them feel when they, seeing their sons 
suffering unspeakable torment at the hands of the 
barbarians, can bring them no aid, and all they can 
do is to tear their gray hair and make lament to the 
deaf ears of Fate? 


427 


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A PARTIAL INDEX OF PROPER 
NAMES ! 


ACHILLEUS, 49, 55, 325, 337 
Acragas, 67 

Actaeon, 75, 393 f. 

Actis, 253 

Actor, 39, 49 

Admetus, 343 

A drastus, 23-27 

Acacus, 7, 47 

Aegeus, ri 9, 13 
Acglalela, 349 

Aegina, 47 

Aegisthus, 349 

Aeneas, 57, 81, 849 £., 351 f., 305 
Aeolides, 115-27 

Aeolis, 31 

Aeolus, 33 g Ru 117f., 119, 319 
Aepytidae, 8 

Aethaleia, 181 

Aethra, 3, 17, 19 

Aetna, 1151. 

Agathiadas, 418 
Agathocles, 395 
Agathyrnitis, 119 
Agoelas, 365 

AÀgemon, 3605 

Agesilaüs, 363 

Agis, 363 

Agrippa, 357 

Alba Longa, 353 
Alcestis, 343 f. 

Aleinoüs, 47 

Alemaeon, 25, 27 f. 
Álesia, 161 

Alexander the Greab, 379 
Aloigdae, 89 
Althaemenes, 257 f. 
Ajax, 49, 171 
Amphiaraüs, 25 f., 37 
Amulius, 359, 385 


Andreas, 417 f. 

Andreus, 313 

Androcles, 119 

A ndrogeos, 7 f. 

Andros, 313 

Aphrodite, 25, 29, 57, 65, 79-83, 247 f. 
293, 295, 309 

Apollo, 39, 43, 45, | 55 78, 249, 295, 
299 301 f. , 809 £., 348 

Apollodorus, 361 f. 

Arabia, 211 

Aratus, 71 

ÁArcesilaüs, 428 

Archias, 393 f. 

Archimedes, 199 

Ares, 49, 205, 299 

Arethusa, 103 

Argonauts, 339 

Ariadnó, 112, 241, 313, 327, 337 

Aristaeus, 7 78-79 passim, 331 

Aristomedes, 865 

Aristomenes, 397-403 passim 

Árné, 33 

iram, 19 53, 70, 103, 105, 293, 305, 

91 

Ascanius, is f. 859 

Asclepius, 41-43, 299 f. 

Ásopus, 49, 4 

rios 165 d 251, 207, 293, 297, 

bi 


Auson, 117 
Autolyté, 33 
A ventius, 359 


Balius, 337 
Baechidae, 365 f. 
Bacoehis, 365 
Baliarides, 141—45 
Basileia, 109 


* À complete Index will appear in the last volume, 


429 





A PARTIAL INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 


Battus 


"ercedtqe os, 157 


Bellerophon, 345 


Boeotus, 931 f. 
Boreas, 237 


Britein, 151-57, 203 
Britomartis, 305 f. 


Butas, 79, 261 
Butes, 41, 237-39 


Cadmus, 233, 233, 255 f. 


Dactyli, 269-73 passim 
Daedalus, 57-67 passim 
Danube, 165 
Daphné, 29, 81 
Daphnis, 83 £. 
Dardanians, 55, 231 
Dardanus, 55, 221 
Detoces, 407 
Dereter, 101, 107, 109, 111, 281f. 
3805-09 passim, 335 
Demonax, 425 


Calydna, 9245 Dictynna, 305 
Camicus, 65 Didymé, 115 
Cantium, 153 Diké, 293 


Dionysius Skytobrachion, 347 

Dionysus, llf. 79, 237, 241 f., 295, 
303, 331, 347 

Dioscori, 19, 339 f., 425 


Capaneus, 25 1. 
Oapys, 55 f., 357 
Caranus, 377 f., 381 
Carcinus, 109 f. 
























Carpathos, 245 Dorians, 31, 315 £., 303-67 
Caaius, 336 Dosiades, 3 
Cassander, 833 Druids, 179 
oer : 
; astor, Eileithyia, 293, 295 
m Sem AR Etoneus, 39 
"OE Oecrops Eirené, 293 
Zur d 31-4 Enna, 103, 105 
Oercina, 129 Eordaei, 379 
M Cercynes, 377 Epeunactae, 418 
Ep Oercyon, 5 Ephorus, 99 
: "jf 2 " Cberronésus, 261-69 Epigoni, 27—31 
T e Cilix, 3 Epimenides, 317 
E Gissus, E Erechtheus, 57 
Oleisthenes, 411 Xiricodes, 115 


| Cleonnis, 397—403 
Onosus, 275, 293, 309, 211, 316 
Cocalus, 65 i2 67, 313 


Eriphylé, 25, 29 
Erythrae, 913, 327 
Erythrus, 31 8, 327 


Corcyra, 
, . Ooré, 101-09 passim cdd rus 
Corinth, 363 it, Euaephnus, 389 f. 
Corgténtes ^ d f. Buhemerna, 831-37 
Cornet Sf Europé, 7, 311 
reon f : 
Orete, L5 269-317 passim, 915 f. Fabius Pictor, Quintus, 353 
Oronus, 273, P5 f, 281, 285, 335 Faunus, 339 
Oroton, 408, 4 


Gadeira, 149 


Ouretes, 71, "a t., 275, 287, 335 
Galates, 168 


Cyané, 105 f T 117 


Cybelé, Ganymedes, 55, 57 
ONDE us f. ; Gaul, 161—69 
OCypselus, 365 f. Gauls, 1a 167, 169-85 passim 


Oyrené, 78, or | Gela, 415 
Giants, 247, 289, 201 
Oytinium, 31 ' . Graces, the, 293, 295 


439 








Crveeep 


tepsuednesue 








mcccumc- 2 0d 


À PARTIAL INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 


Hades, 43, 281, 285- 

Harmonia, 25, 29, 231, 233 

Hector, 55 

Helen, 17 f. 

Eeliadae, 249-856 passim 

Heliopolis, 253 

Helius, 159, 249, 251 

Hemithea, 265-69 

Hephaestus, 205-299 

Hera, 41, 281, 293, 335 

Heracleidae, 363 ff. 

Heracles, 107, 149, 161 f., 271 f,. 293, 
803, 305, 331, 393 

Heraean Mountains, 83 f, 

Hermes, 85, 295, 301 f. 

Hermes Koinos, 301 

Hesiod, 87, 277, 319, 831 

Hestia, 281, 335 

EHiera, 213 f. 

Hiera Hephaestu, 115 

Hippalcimus, 55 

Hippius, 285 

Eippocentaurs, 41 

Hippodameia, 41, 49 f. 

Hippolytus, 13 f. 

Hippomenes, 415 

Hippotes, 33, 117, 121, 243, 321 

PUE, b5, 87 £., 101, 171, 283, 331, 


f. 
Hours, 'The, 293, 295 f. 
Hyperion, 275, 277 f. 
Hypseus, 39, 73 


Talysus, 253 f. 

Iaslon, 231 f., 307 
Iberians, 185-91, 195 f. 
Ietis, 157 " 
Idée, 261, 269, 271, 287 
Tlus, 53 f., 55 

Inachus, 261 f, 

Io, 261 f. 

Iolaés, 136 f. 

Iolaüs, 135 f. 
Iphianeira, 37 
Ismenus, 47 

Iulius, 350 

Ixion, 39 f., 365 


Jocasté, 19, 23 
Julius Caesar, Gaius, 153 


Kourothrophos, 295 


Laius, 19, 21 
Laosthenides, 917 


Lapithes, 265, 319 

Lapiths, 34—43 passim 
Latinus, 355 f. : 
Lavinia, 355 

Lesbos, 3819-23 

Leto, 53, 279 

Liber, 337 

Ligurians, 208-07 passim 
Lipara, 115, 117, 121 f., 123 f. 


"Liparus, 117 


Lusitantans, 189 f, 
Lycurgus, 237, 371, 373, 375 


Macareus, 319-21 

Macedonia, 377 £. ' | 

Machaon, 45 

Malacus, 367 

Marsyas, 301 t. 

Massalia, 203 

Melita, 129 

Meriones, 69, 215 

Messené, 85 f. 

Mindyrides, 411 

Minos, 7, 9 f., 61-67, 305 f, 911-17 
passion, 325 f. 

Minotaur, 7, 11, 61 

Mnemosyn&, 275, 279 

Molpadia, 265-67 

Mother of the Gods, 233 f. 

Mothers, (The, 69, 71 f. 

Muses, 293, 297 

Mylinus, 289 

Myrtilus, 51 

Mysoellus, 407-09 


Naxos, 235-43 passim 
Neleus, 35 f., 348 
Nestor, 35 f. 

Ninus, 339 — 

Niobe, 53 

Nisyros, 245 
Numitor, 359, 385 


Oceanus, 89, 46, 245, 276 
Odysseus, 47, 117 
Oedipus, 19-23 
Oenomaüs, 49 f. 
Oenopion, 313, 327 
Olympic Games, 271 
Orca, 153 

Orestae, 377 f. 


" Orion, 86-89 E 


Orpheus, 271, 303, 307, 331, 34? 
Ortygia, 105 
Osteodes, 125 f, 


43I 















A"PARTIAL INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 


Panara, 215-21 passim 
Panclaea, 215-27, 333 
Panchaeans, 215—27 passim 
Partheniae, 413 

Parthenos, 265-67 
Pasiphaé, 7, 61 f. 
Peirithoüs, 17 f., 41 
Pelasgians, 263, 315, 319, 369 
Peleus, 47 f., 337 

Pelias, 35 f,, 349 

Pelops, 39, 49 f. 

Peloris, 87 

Peneius, 39, 45 

Pentathlus, 121 
Peparethos, 313, 343 
Perdiecas, 379, 381 
Persephoné, 17 f., 281, 303, 335 
Persians, 267, 811 

Phaear, 47 

Phaedra, 13 f. 

Phaestus, 311 

Phaéthon, 159 . 
Phalanthus, 413 
Pherecydes, 387 

Philia, 241 

Philip, 379 

Philistus, 111 f. 
Phocaeans, 133 

Phoebé, 275, 279. 
Phoenicians, 129, 149 £., 193-95, 201, 

255 1., 207, 369 

Phoenieodes, 115 

Phorbas, 39, 257 

Picus, 339 

Pityussa, 139 f. 

Pluton, 103, 105, 281 
Plutus, 235, 307 
Polychares, 389 f, 
Polydeuces, 339 f. 
Polyneices, 23-29 passim 
Pompilius, 405 

Poseidon, 35, 61, 245, 247 £., 255, 281, 
* 285, 335, 397, 843 - 
Priam, 55 

Proerustes, 5 

Prometheus, 279 

Pyrenees Mountains, 191 f. 
Pythagoras, 171, 405 


Rape of Cor&, 101-109 passim 
Riadatapibys, 7, SEL-YT wa 

adamanthys, 7 -17 passim, 327 
Rhea, 245, 275, 281, 285 1., 835. 
Rhodes, 121, 245-61, 3821  — 


Rhodos, 247-49 
Rome, 183, 351, 385—89 
Romulus, 351, 385-89 


Salmoneus, 35, 341 f. 
Samothrace, 227-35, 271, 307 
Saon, 231 

Sardinia, 77, 185-39 


Sarpedon, 7, 311, 313 £., 315 


Scamandrus, 58 f. 
Sceiron, 5 

Selinus, 65 

Seven against Thebes, The, 19-27 
Sicani, 101, 111 f. 
Siceli, 113 . 

Siceliotae, 115, 

Sicily, 67, 77 f., 99-115 
Sicyon, 363 ff, 

Silvia, Rhea, 385 
Silvius, 355-59 

Silvius, Alba, 357 
Silvius, Aramulius, 357 f, 
Silvius, Romulus, 359 
Silvius, Tiberius, 357 
Sinis, 5 

Sisyphus, 841 
Sosicrates, 917 
Strongylé, 115, 235 
Sybarites, 409-13 
Syméá, 2438 f. 


Tantalus, 51 f. 

Lucius Tarquinius, 425 
TTectamus, 7, 317 

"Teiresias, 29 f. 

Telamon, 47 f. 

Telchines, 245-49 

Temenus, 375-81 passim 
Tenages, 253, 263 

'Tenedos, 323 f, 

Tennes, 323 f. 

Terpander, 421 

"Tethys, 39, 45, 275 
Thebes, 19-31 passim, 275, 279 
Theopompus, 363, 381 
Theron, 69 

Theseus, 3-19 passim, 43, 241 
"Thesmophoros, 111 
Thespiadae, 135-39 
Thettalus, 245 


"Tiber River, 861, 357 


Timaeus, 97 f. 
Titans, 273-79, 308, 337 





Ete iac ERENTUB st cotsermtersturs euer eset 





manne omite Mer Rr tta es E MR 


A PARTIAL INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 


'Flepolemus, 259 f. 

'Triopas, 253, 263 f,, 319 
'Triptolemus, 281 

Tros, 53, 55 

Troy, 53 f. 

'Tydeus, 23-27 

Tyro, 35, 341 1. 

'Eyrrhenia, 209 f. 

Tyrrhenigns, 123, 133, 151, 207-11 
"Tyrtaeus, 421 


Uranus, 221, 275, 335 


Vaccaei, 189 
Vulcan, 337 


Xanthus, 319, 337 
Xerxes, 369, 383 
Xuthus, 119, 243 


Za&nc;6, 85 f. 

Zenon, 251 

Zeus, 431. 71, 241, 261, 
passim, 319, 335, 337 

Zeus Átabyrius, 259 

Zeus Triphylius, 215, 333 


281-95 


433 








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